Unit 2 Exam You will need to write two pieces of transactional writing. – These are both worth 20 marks each. – This exam is worth 20% of your final GCSE grade.• You will be able to write for a range of audiences and purposes, adapting style to form and to suit real-life contexts. Transactional Writing• Transactional writing is ‘real-life’ writing where there exists a clear relationship between the writer and the reader. This form of writing can involve discussing issues and giving opinions. You will be asked to write to Argue, Persuade, Advise and Analyse, Comment, Review.• The key questions to ask when creating a piece of transactional writing are: • What is the purpose? (the reason for the task) • Who is the audience? (the person or people reading it) • What is the format? (the shape and layout of the writing) Types of Texts• Here are some examples of the types of texts you may be asked to write in your exam; Formal Leaflets Reports letters Speeches Articles Reviews
Leaflets • Leaflets are short promotional texts designed to attract the interest of people and inform them about topics or goods.Features: • A heading or subheadings • Bullet-points (but do not overdo them) • Columns (although you do not have to do this) • Include an image (do not draw the image – just draw a box to show where the image would go) Reports • Reports are written in an impersonal style. They may be written by an individual but they often represent the viewpoints of a number of people. Reports are usually directed at an official leader of an organisational for instance, the chairperson of a governing body.Features: • Report headings (e.g. ‘Report on the eating habits of school children’) • The recipient of the report (e.g. ‘To the Board of Governors) • The sender of the report (e.g. ‘From a representative from Catering’) • An introduction and conclusions / recommendations (suggestions for future action) • Subheadings (e.g. ‘main Course’, ‘Dessert’, ‘Fruit and Vegetables’) • Impersonal style (e.g. avoid the use of ‘I’ – ‘The department has decided’) • Bullet points
Letters • Letter writing is important, even in these days of email and mobile phones. Formal letters are still used in business and letters from readers are still frequently printed in newspapers. Informal letters can be sent by snail-mail or e-mail, and should be written in controlled, coherent and organised English.Features: • Your address as the sender goes in the top right-hand corner. • Receiver‘s name and address goes on the left hand-side* • The correct opening and signing off (e.g. ‘Dear Sir/Madam’ with ‘Yours faithfully’) • A suitable, precise opening sentence; avoid opening with ‘I am writing to you…’ • A number of well-developed paragraphs • A firm summing-up of the purpose of the letter • Avoidance of shortened form (e.g. ‘I’m’, ‘don’t’, ‘won’t’, etc.)* NB Items marked with asterisks (*) do not apply to informal letters Speeches • A speech can be formal or informal, depending upon the audience. However, even an informal ‘speech’ such as a contribution to a phone-in should be in Standard English.Guidelines: • In most cases, a speech should begin without fuss. • Write in full sentences because you are arguing a case • Notes are not enough – use paragraphs to create a sense of order • Usually, you will argue form a personal point of view
Articles • An article is a piece of writing included in a newspaper or magazine. It is not the headline news, but a discussion of a topical issue, often from a particular point of view.Features: • A lively opening providing an idea example or anecdote to interest the reader • A clearly-argued position on the topic being discussed • A clear variation in sentence lengths, showing impact, subtlety and clarity • A consideration of the opposing views • Integration of supporting evidence and examples • A conclusion or ending that attempts to take the argument forward Reviews • Reviews are used to communicate a personal opinion about things such as programmes, films, books or performances. The aim of the review is to persuade the reader to adopt the same opinion of the subject as the reviewer.Features: • Stimulate an interest in whatever you are reviewing • Show respect even if the review is negative • Steer the reader to your point of view • Avoid retelling the plot • Avoid writing an English Literature essay, if doing a book review • Give the important details, such as key people involved, venue of performance, etc. • Be aimed at the intelligent non-expert
SentencesThere are 3 basic sentence TYPES – Simple – Compound – Complex Each sentence type has a different effect or purpose in your writing • A sentence is a group of words relating to one main idea. • It MUST start with a capital letter and END with a full-stop.A basic sentence USUALLY contains: SUBJECT + VERB + OBJECT e.g. The dog escaped from the garden. Simple Sentences • A simple sentence contains just one main idea; e.g. – The dog escaped from the garden. or – The dog was naughty. • Simple sentences are often found in: – Children’s writing – Instructions ...WHY??? Because they are easy to understand! • Simple sentences can also be used to add drama to certain parts of a story. Because they are easy to understand, we can read through them really quickly thus build up tension.E.g. The door slammed shut. It was dark. She was alone.
Compound Sentences• A compound sentence is made up of two (or more) simple sentences joined together with a connective (and, if, but). Connectives can relate to reason (so, because), time (before, until) or place (where); e.g. – The dog escaped from the garden because he was naughty. – The dog escaped from the garden where he had been tied up.• Compound sentences are often found in: – School reports – Letters ...WHY??? Because they add extra information!! Complex Sentences• A complex sentence includes extra detail in the form of a subordinate clause. Subordinate means that it only works as part of the main sentence and would not work on its own (think of a SUBstitute football player or a SUBtitle). E.g. – The dog, still only a puppy, escaped from the garden because he was naughty.• Complex sentences are often found in: – Newspaper articles – Stories ...WHY??? Because they add extra detail and interest! • What do you notice about the punctuation of a subordinate clause? – The dog, still only a puppy, escaped from the garden because he was naughty. – Tomorrow, if it is sunny, we might go to the beach. – Adam and Joe, who are twins, both support Leeds United. • A subordinate clause in the middle of a sentence always needs a comma either side. • Subordinate clauses can also be moved around within the sentence, e.g. – The dog escaped from the garden because, still only a puppy, he was naughty. – Still only a puppy, the dog escaped from the garden because he was naughty. • What happens to the punctuation if the subordinate clause comes at the beginning of a sentence? – You only need one comma!
Adverbial Clauses• Verbs tell us about actions – E.g. He closed the door. – Adverbs tell us how actions are • These groups of words are called done, adverbial clauses. – E.g. He closed the door quickly. • They help us to understand more about an action. – Sometimes we write a group of words to tell us more about the • They explain about… where, when, why, verb. how, how much. • They make our writing more precise and – E.g. He closed the door quickly informative. because he was afraid the rain would get into the house.• Tom could improve his descriptive writing by using complex sentences which include adverbial clauses. They are often introduced by these words called connectives: while although as after until before unless when for because where • Form, Language, Audience and Purpose are very important, as they tell you how to write as well as what to write. – E.g. • Write a leaflet to advertise a tourist attraction in your area. • Write an article for a Sunday magazine about a tourist attraction which would appeal to a young family .
Sentence Structures Vocabulary Formal / Informal Language PURPOSE Introduction Layout Structure& Organisation ThinkSubheadings FORMAT AUDIENCE Sentence 5/6 Structuresparagraphs Subheadings VocabularyConclusion Connectives Formal / Informal Language LinkedParagraphs PlanningYour family has won an adventure holiday, watching animals in the wild. You are allowed to invite one of your friends. Write a letter to your friend to explain about the holiday and to try to persuade him/her to come with you. • Make a plan, showing what will go in each paragraph Paragraph 1 Paragraph 5
Writing under pressure • In the exam you will have one hour to complete your transactional writing tasks. Your will need to learn how to plan, write and proofread your work effectively under pressure. Context • Sometimes the situation surrounding the task will be given to you in the exam, but sometimes you will have to create the context.A local hotel/restaurant is advertising for part-time staff.You decide to apply.Write your letter of application.The quality of your writing is more important than its length.You should write about one or two pages in your answer book. • In the task above the context is easy to imagine, but you still need to ‘invent’ the name of the hotel or restaurant and you also need to visualise the place. • However, in some tasks you might be given extra details. Ensure you read the question carefully to determine what is being asked of you. • In the exam, you must have something of substance and meaning to write about, whatever the task. Look at the task below and example response on the next slide (with examiner comments).
Student responseStudent responseThe Nature Reserve is an area of deciduous this response shares detailedwoodland owned by the Forestry Commission but information with the readermanaged by the RSPB. It is home to many rarespecies of birds, including the pied flycatcher, andit has some old oak trees dating back to the student has obviously chosenElizabethan times. to write about something he/sheIn summer the ponds contain many damselflies and knows about, which is a gooddragonflies, frogs and other animals and it is a choicelovely peaceful place.The problem is that some people like to put fish inthe ponds. This may seem a good idea, but fish willeat the dragonfly larvae, damselfly larvae and the main issue is clearlytadpoles as food, which in turn affects wildlife presented here and thefurther up the food chain, unbalancing the whole information is well-organizedecosystem around the pond. The staff on thereserve have been trying to catch all the fish in thepond to get rid of them, but as more are being putin, it is an impossible task. the writing could be moreIf anyone knows someone who is doing this, please persuasive – perhaps bycontact the reserve’s warden so that the wildlife in addressing the reader directlythis beautiful pond can be saved. here instead Writing process • In the exam you need to think quickly, but do not Write a speech to your class neglect your planning. Look at the following FOR and AGAINST being a example tasks; vegetarian. Write a letter to a national • All three tasks require opinion, argument and broadsheet newspaper FOR or persuasion…and some general knowledge (you AGAINST the use of don’t have to be an expert). Facebook in schools. • Each of them requires you to have a clear view – For and Against. You do not write an article, speech or letter if you are half-hearted about something. Write an article for your local • It is important that you understand the counter- newspaper FOR or arguments. AGAINST the UK bidding for showpiece world sporting events like the Olympics or the rugby or football World Cup.
• Don’t forget the format requirements of the type of writing you are undertaking. – A speech requires a sense of appropriate spoken English. (E.g. ‘Most people here know that I’m a vegetarian, and some of you think I’m completely mad.’) – An article requires a headline – A letter requires at least one address, a date and a salutation (E.g. ‘Dear…’) • In each of the tasks on the previous slide, you need to have a sense of purpose, or the reason for writing. Also note your audience: the people who you are ‘speaking’ to. Task A (Example) – things to think about… • Why would you speak to the class about eating meat or notWrite a speech to your class eating meat? FOR and AGAINST • What are the issues of vegetarianism? being a vegetarian. • What do young people understand or misunderstand about the topic? • Could it be a lively topic or debate where people disagree passionately? Task B (Example) – things to think about… • What are the key points you want to get across? Write a letter to a national • What issues have there been surrounding the issue ofbroadsheet newspaper FOR Facebook? or AGAINST the use of • Are you basing your opinions on personal experience? Facebook in schools. • How can it be dangerous? • Are there any educational benefits? • How might it be useful? – To contact strangers? To keep in touch with friends and family? • What about information available on profiles and definitions of friendships? Task C – things to think about… • What are your opinions on holding these sporting events inWrite an article for your local this country? newspaper FOR or • How would you feel if you lived in the area where the event AGAINST the UK bidding will take place?for showpiece world sporting • What do you want to get across in you letter? events like the Olympics or • Are you interested in sports? the rugby or football World • Will it increase employment or revenue in the area? Cup. • What additional information would be useful to back up your points of view? • Would it increase traffic? • Who would it benefit? • What about concerns for security?
GuidelinesGuidelines: • In most cases, a speech should begin without fuss. • Write in full sentences because you are arguing a case • Notes are not enough – use paragraphs to create a sense of order • Usually, you will argue form a personal point of view Work out what each transactional term (technique) means (description) and match up to an example . Technique Description Example To repeat an idea or image Isn’t the solution Rhetorical Question three times, usually in a obvious? slightly different way A question designed to We all feel that… Triples make the reader think; doesn’t need an answer Superlative Words and phrases to Hunting is evil, cruel make the reader feel and outdated. something Emotive language Refers to people to It is the worst book identify the reader/writer ever written. relationship Pronoun Adjective to imply the House prices plummet highest or lowest quality throughout Hull.
Transactional Writing ToolkitRhetorical questions An emotive and hard-hitting question creates a dramatic impact, as an audience is forced to consider the issue.First person (I) A point of view from the ‘narrator’ which may be reliable or unreliable.First person plural (we) No individual speaker. It shows you as a member of a group that actsas a unit.Second person (you) Using ‘you’ enables writers to appeal directly to the reader, provoking a personal response of fear, guilt, pleasure, sadness etcThird person (he/they) This form allows you to offer the most objective view of a story/event/idea.Emotive Language Powerful language that plays on our emotions, designed and chosen to sway our responses.Alliteration The repetition of sounds in two or more neighbouring words. You can use it to emphasise certain words or imagery.Exclamations A sentence type which is used to express a strong emotional state.Similes A figure of speech that compares one thing to another using ‘as’ or ‘like’.Personification A figure of speech in which inanimate objects are given human qualitiesPuns Play on words.Metaphors A figure of speech that is a comparison between two things as if they were the same.Imperatives Gives a command, direction or request.Counter Argument A view or argument opposite to the one the writer or speaker is making. Included in order to challenge it, it addresses our potential concerns, makes us think that the speaker has considered all sides so we trust them.Facts and Stats People generally trust statistics and facts. They may surprise us, impress us, anger us, appal us, scare us etcExpert Opinion We tend to believe what an ‘expert’ in their field tells us, we bow to authorityHumour Pokes fun at the ideas of other people, sometimes through exaggeration (hyperbole)Pattern of Three Closely linked to the idea of repetition, this technique is used to emphasise a point strongly
Exemplar speech • Fox hunting is outlawed, but legal loopholes and Read through the exemplar speech. policing difficulties have allowed it to continue in many • Using the ‘toolkit’ annotate places. the speech to show what • Should fox hunting be made legal again, or should the features are used. law be tightened to stop it once and for all? • Task: Write a speech to deliver at a local meeting on the subject.Good afternoonFox hunting is now illegal but many law abiding citizens have fortunately managed to get around the lawin order to continue an old tradition that protected farmers’ livestock. Police are too busy catching realcriminals to waste time over a few foxes that need to be controlled anyway. The law is wrong and shouldbe overturned.People continue fox hunting, not because ordinary country people are law breakers, but because foxhunting is necessary, partly to control foxes and partly to maintain customs. City dwelling citizens,particularly MPs had no understanding of country life when they introduced their hunting laws.You just heard Sameena argue for stricter laws and harsh prison sentences for hunters on the grounds thatfox hunting is cruel and foxes need our protection. You (to the audience) live in the city and can afford theluxury of viewing foxes as cute little fury animals who need protection, but farmers in the country cannot.Ever since humans began to farm domestic animals the fox has been our natural enemy. We were notalways sentimental about foxes; they were viewed as predators, vermin, like rats. Foxes kill lambs,chickens, ducks and to those who rely on traditional methods of farming the fox is still a predator needingto be controlled. We don’t have a law that stops people killing rats or mice. Why are foxes different?How does the government intend controlling foxes now? With chemical poisoning so that the foxpopulation is mass-murdered? Wiped out, rather than controlled? Let’s be honest. People object mainlybecause fox hunting is a country sport. But foxes have to be controlled so does it matter if people enjoy thechase?Hunting is necessary and it is also an old countryside tradition. This traditional method of fox controlthrough sport has been very successful since foxes are not an endangered species. The law should beoverturned so that people who have the good sense to continue the tradition are not punished. Theydeserve our respect and admiration, not harsh fines and prison sentences.Thank you for listening.
What is Tone? ‘Tone is a particular way of expressing feelings or attitudes that will influence how the reader feelsabout the characters, events, and outcomes. Speakers show tone more easily than writers because theycan use voice tone, gesture, and facial expressions. A writer must use words alone.’ Sarcastic Emotive Lively Tone Friendly Humorous Passionate
Content and OrganisationG/F• basic awareness of the purpose and format of the task• some awareness of the reader / intended audience• some relevant content despite uneven coverage of the topic• simple sequencing of ideas provides some coherence• paragraphs may be used to show obvious divisions or group ideas into some order• some attempt to adapt style to purpose / audience (e.g. degree of formality)• there is a limited range of vocabulary with little variation of word choice for meaning or effectE/D• shows awareness of the purpose and format of the task• shows awareness of the reader / intended audience• a sense of purpose shown in content coverage and some reasons are given in support of opinions and ideas• sequencing of ideas provides coherence• paragraphs are logically ordered and sequenced (e.g. topic sentences are supported by relevant detail)• a clear attempt to adapt style to purpose / audience• there is some range of vocabulary, occasionally selected to convey precise meaning or to create effectC/B• shows clear understanding of the purpose and format of the task• shows clear awareness of the reader / intended audience• clear sense of purpose shown in content coverage; appropriate reasons given in support of opinions/ ideas• ideas are shaped into coherent arguments• paragraphs are used consciously to structure the writing• style is adapted to purpose / audience• there is a range of vocabulary selected to convey precise meaning or to create effectA/A*• shows sophisticated understanding of the purpose and format of the task• shows sustained awareness of the reader / intended audience• content coverage is well-judged, detailed, and pertinent• arguments are convincingly developed and supported by relevant detail• ideas are selected and prioritised to construct sophisticated argument• paragraphs are effectively varied in length and structure to control progression• confident and sophisticated use of a range of stylistic devices adapted to purpose/audience• a wide range of appropriate, ambitious vocabulary is used to create effect or convey precise meaning