Motivation<br />
“Motivation is the process whereby goal-directed activity is instigated and sustained” <br />Schunk, Pintrich & Meece, 200...
Define Motivation and describe different theoretical explanations for learner motivation<br />As teachers we should aim fo...
Here are some examples given to help you to help achieve intrinsic motivation within your students:<br />Present a challen...
“Students with Motivation to Learn orientation make an effort to understand topics whether or not they find studying them ...
“Behavourism views learning as a change in behaviour that occurs as a result of experience” (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010, pg. 28...
Cognitive and Social Cognitive Views<br />	“Children seem naturally motivated to learn when their experience is inconsiste...
	“Sociocultural views on motivation focus on participation in a learning community” <br />(Hickey & Zuiker, 2005; Eggen & ...
	Humanistic psychology “focuses on the whole person and views motivation as people’s attempts to become ‘self actualized,’...
“A need is an internal force or drive to attain or to avoid a certain state or object”<br />
Explain how learners’ needs influence their motivation to learn.<br />Abraham Maslow’s heirarchy of needs;<br />Deficiency...
Growth needs:<br />Self actualization need: “the need to reach our full potential and be all that we are capable of being”...
The need for Self Determination<br />“Is the need to act on and control one’s environment” (R. Ryan & Deci, 2000: Eggen & ...
The need for Competence<br />Students like to know and that they are working well and their knowledge and skills have incr...
The need for Relatedness<br />	Students want and need to be accepted, they have “a strong need for approval” (Eggen & Kauc...
“Belief: A cognitive idea we accept as true without necessarily having definitive evidence to support it” <br />(Eggen & K...
Expectations: A belief about a future outcome” <br />(Eggen & Kauchak, 2010, pg.297)<br />
Value: The benefits, rewards, or advantages that individuals believe may result from participating in a task or activity.<...
“Expectancy X Value theory is what learners expect to succeed on a learning task times the value they place on succeeding ...
(Eggen & Kauchak, 2010, pg.297)<br />
Self Efficacy: The belief that one is capable of accomplishing a specific task.<br />If a student believes that they are c...
Explain how learners goals can influence their motivation to learn.<br />Eggen & Kauchak, 2010, pg. 304<br />
‘Because it’s interesting!’ <br />Students are obviously more motivated to study topics they find interesting.<br />Anderm...
Explain how a teacher can capitalize on learners’ interests and emotions to increase motivation to learn.<br />If students...
Eggen & Kauchak, 2010, pg. 311<br />
Anxiety: A general uneasiness and feeling of tension, relating to a situation with an uncertain outcome.<br />Eggen & Kauc...
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Motivation week 6

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Motivation week 6

  1. 1. Motivation<br />
  2. 2. “Motivation is the process whereby goal-directed activity is instigated and sustained” <br />Schunk, Pintrich & Meece, 2008, pg. 4: Eggen & Kauchak, 2010, pg. 284).<br />
  3. 3. Define Motivation and describe different theoretical explanations for learner motivation<br />As teachers we should aim for our student’s to be intrinsically motivated. You would prefer it if your students wanted to study to learn rather than just doing it because they have to!<br />
  4. 4. Here are some examples given to help you to help achieve intrinsic motivation within your students:<br />Present a challenge: Challenge your students by setting task just out of their zone of proximal development, success isn’t guaranteed and conquering this task will give your students great satisfaction emotionally.<br />Promote learners feelings of autonomy: Students are more motivated when they feel they are in control of their own learning; they can influence it in some way.<br />Evoke curiosity: Novel, surprising, or discrepant experiences can trigger intrinsic motivation.<br />Involve creativity and fantasy: Allow students to use their own imagination on creative tasks.<br /> (Eggen& Kauchak, 2010, pg.285)<br />
  5. 5. “Students with Motivation to Learn orientation make an effort to understand topics whether or not they find studying them intrinsically interesting or enjoyable; the understanding that results is valuable and worthwhile” <br /> (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010, pg. 286)<br />
  6. 6.
  7. 7. “Behavourism views learning as a change in behaviour that occurs as a result of experience” (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010, pg. 286).<br />Using rewards judiciously can be an effective way to invoke intrinsic motivation. If a student is rewarded for a genuine achievement, handing out rewards all the time for non genuine achievements can have an adverse effect, causing the student to become unmotivated; if they feel they are going to be rewarded no matter how much effort they put in, what is the point of trying at all?<br />Behaviourist View<br />
  8. 8. Cognitive and Social Cognitive Views<br /> “Children seem naturally motivated to learn when their experience is inconsistent with their current understanding” <br />(Greeno, Collins, & Resnick, 1996, p. 25: Eggen & Kauchak, 2010, pg. 287).<br />Piagets’ theory of equilibrium can help describe this; when childrens’ existing schema doesn’t make sense anymore they search for answer to modify and to restore equilibrium.<br /> Social Cognitive theory can be explained by the way when children see somebody else motivated to achieve, this may cause them to be motivated as well. This may be by seeing their peers succeed in a task or simply by watching their teachers enthusiasm whilst teaching the lesson.<br />
  9. 9. “Sociocultural views on motivation focus on participation in a learning community” <br />(Hickey & Zuiker, 2005; Eggen & Kauchak, 2010, pg.288). <br />Sociocultural views suggest that students within a learning community are more motivated to learn as there is less competition and more support than in a classroom environment.<br /> Within a learning community all thoughts and contributions are respected. The teacher along with the students work together to learn. <br />Sociocultural Views<br />
  10. 10. Humanistic psychology “focuses on the whole person and views motivation as people’s attempts to become ‘self actualized,’ or to fulfil their total potential as human beings” <br />(Schunk et al, 2008; Eggen & Kauchak, 2010, pg. 288).<br />Accroding to Carl Rogers “Unconditional positive regard, the belief that someone is innately worthy regardless of their behaviour, is one of the most essential” experiences. (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010, pg. 288).<br /> As a teacher you need to care for the student as a person as well as a student. If a student feels respected, safe and cared for they are more likely to be motivated to learn.<br />Humanistic Views<br />
  11. 11. “A need is an internal force or drive to attain or to avoid a certain state or object”<br />
  12. 12. Explain how learners’ needs influence their motivation to learn.<br />Abraham Maslow’s heirarchy of needs;<br />Deficiency needs:<br />These are all deficiency needs; “needs that if unfulfilled, energize people to meet them” (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010,pg. 291). These deficiency needs all need to be met before a person can move onto the growth needs. An example of this is if a student needs to use the bathroom, they will not be able to concentrate on anything else before this need is met.<br />
  13. 13. Growth needs:<br />Self actualization need: “the need to reach our full potential and be all that we are capable of being” (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010, pg.291).<br />“In contrast with deficiency needs, the need for self actualization is never completely satisfied” (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010, pg.291). An example of this is as we grasp a greater understanding of a subject, it intrigues us more to keep us extending our knowledge of this subject.<br />
  14. 14. The need for Self Determination<br />“Is the need to act on and control one’s environment” (R. Ryan & Deci, 2000: Eggen & Kauchak, 2010, pg.291).<br />Students learn more if they are involved, “having choices and making decisions is intrinsically motivating” (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010, pg.291) to them. <br />
  15. 15. The need for Competence<br />Students like to know and that they are working well and their knowledge and skills have increased. As teachers we can help influence our student perceptions of competence by:<br />
  16. 16. The need for Relatedness<br /> Students want and need to be accepted, they have “a strong need for approval” (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010, pg.293). They seek the approval of their teachers and their peers.<br /> Teachers need to show their students that they are accepted, they need to communicate “unconditional positive regard and a genuine commitment to students and their learning” (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010, pg.293).<br /> If a student feels liked, respected and accepted they are more likely to put in the effort.<br />The need for Autonomy<br /> The easiest way to increase a student’s perception of autonomy is to give them choices. <br /> (Eggen& Kauchak, 2010, pg.293).<br />
  17. 17.
  18. 18. “Belief: A cognitive idea we accept as true without necessarily having definitive evidence to support it” <br />(Eggen & Kauchak, 2010, pg.297)<br />
  19. 19. Expectations: A belief about a future outcome” <br />(Eggen & Kauchak, 2010, pg.297)<br />
  20. 20. Value: The benefits, rewards, or advantages that individuals believe may result from participating in a task or activity.<br />(Eggen & Kauchak, 2010, pg.299)<br />
  21. 21. “Expectancy X Value theory is what learners expect to succeed on a learning task times the value they place on succeeding at the task as a framework” (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010, pg.297).<br />
  22. 22. (Eggen & Kauchak, 2010, pg.297)<br />
  23. 23. Self Efficacy: The belief that one is capable of accomplishing a specific task.<br />If a student believes that they are capable of accomplishing the task, they are more likely to be motivated to try.<br />Factors Influencing <br />Self – Efficacy:<br />Eggen & Kauchak, 2010, pg. 298<br />
  24. 24. Explain how learners goals can influence their motivation to learn.<br />Eggen & Kauchak, 2010, pg. 304<br />
  25. 25. ‘Because it’s interesting!’ <br />Students are obviously more motivated to study topics they find interesting.<br />Anderman & Wolters, 2006; Brophy, 2004; Eggen & Kauchak, 2010, pg. 309)<br />
  26. 26. Explain how a teacher can capitalize on learners’ interests and emotions to increase motivation to learn.<br />If students have either a ‘personal interest’ or a ‘situational interest’ they will be motivated to learn.<br />
  27. 27. Eggen & Kauchak, 2010, pg. 311<br />
  28. 28. Anxiety: A general uneasiness and feeling of tension, relating to a situation with an uncertain outcome.<br />Eggen & Kauchak, 2010, pg.311<br />

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