SoumyaaSrikrishna@hotmail.com
Types
 Outside Pressure Type
 People-Change-Technology Type

 Analysis-for-the-Top Type
 Organizational Development Ty...
Roles
 Consulting
 Training

 Research
Characteristics











Hemophily
Empathy
Linkage
Proximity
Structuring
Capacity
Openness
Reward
Energy
Syner...
Classification
 Internal
 External

 Internal - External
Why Change fails ?
 Leadership Support
 Allocated Resources

 Planning and Implementation
 Communication & Buy-In
 Pr...
What is power?
Power is the ability to …
▫ Get someone to do something you want done.
▫ Make things happen in the way you...
Sources of Power in Organizations
Legitimate Power

Reward Power

Coercive Power

Expert Power

Referent Power

Power
over...
Consequences of Power
Sources of
Power

Consequences of
Power

Expert
Power
Referent
Power
Legitimate
Power

Commitment

C...
Managers Acquire the power needed for
leadership by working towards


Power-oriented behavior



Position power and pers...
Empowerment
The process by which managers help
others to acquire and use the power
needed to make decisions affecting
them...
Empowerment, and the way managers empower
others:
 Power as an expanding pie.
 With empowerment, employees must be train...
The Evolution of Power: From Domination
to Delegation

Degree of Empowerment

High

None

Authoritarian
Power
Manager/lead...
Sexual Harassment and Power
• Harasser stereotypes the victim as

subservient and powerless
• Harasser threatens job secur...
Office Romance and Power
 Co-workers believe that
employees in
relationships abuse
their power to favour
each other.
 Hi...
Organizational Politics
Organizational
Politics
intentional
enhancement
of self-interest
Organizational Politics
“Organizational politics involves those activities
by organizations to acquire, develop, and use
p...
Factors Influencing Political Behaviour

Political behaviour
Low

High

Favourable outcomes
• Rewards
• Averted punishment...
Political Tactics









Attacking or blaming others.
Creating a favorable image.
Developing a base of support.
...
How do organizational politics affect managers
and management?
 Political action in the chief executive suite.
 Politica...
Can the firm use politics strategically?
Organizational governance & its implications
 The pattern of authority, influenc...
Can the firm use politics strategically?
 A person’s behavior must satisfy the

following criteria to be ethical:
 The b...
Limiting the Effects of Political Behavior










Open communication
Provide Sufficient Resources
Introduce Cl...
The Bottom Line: Managing Organizational
Politics Effectively
Learn the
Culture and the
“Rules of the
Game” for
Success in...
Positive Change
 Planning
 Feedback

 Group Thinking
 Measuring Change
Managing Change - Soumyaa Srikrishna
Managing Change - Soumyaa Srikrishna
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  • External Change AgentsThese are outside consultants who are temporary employed in the  organization to remain engaged only for the duration of the change process.Internal Change AgentsThese are individuals working for the organization who know something about its problems and has experience of improving situation in the same organization. These Internal Change Agents, when assigned a reposibility of intervening in a system come from entierly different department or division of their organization.External-Internal Change AgentsThese are the individuals or small group within the organization designated to serve with the external change agent so that intervention could be implemented effectively with their help.
  • 1. Leadership SupportIt is critical that any change initiative is supported at the highest level of the organization.  If management isn’t completely engaged in the effort, employees will notice and not take it seriously.2. Allocated ResourcesMost change initiatives require a certain level of resources.  Whether it is budget for new equipment, a person to lead the charge or time allocated to training employees – resources need to be allocated and assigned to the effort.3. Planning and ImplementationDetail in the planning of any project is important but when planning an organizational change it is critical.  Thinking through and strategizing for every aspect of the change can minimize issues during implementation.4. Communication and Buy-inOrganizations struggle with change initiates when they fail to get the employees involved and bought into the change.  Employee buy-in can always be attributed to a solid vision for a change and consistent communication throughout the process.5. PriorityUnfortunately, organizations have issues with A.D.D.  A good idea gets a lot of attention when it first is being discussed but it is easy to lose focus once the rubber meets the road.  Losing priority status can quickly kill a change initiative.6. Adjustment PeriodSometimes organizations don’t give a change initiative enough time to take root before they kill the effort.  Learning new processes and changing them to organizational norms takes time.
  • PlanningNo lasting positive change ever comes without some advance planning. Ronald Kirk Kandt of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory states that organizations need to plan for change by minimizing risk and maximizing return. Companies should conduct research to identify barriers to positive change in the workplace, so they can eliminate potential obstacles from the outset. For instance, McGinnis states that workshops that help employees identify their own biases about other coworkers can eliminate misunderstanding and open up communication.FeedbackMost companies and organizations use an evaluation system to ensure that workers are meeting necessary job standards. However, having a yearly evaluation does little to foster ongoing positive change. Instead, having a positive feedback system in place will result in greater motivation and change. Employees who are trained to focus on the positive aspects of their own behavior will think and focus on positive change, rather than what they are doing wrong.Group ThinkingIn some workplace settings, such as the healthcare industry, collective knowledge is important. Sheila K. McGinnis makes this argument and adds that it's also important for professional healthcare workers to be united by a common purpose. In many instances the margin for error is minimal. Workers united by a common identity and purpose must be reminded of this shared identity on a regular basis. Other industries can learn from this example as well. Workers who share a common identity and purpose will be more likely to unite and implement positive change.Measuring ChangeOrganizations can also measure change in a number of different ways. For instance, companies can create surveys that measure the willingness of employees to change certain behaviors or organizational practices. By the same token, the effectiveness of that change can be measured by evaluating the opinions of employees once changes have been implemented. Through a process of constant testing and evaluation, organizations can foster a climate of change by utilizing employee input.
  • Managing Change - Soumyaa Srikrishna

    1. 1. SoumyaaSrikrishna@hotmail.com
    2. 2. Types  Outside Pressure Type  People-Change-Technology Type  Analysis-for-the-Top Type  Organizational Development Type
    3. 3. Roles  Consulting  Training  Research
    4. 4. Characteristics           Hemophily Empathy Linkage Proximity Structuring Capacity Openness Reward Energy Synergy
    5. 5. Classification  Internal  External  Internal - External
    6. 6. Why Change fails ?  Leadership Support  Allocated Resources  Planning and Implementation  Communication & Buy-In  Priority  Adjustment period
    7. 7. What is power? Power is the ability to … ▫ Get someone to do something you want done. ▫ Make things happen in the way you want “Power is the opportunity to build, to create, to nudge history in a different direction." Richard Nixon 8
    8. 8. Sources of Power in Organizations Legitimate Power Reward Power Coercive Power Expert Power Referent Power Power over Others
    9. 9. Consequences of Power Sources of Power Consequences of Power Expert Power Referent Power Legitimate Power Commitment Compliance Reward Power Coercive Power Resistance
    10. 10. Managers Acquire the power needed for leadership by working towards  Power-oriented behavior  Position power and personal power  2–C’s : Centrality and Criticality  Building expertise  Visibility of their job performance  Expanding contacts with senior people.  Seeking opportunities to increase name recognition. 11
    11. 11. Empowerment The process by which managers help others to acquire and use the power needed to make decisions affecting themselves and their work. 12
    12. 12. Empowerment, and the way managers empower others:  Power as an expanding pie.  With empowerment, employees must be trained to expand their power and their new influence potential.  Empowerment changes the dynamics between supervisors and subordinates. 13
    13. 13. The Evolution of Power: From Domination to Delegation Degree of Empowerment High None Authoritarian Power Manager/leader impose decisions Domination Influence Sharing Manager/leader consults followers when making decisions Consultation Power Sharing Manager/leader and followers jointly make decisions Participation Power Distribution Followers are granted authority to make decisions Delegation
    14. 14. Sexual Harassment and Power • Harasser stereotypes the victim as subservient and powerless • Harasser threatens job security or safety through coercive or legitimate power • Hostile work environment harassment continues when the victim lacks power to stop the behaviour
    15. 15. Office Romance and Power  Co-workers believe that employees in relationships abuse their power to favour each other.  Higher risk of sexual harassment when relationship breaks off.
    16. 16. Organizational Politics Organizational Politics intentional enhancement of self-interest
    17. 17. Organizational Politics “Organizational politics involves those activities by organizations to acquire, develop, and use power and other resources to obtain one’s preferred outcomes in a situation in which there is uncertainty or dissent about choices.” (Pfeffer, 1981)
    18. 18. Factors Influencing Political Behaviour Political behaviour Low High Favourable outcomes • Rewards • Averted punishments
    19. 19. Political Tactics         Attacking or blaming others. Creating a favorable image. Developing a base of support. Inspirational appeal Consultation Exchange Coalition Pressure
    20. 20. How do organizational politics affect managers and management?  Political action in the chief executive suite.  Political action and subunit power.  Managers placing themselves in the positions of other persons involved in critical decisions or events. 21
    21. 21. Can the firm use politics strategically? Organizational governance & its implications  The pattern of authority, influence, and acceptable managerial behavior established at the top of the organization.  Significantly determined by the effective control of key resources by members of a dominant coalition. 22
    22. 22. Can the firm use politics strategically?  A person’s behavior must satisfy the following criteria to be ethical:  The behavior must produce the greatest good for the greatest number of people.  The behavior must respect the rights of all affected parties.  The behavior must respect the rules of justice. 23
    23. 23. Limiting the Effects of Political Behavior          Open communication Provide Sufficient Resources Introduce Clear Rules Free Flowing Information Measure performance, not personalities Remove Political Norms Hire Low-Politics Employees Increase Opportunities for Dialogue Peer Pressure Against Politics
    24. 24. The Bottom Line: Managing Organizational Politics Effectively Learn the Culture and the “Rules of the Game” for Success in the Organization Use Defensive Behaviors as Protection Against Dirty Political Players in the Organization Establish Credibility and an Overall Positive Impression in the Eyes of Others in the Organization Act in Ways Consistent with What is Verbally Communicated to Employees (Walk the Talk) Build a Base of Support by Networking, Forming Alliances, etc., with Key Players Create and Implement Formal and Clear Policies, Procedures, etc., to Reduce Ambiguity Be Open and Visible with Employees When Dealing with Key Issues that Affect Them
    25. 25. Positive Change  Planning  Feedback  Group Thinking  Measuring Change

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