External Change AgentsThese are outside consultants who are temporary employed in the organization to remain engaged only for the duration of the change process.Internal Change AgentsThese are individuals working for the organization who know something about its problems and has experience of improving situation in the same organization. These Internal Change Agents, when assigned a reposibility of intervening in a system come from entierly different department or division of their organization.External-Internal Change AgentsThese are the individuals or small group within the organization designated to serve with the external change agent so that intervention could be implemented effectively with their help.
1. Leadership SupportIt is critical that any change initiative is supported at the highest level of the organization. If management isn’t completely engaged in the effort, employees will notice and not take it seriously.2. Allocated ResourcesMost change initiatives require a certain level of resources. Whether it is budget for new equipment, a person to lead the charge or time allocated to training employees – resources need to be allocated and assigned to the effort.3. Planning and ImplementationDetail in the planning of any project is important but when planning an organizational change it is critical. Thinking through and strategizing for every aspect of the change can minimize issues during implementation.4. Communication and Buy-inOrganizations struggle with change initiates when they fail to get the employees involved and bought into the change. Employee buy-in can always be attributed to a solid vision for a change and consistent communication throughout the process.5. PriorityUnfortunately, organizations have issues with A.D.D. A good idea gets a lot of attention when it first is being discussed but it is easy to lose focus once the rubber meets the road. Losing priority status can quickly kill a change initiative.6. Adjustment PeriodSometimes organizations don’t give a change initiative enough time to take root before they kill the effort. Learning new processes and changing them to organizational norms takes time.
PlanningNo lasting positive change ever comes without some advance planning. Ronald Kirk Kandt of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory states that organizations need to plan for change by minimizing risk and maximizing return. Companies should conduct research to identify barriers to positive change in the workplace, so they can eliminate potential obstacles from the outset. For instance, McGinnis states that workshops that help employees identify their own biases about other coworkers can eliminate misunderstanding and open up communication.FeedbackMost companies and organizations use an evaluation system to ensure that workers are meeting necessary job standards. However, having a yearly evaluation does little to foster ongoing positive change. Instead, having a positive feedback system in place will result in greater motivation and change. Employees who are trained to focus on the positive aspects of their own behavior will think and focus on positive change, rather than what they are doing wrong.Group ThinkingIn some workplace settings, such as the healthcare industry, collective knowledge is important. Sheila K. McGinnis makes this argument and adds that it's also important for professional healthcare workers to be united by a common purpose. In many instances the margin for error is minimal. Workers united by a common identity and purpose must be reminded of this shared identity on a regular basis. Other industries can learn from this example as well. Workers who share a common identity and purpose will be more likely to unite and implement positive change.Measuring ChangeOrganizations can also measure change in a number of different ways. For instance, companies can create surveys that measure the willingness of employees to change certain behaviors or organizational practices. By the same token, the effectiveness of that change can be measured by evaluating the opinions of employees once changes have been implemented. Through a process of constant testing and evaluation, organizations can foster a climate of change by utilizing employee input.
Managing Change - Soumyaa Srikrishna
Outside Pressure Type
Organizational Development Type
Why Change fails ?
Planning and Implementation
Communication & Buy-In
What is power?
Power is the ability to …
▫ Get someone to do something you want done.
▫ Make things happen in the way you want
“Power is the opportunity to build, to create, to
nudge history in a different direction."
Sources of Power in Organizations
Consequences of Power
Managers Acquire the power needed for
leadership by working towards
Position power and personal power
2–C’s : Centrality and Criticality
Visibility of their job performance
Expanding contacts with senior people.
Seeking opportunities to increase name
The process by which managers help
others to acquire and use the power
needed to make decisions affecting
themselves and their work.
Empowerment, and the way managers empower
Power as an expanding pie.
With empowerment, employees must be trained
to expand their power and their new influence
Empowerment changes the dynamics between
supervisors and subordinates.
The Evolution of Power: From Domination
Degree of Empowerment
Sexual Harassment and Power
• Harasser stereotypes the victim as
subservient and powerless
• Harasser threatens job security or safety
through coercive or legitimate power
• Hostile work environment harassment
continues when the victim lacks power to
stop the behaviour
Office Romance and Power
Co-workers believe that
their power to favour
Higher risk of sexual
relationship breaks off.
“Organizational politics involves those activities
by organizations to acquire, develop, and use
power and other resources to obtain one’s
preferred outcomes in a situation in which there is
uncertainty or dissent about choices.”
Factors Influencing Political Behaviour
• Averted punishments
Attacking or blaming others.
Creating a favorable image.
Developing a base of support.
How do organizational politics affect managers
Political action in the chief executive suite.
Political action and subunit power.
Managers placing themselves in the
positions of other persons involved in critical
decisions or events.
Can the firm use politics strategically?
Organizational governance & its implications
The pattern of authority, influence, and acceptable
managerial behavior established at the top of the
Significantly determined by the effective control of
key resources by members of a dominant coalition.
Can the firm use politics strategically?
A person’s behavior must satisfy the
following criteria to be ethical:
The behavior must produce the greatest good for
the greatest number of people.
The behavior must respect the rights of all
The behavior must respect the rules of justice.
Limiting the Effects of Political Behavior
Provide Sufficient Resources
Introduce Clear Rules
Free Flowing Information
Measure performance, not personalities
Remove Political Norms
Hire Low-Politics Employees
Increase Opportunities for Dialogue
Peer Pressure Against Politics
The Bottom Line: Managing Organizational
Culture and the
“Rules of the
Success in the
Players in the
Establish Credibility and an
the Eyes of
Others in the
Act in Ways
(Walk the Talk)
Build a Base of
etc., to Reduce
Be Open and