Solar atmospheres


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Solar Atmospheres

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Solar atmospheres

  1. 1. Solar Atmospheres
  2. 2. Topics <ul><li>Chromosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Corona </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Wind </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Magnetism </li></ul><ul><li>Transition Zone and the Corona </li></ul>
  3. 3. Chromosphere <ul><li>->emits very little light of its own. Can not be seen directly it is pinkish blue due to H alpha emission lines. Can be seen at eclipses </li></ul><ul><li>-> spicules- solar storms emitted leave atmosphere around 100km/h and hit high above the photosphere. Near the edges of super granules Why? Magnetic field constructive interference </li></ul>
  4. 4. Corona and transition zone <ul><li>Corona- also seen only on eclipses when the moons angular size blocks the photosphere </li></ul><ul><li>spectra changes from absorption to emission </li></ul><ul><li>upper chromospheres temps are way hotter than photosphere </li></ul><ul><li>corona is still hotter </li></ul><ul><li>transition zone yields high temps, why is not clear. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Solar Wind <ul><li>escaping solar particles (protons and electrons) @500km/ hr </li></ul><ul><li>what’s happening? *query, sun is constantly evaporating and losing mass- </li></ul><ul><li>the high temps replenish the sun from below </li></ul><ul><li>about 1million tons shed per second, less than .1 % since formation of the sun </li></ul>
  6. 6. Solar Magnetism <ul><li>sun spots have a magnetic profile 1000X greater than surrounding area </li></ul><ul><li>flows from s- n pole of spot, Polarity reversed on southern hemisphere </li></ul><ul><li>occur in pairs with opposite polarities. </li></ul><ul><li>Light emitted by charged particles </li></ul><ul><li>Solar magnetic field warped by equator (differentially rotates) and eventually wraps it and the result is a prominence </li></ul>
  7. 7. Solar Cycle <ul><li>temporary and unstable and there is an 11 year cycle of activity </li></ul><ul><li>Sun spots start closer to poles and then work way towards equator </li></ul><ul><li>Polarities reverse once they cross the equator </li></ul><ul><li>Not constant can vary from 7-15 years </li></ul>
  8. 8. Corona and the Solar Cycle <ul><li>corona heated by solar surface activity </li></ul><ul><li>this injects large amounts of energy into the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>fueled by small scale magnetic loops </li></ul><ul><li>linked in time to the solar cycle </li></ul>