Reproductive system

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Male and Female Reproductive System Medical Terminology

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Reproductive system

  1. 1. Reproductive SystemHSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare ProfessionalsFlorida State College of JacksonvilleProfessor: Michael L.Whitchurch, MHS
  2. 2. Female gynec/oReproductive SystemHSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare ProfessionalsFlorida State College of JacksonvilleProfessor: Michael L.Whitchurch, MHS
  3. 3. Reproductive System amni/o  embry/o – amnion – embryo cervic/o  episi/o – neck, cervix – vulva chori/o  fet/o – chorion – fetus colp/o – vagina culd/o – cul-de-sac
  4. 4. Reproductive System gynec/o  mamm/o – woman, female – breast hymen/o  mast/o – hymen – breast hyster/o  men/o – uterus – menses, menstruation lact/o  metr/o – milk – uterus
  5. 5. Reproductive System nat/o  salping/o – birth – fallopian tubes, uterine tubes oophor/o  uter/o – ovary – uterus ov/o  vagin/o – egg – vagina ovari/o  vulv/o – ovary – vulva perine/o – perineum
  6. 6. Reproductive System –arche  –partum – beginning – childbirth –cyesis  –salpinx – state of pregnancy – fallopian tube –gravida  –tocia – pregnancy – labor, childbirth –para – to bear (offspring)
  7. 7. Reproductive System – Female [gynec/o] Functional Overview Propagation of the Human Race Production of Ova female reproduction cells Provides a place for fertilization A place for baby to grow during pregnancy Breasts provide nourishment of baby Female sex hormones Word Building Gynecology - study of female reproductive system Gynecologist - physician specialist in gynecology
  8. 8. Reproductive System – Female Overview of Anatomy Internal genetalia Within the Pelvic Cavity – Uterus – Ovaries – Fallopian tubes – Vagina External genetalia – Collectively known as Vulva [vulv/o episi/o] The word genetalia = reproductive organs
  9. 9. Reproductive System – Female Overview of AnatomyPerineum [perine/o] Vulva [vulv/o]
  10. 10. Reproductive System – Female Overview of Anatomy
  11. 11. Reproductive System – Female Overview of Anatomy
  12. 12. Reproductive System – Female Ovaries - Ovary [ oophor/o - ovari/o ] Small almond-shaped glands Produce ova (singular is ovum) Produces female sex hormones Every 28 days produces: – Follic stimulating hormone (FSH) – Luteinizing hormone (LH) – Triggers ovulation Produces estrogen and progesterone – Stimulates lining of uterus in preparation to receive fertilized ovum – Female secondary sexual characteristics
  13. 13. Ovum (singular form of Ova)A ovum, B spermatozoon; 1 nucleolus, 2 nucleus, 3 zona pellucida, 4 head, 5 acrosome, 6centriole, 7 mitochondrion, 8 tail, 9 middle piece, 10 neck, 11 corona radiata, 12 cytoplasm
  14. 14. Reproductive System – Female Ovaries - Ovary [ oophor/o - ovari/o ] Small almond-shaped glands Produce ova (singular is ovum) Produces female sex hormones Every 28 days produces: – Follic stimulating hormone (FSH) – Luteinizing hormone (LH) – Triggers ovulation Produces estrogen and progesterone – Stimulates lining of uterus in preparation to receive fertilized ovum – Female secondary sexual characteristics Word Building Oophoritis - inflamation of the ovary Ovarian - pertaining to the ovary
  15. 15. Reproductive System – Female Fallopian Tubes [ salping/o -salpinx ] Also called uterine tubes or oviducts Approximately 5 1/2 inches long Unattached ends expand into finger-like projections, Fimbriae Fimbriae catch ovum after ovulation and direct into fallopian tube Tube propel ovum to uterus to be implanted Egg and Sperm, fertilization or conception normally takes place in upper 1/2 of tubes
  16. 16. Reproductive System – Female Fallopian Tubes [ salping/o -salpinx ]  Also called uterine tubes or oviducts  Approximately 5 1/2 inches long  Unattached ends expand into finger-like projections, Fimbriae  Fimbriae catch ovum after ovulation and direct into fallopian tubeWord Building to uterus or conception Tube propel ovum  Egg and Sperm, fertilization  to be implantedSalpingocyesis - tubal upper 1/2 of tubes normally takes place in pregnancySalpingectomy - removal of fallopian tubesSalpingitis - inflamation of the fallopian tubesHematosalpinx - blood in the fallopian tubes
  17. 17. Reproductive System – Female Uterus [ hyster/o metr/o uter/o ] Cervix [ cervic/o ]Uterus Hallow with thick muscular wall lined with mucous membrane lining and rich blood supply Center of pelvic cavity between bladder and rectum Anteflexion held in place by ligaments anchored in outer layer of the uterus called perimetrium 3 sections: fundus | corpus | cervix
  18. 18. Reproductive System – Female Uterus [ hyster/o metr/o uter/o ] Cervix [ cervic/o ]Layers of the uterus Endometrium – Rich blood supply that reacts to hormonal changes every month that prepare it to receive fertilized ovum – Normal pregnancy fertilized ovum implants. – Provides nourishment and protection for developing baby Myometrium – Muscle contractions assist in moving fetus through the birth canal at delivery
  19. 19. Reproductive System – Female Uterus [ hyster/o metr/o uter/o ] Cervix [ cervic/o ]Word BuildingHysteropexy - surgical fixation of the uterusHysterorrhexis - ruptured uterusHysterectomy - surgical removal of the uterusEndometritis - inflammation within the uterusPerimetritis - inflammation around the uterusMetrorrhea - flow from the uterusMetrorrhagia - rapid blood flow from the uterusUterine - pertaining to the uterusCervicectomy - removal of the cervixCervical - pertaining to the neck of the uterusEndocervicitis - inflammation within the cervix
  20. 20. Reproductive System – Female Vagina [ colp/o vagin/o ] Muscular tube, mucous lined membrane extending from the cervix of the uterus to the outside of the body Passage of menstrual flow Receives penis and semen with sperm during intercourse Birth canal during vaginal birth Hymen is a thin membrane covering external vaginal opening called the vaginal orifice Bartholin’s glands on either side of the vaginal orifice
  21. 21. Reproductive System – Female Vagina [ colp/o vagin/o ]  Muscular tube, mucous lined membrane extending from the cervix of the uterus to the outside of the body  Passage of menstrual flow  Receives penis and semen with sperm during intercourse  Birth canal during vaginal birth  Hymen is a thin membrane covering external vaginal openingWord called the vaginal orifice BuildingColposcope - instrumenton eitherinside the vagina  Barthtolin’s glands to view sideVaginal the vaginal orifice vagina of - pertaining to theVaginitis - inflammation of the vagina
  22. 22. Reproductive System – Female Vulva [ vulv/o ] Vulva [vulv/o] External group of structures  Clitoris contains sensitvie that make up the female erectile tissue aroused during genitalia intercourse Labia major and minor serve  Perineum is the area between as protection of the genitalia the vaginal orifice and the and the urinary meatus anus
  23. 23. Reproductive System – Female Vulva [ vulv/o episi/o ]Word BuildingEpisiorrhaphy - suture of the vulvaEpisiotomy - surgical incision of the perineumVulvitis - inflamation of the vulvaVulvar - pertaining to the vulva
  24. 24. Reproductive System – Female Breast [mamm/o mast/o] Also called mammary glands Lactation - Production of milk for the nourishment of newborn baby Milk is produced in the Lactiferous glands and carried to the nipples by the lactiferous ducts Areola is the pigmented area around the nipple Milk secretion requires stimulating by the newborn baby
  25. 25. Reproductive System – Female Breast [mamm/o mast/o]Word BuildingMammogram - record of breastMammary - pertaining to breastMammoplasty - surgical repair of breastMastalgia - breast painMastitis - inflammation of breastMastectomy - removal of breast
  26. 26. Pregnancy Gestation – Period of pregnancy – 40 weeks Premature – Birth before 37 weeks of gestation completed
  27. 27. Pregnancy Embryo  Fetus – From implantation into – Ninth week until birth endometrium until eight weeks – Organs mature and begin to – Major organs and systems are function formed
  28. 28. Pregnancy - Trimesters The first trimester is measured from The first trimester is measured from conception to about the 12th week conception to about the 12th week of pregnancy; the second trimester, of pregnancy; the second trimester, from about 13 to 27 weeks of from about 13 to 27 weeks of pregnancy; and the third trimester, pregnancy; and the third trimester, from about 28 weeks of pregnancy from about 28 weeks of pregnancy until birth. until birth.http://www.medicinenet.com/stages_of_pregnancy_pictures_slideshow/article.htm
  29. 29. First Trimester of Pregnancy Weeks 1 thru 12 Baby at 4 weeks …… Baby at 4 weeks …… Babys brain and spinal cord have begun to form. Babys brain and spinal cord have begun to form. The heart begins to form. The heart begins to form. Arm and leg buds appear. Arm and leg buds appear.
  30. 30. First Trimester of Pregnancy Weeks 1 thru 12Baby at 8 weeks ……Baby at 8 weeks …… All major organs and external body structures have begun to form.All major organs and external body structures have begun to form.Babys heart beats with aaregular rhythm. Babys heart beats with regular rhythm. The arms and legs grow longer, and fingers and toes have begun to form.The arms and legs grow longer, and fingers and toes have begun to form. The sex organs begin to form.The sex organs begin to form. The eyes have moved forward on the face and eyelids have formed.The eyes have moved forward on the face and eyelids have formed. The umbilical cord is clearly visible.The umbilical cord is clearly visible.
  31. 31. First Trimester of Pregnancy Weeks 1 thru 12Baby at 12 weeks ……Baby at 12 weeks ……The nerves and muscles begin to work together. Baby can make aafist. The nerves and muscles begin to work together. Baby can make fist.The external sex organs show ififthe baby is aaboy or girl. The external sex organs show the baby is boy or girl. Eyelids close to protect the developing eyes.Eyelids close to protect the developing eyes. They will not open again until the 28th week.They will not open again until the 28th week.
  32. 32. Second Trimester of Pregnancy Weeks 13 thru 28 Baby at 16 weeks ……Baby at 16 weeks ……Muscle tissue and bone continue to form, creating aamore complete skeleton. Muscle tissue and bone continue to form, creating more complete skeleton. Skin begins to form.Skin begins to form. Meconium (mih-KOH-nee-uhm) develops in your babys intestinal tract.Meconium (mih-KOH-nee-uhm) develops in your babys intestinal tract. Baby makes sucking motions with the mouth (sucking reflex).Baby makes sucking motions with the mouth (sucking reflex).
  33. 33. Second Trimester of Pregnancy Weeks 13 thru 28 Baby at 20 weeks ……Baby at 20 weeks …… Baby is more active. Mother can feel slight fluttering.Baby is more active. Mother can feel slight fluttering.Baby is covered by fine, downy hair called lanugo (luh-NOO-goh) and aawaxy Baby is covered by fine, downy hair called lanugo (luh-NOO-goh) and waxy coating called vernix. This protects the forming skin underneath.coating called vernix. This protects the forming skin underneath. Eyebrows, eyelashes, fingernails, and toenails have formed.Eyebrows, eyelashes, fingernails, and toenails have formed. Baby can hear and swallow.Baby can hear and swallow.
  34. 34. Second Trimester of Pregnancy Weeks 13 thru 28 Baby at 24 weeks …… Baby at 24 weeks …… Bone marrow begins to make blood cells. Bone marrow begins to make blood cells. Taste buds form on your babys tongue. Taste buds form on your babys tongue. Footprints and fingerprints have formed. Footprints and fingerprints have formed. Real hair begins to grow on babys head. Real hair begins to grow on babys head. The lungs are formed, but do not work. The lungs are formed, but do not work. The hand and startle reflex develop. The hand and startle reflex develop. Your baby sleeps and wakes regularly. Your baby sleeps and wakes regularly. IfIfbaby is aaboy, his testicles begin to move from the baby is boy, his testicles begin to move from the abdomen into the scrotum. abdomen into the scrotum. IfIfbaby is aagirl, her uterus and ovaries are in place, and baby is girl, her uterus and ovaries are in place, and aalifetime supply of eggs have formed in the ovaries. lifetime supply of eggs have formed in the ovaries.
  35. 35. Third Trimester of Pregnancy Weeks 29 thru 40 Baby at 32 weeks ……Baby at 32 weeks …… Babys bones are fully formed, but still soft.Babys bones are fully formed, but still soft. Babys kicks and jabs are forceful.Babys kicks and jabs are forceful. The eyes can open and close and sense changes in light.The eyes can open and close and sense changes in light. Lungs are not fully formed, but practice "breathing" movements occur.Lungs are not fully formed, but practice "breathing" movements occur. Babys body begins to store vital minerals, such as iron and calcium.Babys body begins to store vital minerals, such as iron and calcium.
  36. 36. Third Trimester of Pregnancy Weeks 29 thru 40Baby at 37 - - 40 weeks …… Baby at 37 40 weeks …… By the end of 37 weeks, baby is considered full term.By the end of 37 weeks, baby is considered full term. Babys organs are ready to function on their own.Babys organs are ready to function on their own.As due date approaches, the baby may turn into aahead-down As due date approaches, the baby may turn into head-down position for birth. Most babies "present" head down.position for birth. Most babies "present" head down.
  37. 37. Fetal Membranes Infant is surrounded by two membranous sacs Amnion – Inner sac – Holds amniotic fluid in which fetus floats Chorion – Outer sac – Protective – Forms part of placenta
  38. 38. Photograph illustrating the development of an embryo. (Petit Format/Nestle/Photo Researchers, Inc.)
  39. 39. Photograph illustrating the development of a fetus. (Petit Format/Nestle/Photo Researchers, Inc.)
  40. 40. Placenta Provides nourishment for fetus Spongy blood-filled organ Forms in uterus next to fetus Commonly called afterbirth Fetus attached to placenta by umbilical cord
  41. 41. A full-term pregnancy.
  42. 42. Stages of Labor and Delivery Dilation stage – First stage – Strong uterine muscle contractions pushes fetus against cervix Effacement – Thinning of the cervix Dilation – Expands to 10 cm
  43. 43. Dilation stage of labor and delivery.
  44. 44. Stages of Labor and Delivery Expulsion stage – Second stage – Begins with full dilation of cervix – Ends with birth of baby Crowning – When head appears
  45. 45. Expulsion stage of labor and delivery.
  46. 46. Stages of Labor and Delivery Placental stage – Third stage – Uterus continues to contract – Placenta is delivered
  47. 47. Placental stage of labor and delivery.
  48. 48. Caesarian DeliveryInfant Delivery Video
  49. 49. Breech Birth Normally crown of head appears first in birth canal Any other body part appearing first is breech presentation Buttocks first is most common
  50. 50. A breech birth.
  51. 51. Male [ andr/o ]Reproductive SystemHSC 1531 Medical Terminology for Healthcare ProfessionalsFlorida State College of JacksonvilleProfessor: Michael L.Whitchurch, MHS
  52. 52. Male Reproductive System at a Glance Functions of Male Reproductive System – Produces sperm – Delivers sperm to female reproductive tract – Secretes male sex hormones
  53. 53. Male Reproductive System at a Glance Organs of Male Reproductive System – Testes – Epididymis – Vas deferens – Seminal vesicle – Prostate gland – Bulbourethral gland – Penis
  54. 54. Male Combining Forms andr/o male balan/o glans penis crypt/o hidden epididym/o epididymis orch/o testes orchi/o testes orchid/o testes
  55. 55. Male Combining Forms prostat/o prostate spermat/o sperm testicul/o testes varic/o varicose veins vas/o vas deferens vesicul/o seminal vesicle
  56. 56. Male Suffixes –spermia condition of sperm
  57. 57. Anatomy and Physiology - Function Testes produce sperm Vas deferens and epididymis transport semen Reproductive glands add vital fluids to sperm – Produces semen Penis delivers semen to vagina Testes produce male sex hormones – Testosterone
  58. 58. External Genitalia Located outside the body – Penis – Two testes – Two epididymides (plural for epididymis)
  59. 59. Internal Genitalia Located in pelvic cavity – Two vas deferentia (plural for vas deferens) – Two seminal vesicles – Prostate gland – Two bulbourethral glands
  60. 60. The male reproductive system. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  61. 61. Testes Singular is testis; also called testicles Oval-shaped organs in scrotum Produce sperm
  62. 62. Testes Secrete testosterone – Necessary for proper development of sperm – Stimulates growth and development of male reproductive organs – Produces male secondary sexual characteristics
  63. 63. Figure 10.20 – The male reproductive system. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  64. 64. Spermatogenesis Process that produces sperm – Occurs within seminiferous tubules of testes The testes must be maintained at proper temperature for sperm to survive – This lower temperature level is achieved by suspending testes in scrotum outside body – Scrotum is sac that contains testes, epididymides, and beginning of vas deferentia
  65. 65. Electronmicrograph of human sperm. (Juergen Berger, Max-Planck Institute/Science Photo Library/Photo Researchers, Inc.) Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  66. 66. Epididymis Coiled tube-shaped organ Lies on top of testes within scrotum Location for sperm maturation and storage Releases sperm into vas deferens
  67. 67. Figure 10.20 – The male reproductive system. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  68. 68. Penis Shaft of penis – Contains urethra Glans penis – Tip of the penis – Protected, covered by the prepuce (foreskin)
  69. 69. Penis Contains erectile tissue Increased blood flow during sexual stimulation results in erection – Allows it to be placed within vagina – Ejaculation of semen
  70. 70. Urethra Male urethra extends from urinary bladder to the external opening at tip of penis – Urinary meatus Serves a dual function: – Elimination of urine – Ejaculation of semen – During ejaculation, sphincter closes to keep urine from escaping – Sometimes referred to as Genitourinary System
  71. 71. The male reproductive system. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  72. 72. Vas Deferens Carries sperm from epididymis up into pelvic cavity – Travels up in front of urinary bladder, over top, and then back down posterior side of the bladder – Empties into urethra
  73. 73. Spermatic Cord Cord-like structure between pelvic cavity and scrotum Consists of: – Two vas deferentia – Nerves – Arteries – Veins – Lymphatic vessels
  74. 74. The male reproductive system.
  75. 75. Seminal Vesicles Two glands At base of urinary bladder Connected to vas deferens just before it empties into urethra
  76. 76. Seminal Vesicles Secrete a fluid that nourishes sperm – Rich in glucose This fluid, along with sperm, constitutes semen – Fluid ejaculated during sexual intercourse
  77. 77. The male reproductive system.
  78. 78. Prostate Gland Single gland located just below urinary bladder Surrounds urethra – Vas deferens empties into urethra within prostate
  79. 79. Prostate Gland Secretes alkaline fluid – Neutralizes pH of urethra and vagina – Critical for sperm survival Enlargement of prostate puts pressure on both urethra and vas deferens – Causes problems with both urination and ejaculation
  80. 80. The male reproductive system.
  81. 81. Bulbourethral Gland Also known as Cowper’s glands Two small glands – Either side of urethra – Just below prostate Secrete mucus-like lubricating fluid
  82. 82. The male reproductive system.
  83. 83. Word Building with andr/o & balan/o–gen androgen male producing–pathy andropathy male disease–itis balanitis inflammation of glans penis–plasty balanoplasty surgical repair of glans penis–rrhea balanorrhea discharge from glans penis
  84. 84. Word Building with epididym/o & orch/o–ectomy epididymectomy removal of epididymis–al epididymal pertaining to epididymis–itis epididymitis inflammation of epididymisan– –ism anorchism condition of no testes
  85. 85. Word Building with orchi/o & orchid/o–ectomy orchiectomy removal of testes–otomy orchiotomy incision into testes–plasty orchioplasty surgical repair of testes–ectomy orchidectomy removal of testes–pexy orchidopexy surgical fixation of testes
  86. 86. Word Building with prostat/o & spermat/o–itis prostatitis inflammation of prostate– prostatectomy removal of prostate–ic spermatic pertaining to sperm–ic prostatic pertaining to prostate–lysis spermatolysis destruction of sperm
  87. 87. Word Building with testicul/o & vesicul/o–ar testicular pertaining to testes–ar vesicular pertaining to seminal vesicles
  88. 88. Word Building with –spermiaa– aspermia condition of no spermoligo– oligospermia condition of scanty sperm
  89. 89. Male Reproductive System Vocabulary inability to engage in sexual intercourse due toerectile inability to maintain an erection; also calleddysfunction (ED) impotence inability to father children due to a problem withsterility spermatogenesis
  90. 90. Testes Pathology failure of testes to descend into scrotumcryptorchidism before birth accumulation of fluid around testes or alonghydrocele spermatic cordtesticular carcinoma malignant tumor of testestesticular torsion twisting of spermatic cordvaricocele varicose veins of the spermatic cord
  91. 91. Prostate Gland Pathologybenign prostatic noncancerous enlargement of prostate gland;hypertrophy (BPH) common in older menprostate cancer malignant tumor of prostate gland
  92. 92. Penis Pathology congenital opening of urethra on dorsal surface ofepispadias penis congenital opening of urethra on underside ofhypospadias penisphimosis narrowing of prepuce; constricts glans penis persistent and painful erection; caused bypriapism pathology, not sexual stimulation
  93. 93. Sexually Transmitted Diseasechancroid highly infections non-syphilitic venereal ulcerchlamydia bacterial genital infection in males & femalesgenital viral infection that appears like blistersherpes warts on the genitalia of both males & females; causedgenital warts by a virusgonorrhea bacterial infection of mucous membranes of males &(GC) females
  94. 94. Sexually Transmitted Diseasehuman sexually transmitted virus that attacks immuneimmunodeficiency systemvirus (HIV) disease usually acquired as a result of sexualsexually transmitted intercourse; formerly called venereal diseasedisease (STD) (VD) chronic bacterial infection; attacks multiplesyphilis organs including brain genitourinary infection caused by a protist intrichomoniasis both males and females
  95. 95. Clinical Laboratory Testsprostate-specific blood test to screen for prostate cancerantigen (PSA) part of fertility workup; analyzed for number,semen analysis swimming strength, and shape
  96. 96. Additional Diagnostic Testsdigital rectal manual examination for enlarged prostateexam (DRE)
  97. 97. Surgical Procedurescastration removal of testescircumcision removal of prepuce surgical fixation to pin undescended testesorchidopexy in scrotum process of rendering a male or femalesterilization unable to conceive children
  98. 98. Surgical Procedurestransurethral resection of removal of prostate tissue by insertingprostate (TUR, TURP) device through urethra removal of a segment of vas deferens tovasectomy prevent sperm from ejaculating reconnects ends of vas deferens tovasovasostomy reverse a vasectomy
  99. 99. A vasectomy.
  100. 100. Male Reproductive System Pharmacology replacement of male Andronate,androgen therapy hormones DepAndro shrinks benign prostatic Proscar,antiprostatic agents hypertrophy Avodarterectile dysfunction temporarily produces Viagra, Cialisagents erection Semicid, Ortho-spermatocide destroys sperm Gynol
  101. 101. Male Reproductive System AbbreviationsBPH benign prostatic hypertrophyDRE digital rectal examED erectile dysfunctionGC gonorrheaGU genitourinaryPSA prostate-specific antigen
  102. 102. Male Reproductive System AbbreviationsRPR rapid plasma reagin (test for syphilis)SPP suprapubic prostatectomySTD sexually transmitted diseaseTUR transurethral resectionTURP transurethral resection of prostateVD venereal disease

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