Digestive system 2011

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Medical Terminology of the Digestive System

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Digestive system 2011

  1. 1. Digestive SystemMedical Terminology for Healthcare ProfessionalsFlorida State College of JacksonvilleProfessor: Michael Whitchurch, MHS
  2. 2. Digestive System at a Glance Function of the Digestive System  Mechanical and Chemical digestion of food  Absorption of nutrient molecules  Elimination of solid wastes
  3. 3. Digestive System at a Glance Organs of the Gastrointestinal tract  Oral cavity  Pharynx  Esophagus  Stomach  Small intestine  Colon
  4. 4. Digestive System at a Glance Accessory Organs  Pancreas  Liver  Gallbladder  Salivary glands
  5. 5. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  6. 6. Digestive System Combining Forms an/o anus append/o appendix appendic/o appendix bar/o weight bucc/o cheek cec/o cecum chol/e bile, gall
  7. 7. Digestive System Combining Forms cholangi/o bile duct cholecyst/o gallbladder choledoch/o common bile duct col/o colon colon/o colon dent/o tooth duoden/o duodenum
  8. 8. Digestive System Combining Forms enter/o small intestine esophag/o esophagus gastr/o stomach gingiv/o gums gloss/o tongue hepat/o liver ile/o ileum
  9. 9. Digestive System Combining Forms jejun/o jejunum labi/o lip lapar/o abdomen lingu/o tongue lith/o stone odont/o tooth or/o mouth
  10. 10. Digestive System Combining Forms palat/o palate pancreat/o pancreas pharyng/o throat, pharynx proct/o anus and rectum pylor/o pylorus rect/o rectum sialaden/o salivary gland sigmoid/o sigmoid colon
  11. 11. Digestive System Suffixes –emesis vomit –lithiasis stone –orexia appetite –pepsia digestion –phagia eat, swallow –prandial pertaining to a meal –tripsy surgical crushing
  12. 12. Anatomy and PhysiologyGastrointestinal TractAlso called:  Gastrointestinal system (GI)  Gut  Alimentary canal Approximately 30 feet of continuous muscular tube between mouth and anus
  13. 13. Anatomy and Physiology Organs of the continuous gut tube in order:  Oral cavity  Pharynx  Esophagus  Stomach  Small intestine  Colon (including rectum and anus)
  14. 14. Anatomy and Physiology Accessory organs are connected to gut tube by ducts Include:  Salivary glands  Pancreas  Liver  Gallbladder
  15. 15. Anatomy and Physiology Three main functions of Digestive system  Digesting food  Absorbing nutrients  Eliminating waste
  16. 16. Digesting Food Physical and chemical breakdown of large food particles Produces simple nutrient molecules  Glucose  Triglycerides  Amino acids
  17. 17. Absorbing Nutrients Simple molecules are absorbed from intestine Circulated through body by cardiovascular system Used for growth and repair of cells, tissues, and organs
  18. 18. Eliminating Waste Some ingested food cannot be digested or absorbed Expelled from body as solid waste  Feces
  19. 19. Oral Cavity Roof is palate  Hard – bony anterior  Soft – flexible posterior Hanging down from soft palate is uvula  Speech production  Location of gag reflex
  20. 20. Oral Cavity Cheeks are lateral walls Lips are anterior opening Entire cavity lined with mucous membrane
  21. 21. Anatomy of the oral cavity. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved. tongue
  22. 22. Oral Cavity Digestion begins when food enters mouth  Mechanically broken up by chewing Tongue moves food within mouth Mixes with saliva  Digestive enzymes  Lubricates Taste buds on tongue surface  Detect bitter, sweet, salty, sour flavors
  23. 23. Teeth Cutting teeth  Bite  Tear  Cut Incisors Cuspids (canines)
  24. 24. Teeth Grinding teeth  Bicuspids (premolars)  Molars  Third molar is wisdom tooth
  25. 25. Figure 8.3A – The name and shape of the adult teeth. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  26. 26. Figure 8.3B – Color enhanced X-ray of teeth showing four wisdom teeth that have not erupted. (Science Photo Library/Photo Researchers, Inc.) Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  27. 27. Tooth Structure Gums  Mucous membrane + connective tissue  Seals off teeth in socket Tooth is divided into:  Crown – above gum  Root – below gum
  28. 28. Tooth Structure Enamel  Outer covering  In crown only  Hardest substance Dentin  Under enamel  In crown and root  Bulk of tooth
  29. 29. Tooth Structure Pulp cavity  In crown and root canal  Blood vessels, nerves Cementum and periodontal ligaments  Anchors root in jawbone
  30. 30. Internal structures of the crown and root. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  31. 31. Humans Have 2 Sets of Teeth Deciduous teeth  First set, baby teeth  20 teeth erupt between ages 6 and 28 months Permanent teeth  Second set, adult teeth  About 6 years of age, baby teeth fall out  Replaced by 32 permanent teeth  Process continues until 18-20 years of age
  32. 32. Pharynx Swallowed food enters (1) oropharynx Proceeds down pharynx into (3) Laryngopharynx (2) Epiglottis  Covers (3)larynx and trachea  Shunts food away from lungs & 1. Pharynx into (4)Esophagus 2. Epiglottis 3. Larynx 4. Esophagus
  33. 33. Structures of the oral cavity, pharynx, and esophagus. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  34. 34. Esophagus 10-inch long muscular tube Food enters from pharynx Delivered to stomach Propelled along by wavelike muscular movements  Called peristalsis  Pushes food through entire gut tubeModified Barium Swallow | Flexible Endoscopic Evaluation
  35. 35. The Stomach J-shaped muscular organ Collects & churns food  Mixes it with hydrochloric acid (HCl) Forms Pronunciation: ˈkīm chyme  Watery mix of food and digestive juices
  36. 36. The Stomach Three regions  Fundus – upper  Body – main  Antrum – lower Rugae Pronunciation: ˈrü-gə are folds in stomach lining  Stretch out to allow stomach to expand with food
  37. 37. Sphincters Muscular valves  Control flow of food Lower esophageal (cardiac) sphincter  Keeps food from backing up into esophagus Pyloric sphincter  Allows highly acidic chyme to enter small intestine
  38. 38. The regions and internal structures of the stomach. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  39. 39. Small Intestine Longest portion of alimentary canal  Averages 20 feet  Between pyloric sphincter and colon Site of:  Completion of digestion  Majority of absorption
  40. 40. Three Sections of Small Intestine Duodenum Pronunciation: d(y)ü- ə -dē -nə m or d(y)u̇ - äd- ə n- ə m  First section – about 10-12 inches long  Starts at pyloric sphincter Jejunum Pronunciation: ji-jü-nə m  Second section – about 8 feet long Ileum Pronunciation: il- ē - ə m  Third section – about 12 feet long  Connects to colon at ileocecal valve
  41. 41. The small intestine – duodenum, jejunum, ileum – begins at the pyloric sphincter and ends at the colon. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  42. 42. Colon 5 feet long Extends from ileocecal valve to anus Fluid that remains after digestion and absorption enters colon Most is water and is reabsorbed into body Solid waste left over is feces Evacuated in bowel movements
  43. 43. Regions of the Colon Cecum  Appendix Ascending colon Transverse colon Descending colon Sigmoid colon
  44. 44. Rectum and Anus Rectum is area for storage of feces Leads to anus  External opening of alimentary canal Feces are evacuated  Called defecation
  45. 45. The regions of the colon. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  46. 46. Intestinal villi
  47. 47. Accessory Organs Generally function by producing substances necessary for chemical breakdown of food Salivary glands Liver Gallbladder Pancreas
  48. 48. Salivary Glands Produce saliva Allows food to be swallowed without choking Saliva + food = bolus Contains amylase  Begins digestion of carbohydrates
  49. 49. Salivary Glands Three pairs  Parotid glands  Sublingual glands  Submandibular glands
  50. 50. The salivary glands, parotid, sublingual, and submandibular. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  51. 51. Liver Located in right upper quadrant of abdomen Processes nutrients Detoxifies harmful substances Produces bile  Emulsification Breaks up large fat globules into smaller droplets
  52. 52. The accessory organs of the digestive system: the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  53. 53. Gallbladder Lies under liver Stores bile produced by liver  Hepatic duct  Cystic duct Common bile duct carries bile to duodenum
  54. 54. Figure 8.9 – The accessory organs of the digestive system: the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  55. 55. Pancreas Digestive juices include:  Buffers – neutralize acidic chyme  Enzymes – digest carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins
  56. 56. The accessory organs of the digestive system: the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  57. 57. Digestive System ExerciseClick here to review digestive system anatomy in a labeling activity.
  58. 58. Word Building withan/o & bucc/o–al anal pertaining to anus–al buccal pertaining to cheeklabi/o –al labiobuccal pertaining to lips and cheeks
  59. 59. Word Building withappend/o & appendic/o–ectomy appendectomy surgical removal of appendix–itis appendicitis inflammation of appendix
  60. 60. Word Building with cholecyst/o & dent/o–ectomy cholecystectomy removal of gallbladder–gram cholecystogram X-ray record of gallbladder–ic cholecystic pertaining to gallbladder–algia cholecystalgia gallbladder pain–al dental pertaining to teeth–algia dentalgia tooth pain
  61. 61. Word Building with col/o & colon/o–ectomy colectomy removal of colon–ostomy colostomy new opening into colonrect/o –al colorectal pertaining to colon & rectum –scope colonoscope instrument to view colon –ic colonic pertaining to colon
  62. 62. Word Building withduoden/o, enter/o, & esophag/o–al duodenal pertaining to duodenum–ic enteric pertaining to intestine–itis enteritis inflammation of intestine–eal esophageal pertaining to esophagus–ectasis esophagectasis dilation of esophagus
  63. 63. Word Building with gastr/o–algia gastralgia stomach pain–ic gastric pertaining to stomachenter/o gastroenteritis inflammation of stomach–itisenter/o gastroenterologist stomach specialist–ologist–malacia gastromalacia stomach softening
  64. 64. Word Building with gastr/onas/o –ic nasogastric pertaining to nose & stomach–ostomy gastrostomy new opening into stomach–scope gastroscope instrument to view stomach–itis gastritis inflammation of stomach–ectomy gastrectomy surgical removal of stomach
  65. 65. Word Building with gingiv/o & gloss/o –al gingival pertaining to gums –itis gingivitis gum inflammation –al glossal pertaining to tongue hypo– –al hypoglossal pertaining to under tongue
  66. 66. Word Building with hepat/o & ile/o–itis hepatitis inflammation of liver–oma hepatoma liver tumor–ic hepatic pertaining to liver–al ileal pertaining to ileum–ostomy ileostomy new opening into ileum
  67. 67. Word Building with jejun/o, lapar/o, & lingu/o–al jejunal pertaining to jejunum–otomy laparotomy incision into abdomen–scope laparoscope instrument to view inside colonsub– –al sublingual pertaining to under the tongue
  68. 68. Word Building withodont/o, or/o, & palat/oorth/o –ic orthodontic pertaining to straight teeth–al oral pertaining to mouth–plasty palatoplasty surgical repair of palate
  69. 69. Word Building withpancreat/o & pharyng/o–itis pancreatitis inflammation of pancreas–ic pancreatic pertaining to pancreas–eal pharyngeal pertaining to pharynx–plegia pharyngoplegia pharynx paralysis–plasty pharyngoplasty surgical repair of pharynx
  70. 70. Word Building with proct/o & pylor/o–ptosis proctoptosis drooping rectum & anus–logist proctologist rectum & anus specialist–pexy proctopexy surgical fixation of rectum & anus–ic pyloric pertaining to pylorus
  71. 71. Word Building withrect/o, sialaden/o, & sigmoid/o–al rectal pertaining to rectum–itis sialadenitis inflammation of salivary glands–scope sigmoidoscope instrument to view inside sigmoid colon–al sigmoidal pertaining to sigmoid colon
  72. 72. Word Building with –emesis, –orexia, & –prandialhemat/o hematemesis vomit bloodhyper– hyperemesis excessive vomitingan– anorexia lack of appetitedys– dysorexia abnormal appetitepost– postprandial pertaining to after a meal
  73. 73. Word Building with–pepsia & –phagiabrady– bradypepsia slow digestiondys– dyspepsia painful digestiona– aphagia lack of eatingdys– dysphagia abnormal eatingpoly– polyphagia too much eating
  74. 74. Digestive System Vocabulary loss of appetite with other conditions; different fromanorexia anorexia nervosaascites collection of fluid in peritoneal cavitybowel inability to control defecationincontinence dental appliance attached to adjacent teeth to replacebridge missing teeth loss of weight and wasting occurring during chroniccachexia disease
  75. 75. Digestive System Vocabularyconstipation difficult or infrequent defecationcrown artificial tooth to replace original crowndental caries decay of tooth due to bacterial infection; tooth cavity prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of conditionsdentistry involving teeth, jaw, and mouthdenture partial or complete set of artificial teethdiarrhea frequent, watery bowel movements
  76. 76. Digestive System Vocabularyemesis vomiting diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the digestivegastroenterology systemhematochezia passing bright red blood in stoolsimplant prosthetic device in jaw to anchor a tooth diagnosis and treatment of diseases of internalinternal medicine organs
  77. 77. Digestive System Vocabulary yellow cast to skin; caused by deposit of bile pigment;jaundice often caused by liver diseasemelena passage of dark tarry stool, due to digested bloodnausea urge to vomitobesity weight above healthy levelsorthodontics correction of problems of tooth alignment
  78. 78. Orthodontics Video Click here to view a video on orthodontics.
  79. 79. Digestive System Vocabularyperiodontics treating conditions of the gums and area around teeth tumor with a pedicle (stem) attachment; found on mucouspolyp membranesproctology diagnosis and treatment of diseases of anus and rectumpyrosis stomach acid splashing into esophagus; heartburnregurgitation backflow of stomach contents into mouth
  80. 80. Oral Cavity Pathology ulcers in the mouth; commonly called cankeraphthous ulcers sores congenital anomaly where upper lip and jaw fail tocleft lip fuse in the midline, leaving a gap congenital anomaly where hard palate fails to fusecleft palate in the midline, leaving an opening into nasal cavity
  81. 81. Oral Cavity Pathology herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection;herpes labialis fever blisters or cold sores disease of supporting structures around the teeth;periodontal disease especially the gums; most common cause of tooth loss
  82. 82. Esophageal Pathology varicose veins in the esophagus; hemorrhagingesophageal varices occurs if rupturegastroesophageal reflux acid from stomach flows backward up intodisease (GERD) esophagus causing inflammation and pain
  83. 83. GERD Video Click here to view a video on gastroesophageal reflux disease.
  84. 84. Stomach Pathologygastric carcinoma malignant tumor in stomach protrusion of stomach through diaphragm intohiatal hernia thoracic cavity; also called diaphragmatocele ulcer in the lower portion of esophagus, stomach,peptic ulcer disease and/or duodenum; caused by high acid of stomach(PUD) juices; may be a result of Helicobacter pylori infection
  85. 85. A hiatal hernia or diaphragmatocele. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  86. 86. The location and appearance of a peptic ulcer in both the stomach and the duodenum. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  87. 87. Photomicrograph of a gastric ulcer. (Dr. E. Walker/Science Photo Library/Photo Researchers, Inc.) Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  88. 88. Small Intestine & Colon Pathology abnormal passageway from surface directly into rectum;anal fistula around anal openingcolorectal malignant tumor in the colon or rectumcarcinoma chronic inflammatory bowel disease, primarily in ileumCrohn’s disease and/or colon; results in scarring; also called regional ileitis
  89. 89. Diverticulosis .. Condition of having diverticulumn. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  90. 90. Small Intestine & Colon Pathology inflammation of a diverticulum, an outpouching off thediverticulitis colon; results from food being trapped inside condition of having diverticula (singular.. diverticulum),diverticulosis may lead to diverticulitis diarrhea with mucus and blood, severe abdominal pain,dysentery and fever; caused by contaminated food or water
  91. 91. Small Intestine & Colon Pathologyhemorrhoids varicose veins in the anal region severe abdominal pain, inability to defecate, abdominalileus distension; caused by intestinal blockage protrusion of a loop of bowel through abdominal muscleinguinal hernia and into groin region; may become incarcerated or strangulated if muscle pinches the loop of bowel
  92. 92. An inguinal hernia. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  93. 93. Laparoscopic Inguinal Hernia Repair
  94. 94. Small Intestine & Colon Pathology one part of intestine slips or telescopes intointussusception another section disturbance in function of intestine for unknownirritable bowel syndrome reason; causes abdominal cramping and(IBS) alternating diarrhea and constipation; also called functional bowel syndrome
  95. 95. Intussusception. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc. Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  96. 96. Small Intestine & Colon Pathology having polyps growing on the mucous membranepolyposis of the colon; may become cancerous chronic inflammatory condition with numerousulcerative colitis small ulcers on the lining of the colon; also called inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)volvulus bowel twists upon itself causing an obstruction
  97. 97. Photograph showing a polyp in the colon. (ISM/Phototake NYC) Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  98. 98. Volvulus Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  99. 99. Accessory Organ Pathology inflammation of gallbladder; commonly caused bycholecystitis gallstones presence of gallstones; may or may not causecholelithiasis symptomscirrhosis chronic liver disease due to liver failurehepatitis inflammation of liver; usually due to a viral infection
  100. 100. Common sites for cholelithiasis Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  101. 101. A gallbladder specimen with multiple gallstones. (Martin Rotker/Phototake NYC) Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  102. 102. Clinical Laboratory Testsalanine normal enzyme in the bloodstream; increased levelstransaminase indicate liver disease(ALT)aspartate normal enzyme in the bloodstream; increased levelstransaminase indicate liver disease(AST)fecal occult blood examines feces for microscopic amounts of blood; also(FOBT) called hemoccult
  103. 103. Clinical Laboratory Testsova and parasites examination of feces for presence of parasites or their(O&P) eggs determines amount of bilirubin in bloodstream; indicatesserum bilirubin liver disease culture of feces to look for presence of pathogenicstool culture bacteria
  104. 104. Diagnostic Imagingbite-wing X-ray X-ray of teeth with film holder held in the teethintravenous X-ray of gallbladder and bile ducts after intravenouscholecystography injection of dyelower gastrointestinal X-ray of colon and rectum after barium dye injectedseries (lower GI) via an enema; also called a barium enema (BE)
  105. 105. Color enhanced X-ray of the colon taken during a barium enema. (CNRI/Science Photo Library/Photo Researchers, Inc.) Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  106. 106. Diagnostic Imagingpercutaneoustranshepatic X-ray of liver and bile duct after dye is injectedcholangiography directly into liver(PTC)upper gastrointestinal X-ray of esophagus, stomach, and duodenum afterseries (upper GI) swallowing barium; also called barium swallow
  107. 107. Endoscopic Proceduresesophagogastroduodenoscopy using a scope to view inside the(EGD) esophagus, stomach, and duodenum visual examine inside hepatic duct,endoscopic retrograde common bile duct, and pancreatic duct;cholangiopancreatography ( scope is inserted through anus andERCP) worked backwards through gut
  108. 108. Endoscopic Procedures visual examination inside of colon and rectum using acolonoscopy colonoscope visual examination inside of stomach using agastroscopy gastroscope visual examination inside of abdominal cavity using alaparoscopy laparoscope visual examination inside of sigmoid colon using asigmoidoscopy sigmoidoscope
  109. 109. Sigmoidoscopy Video Click here to view a video on sigmoidoscopy.
  110. 110. Additional Diagnostic Procedures insertion of needle into abdominal cavity toparacentesis withdraw fluid
  111. 111. Dental Proceduresextraction removing teeth drilling out of pulp cavity of a tooth; used to save a toothroot canal that is badly infected
  112. 112. Medical Procedures placing liquid nourishment directly into stomach via agavage nasogastric tubelavage washing out stomach using a nasogastric tubenasogastric flexible catheter inserted into nose and downintubation esophagus into the stomach(NG tube)total parenteral providing 100% of patient nutrition; used when patientnutrition (TPN) is unable to eat
  113. 113. Nasogastric Intubation Animation Click here to view an animation on nasogastric intubation.
  114. 114. Dieticians Video Click here to view a video on registered dieticians.
  115. 115. Surgical Procedures surgical creation of a connection between twoanastomosis organs; like joining together two sections of colon surgical procedures to treat morbid obesity;bariatric surgery like stomach stapling surgical crushing of a gallstone in the commoncholedocholithotripsy bile duct
  116. 116. Surgical Procedures surgical creation of opening into some portion ofcolostomy colon through abdominal walldiverticulectomy surgical removal of diverticulaexploratory surgical procedure to examine the abdominal organslaparotomy
  117. 117. The colon illustrating various –ostomy sites. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  118. 118. Colostomy in the descending colon. Copyright ©2009 by Pearson Education, Inc.Medical Terminology: A Living Language, Fourth Edition Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458Bonnie F. Fremgen and Suzanne S. Frucht All rights reserved.
  119. 119. Surgical Proceduresfistulectomy removal of a fistula procedure to close off large section of stomachgastric stapling with rows of staples; results in much smaller stomachhemorrhoidectomy surgical removal of hemorrhoids
  120. 120. Surgical Procedureshernioplasty surgical repair of a hernialaparoscopic surgical removal of gallbladder through acholecystectomy laparoscopic incisionliver transplant implantation of a donor liver
  121. 121. Digestive System Pharmacology suppresses appetite to treatanorexiant Adipost, Obezine obesity Tums, Maalox,antacid neutralizes stomach acid Mylantaantidiarrheal used to control diarrhea Imodium, Lomotil Compazine,antiemetic treats nausea and vomiting Phenergan
  122. 122. Digestive System Pharmacologyemetic induces vomiting Ipecac syrupH2-receptor blocks the production of Zantac, Pepcid,antagonist stomach acid Tagamentlaxative stimulates a bowel movement Senokot, Metamucilproton pump blocks stomach’s ability to Nexium, Prilosecinhibitor secrete acid
  123. 123. Digestive System Abbreviationsac before mealsALT alanine transaminaseAST aspartate transaminaseBa bariumBE barium enemaBM bowel movementBS bowel sounds
  124. 124. Digestive System AbbreviationsCBD common bile ductEGD esophagogastroduodenoscopyERCP endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographyFOBT fecal occult blood testGB gallbladderGERD gastroesophageal reflux diseaseGI gastrointestinal
  125. 125. Digestive System AbbreviationsHAV hepatitis A virusHBV hepatitis B virusHCl hydrochloric acidHCV hepatitis C virusHDV hepatitis D virusHEV hepatitis E virusHSV-1 herpes simplex virus type 1
  126. 126. Digestive System AbbreviationsIBD inflammatory bowel diseaseIBS irritable bowel syndromeIVC intravenous cholangiographyNG nasogastricNPO nothing by mouthn&v nausea and vomitingO&P ova and parasites
  127. 127. Digestive System Abbreviationspc after mealsPO by mouthpp postprandialPTC percutaneous transhepatic cholangiographyPUD peptic ulcer diseaseTPN total parenteral nutritionUGI upper gastrointestinal series

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