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Blood 2012 summer


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Terminology of Blood (Lymphatic and Immune Systems)

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Blood 2012 summer

  1. 1. BloodLymphatic and Immune SystemHematology and Immunology Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals HSC 1531 Florida State College of Jacksonville Professor: Michael Whitchurch, MHS
  2. 2. Anatomy of hemat/o | hem/o | sanguin/o formed elements – hemat/opoiesis erythr/ocytes leuk/ocytes thromb/ocytes plasma (RBC) (WBC) plateletstransport substances fights path/ogens clots (hem/ostasis) carries formed elements Hgb Hem/oglobin viruses fibrin/o Oxygen O2 bacteria agglutin/o diseases coagul/o nutirents phag/ocytes waste neut/ophil bas/ophil eosin/ophil
  3. 3. Discussion Outline - Blood Blood Anatomy Cells and Plasma ABO System Rh Factor Blood Pathology Lab Test Procedures
  4. 4. Blood [Formed elements]  Erythrocytes Red Cells - RBC  Leukocytes White Cells - WBC  Platelets
  5. 5. Blood at a Glance: Functions Transports substances throughout body  Substances are attached to red blood cells or dissolved in plasma White blood cells fight infection and disease Platelets initiate blood clotting process
  6. 6. Blood at a Glance: Functions
  7. 7. Blood Combining Forms (16) agglutin/o  clumping bas/o  base chrom/o  color coagul/o  clotting eosin/o  rosy red erythr/o  red fibrin/o  fibers, fibrous granul/o  granules
  8. 8. Blood Combining Forms hem/o  blood hemat/o  blood leuk/o  white morph/o  shape neutr/o  neutral phag/o  eat, swallow sanguin/o  blood thromb/o  clot
  9. 9. Blood Suffixes -apheresis  removal -cytosis  more than normal number of cells -emia  blood condition -globin  protein -penia  abnormal decrease -phil  attraction for -poiesis  formation -stasis  standing still
  10. 10. Anatomy and Physiology Average adult has about five liters of blood Circulates through body within blood vessels Blood cells are produced in red bone marrow  Process called hematopoiesis
  11. 11. Anatomy and Physiology Is a mixture of cells floating in a fluid Fluid is plasma Cells are called formed elements  Erythrocytes (RBC)  Leukocytes (WBC)  Platelets
  12. 12. lymphocytesComponents of blood.
  13. 13. Plasma About 55% of whole blood Plasma is 90–92% water Remaining 8–10% is dissolved substances
  14. 14. Dissolved Substances in Plasma Plasma proteins  Albumin – helps transport fatty substances  Globulin – gamma globulins are antibodies  Fibrinogen – blood clotting protein Additional important substances  Calcium, potassium, sodium, glucose, amino acids, fats, urea, creatinine
  15. 15. leukocytesComponents of blood.
  16. 16. Red Blood Cells (RBC) Called erythrocytes Enucleated  No nucleus Biconcave disk 5 million per cubic millimeter of blood Adult has 35 trillion; more in males
  17. 17. Erythrocytes (RBC) Hemoglobin (Hgb, Hb) gives red color  Pigment containing iron  Responsible for oxygen transport Life span of 120 days  Spleen removes worn out ones  Iron can be reused  Bilirubin is waste product disposed of by liver
  18. 18. White Blood Cells (WBC) Also called leukocytes Spherical shape with large nucleus 8,000 per cubic millimeter of blood
  19. 19. WBC - Leukocytes Provide protection against pathogens  Bacteria  Viruses  Foreign material Subdivided into two categories  Granulocytes – have granules in cytoplasm  Agranulocytes – no granules in cytoplasm
  20. 20. WBC - Leukocyte Classification Granulocytes  Basophils Release histamine and heparin to damaged tissue  Eosinophils Destroy parasites and increase during allergic reaction  Neutrophils Important for phagocytosis, engulf and destroy bacteria Agranulocytes  Monocytes Important for phagocytosis  Lymphocytes Provide protection through immunity, destroys viruses and produces antibodies
  21. 21. luekoocytesComponents of blood.
  22. 22. Platelets Also called thrombocyte Smallest of all blood elements Plate-like fragments of larger cell 200,000-300,000 per cubic millimeter … that means they are very, very small !!
  23. 23. Platelets Critical in blood clotting  Hemostasis Agglutinate into small clusters when blood vessel is damaged Leads to formation of thrombin (enzyme proteins catalyst)  Which converts fibrinogen, (plasma protein) from the liver to form the fibrin protein  Results in formation of mesh like blood clot
  24. 24. luekoocytesComponents of blood.
  25. 25. Blood Types Blood is made of the same basic elements, Not all blood is alike… In fact, there are .. 8 common blood types, which are determined by the presence or absence of certain antigens… substances that can trigger an immune response if they are foreign to the body. Since some antigens can trigger a patients immune system to attack the transfused blood, Safe blood transfusions depend on careful blood typing and cross-matching.
  26. 26. The ABO Blood Group SystemThere are four major blood groups determined by the presence or absence of two antigens, A and B, on the surface of red blood cells:Group AHas only the A antigen on red cells (and B antibody in the plasma)Group BHas only the B antigen on red cells (and A antibody in the plasma)Group ABHas both A and B antigens on red cells (but neither A nor B antibody in the plasma)Group OHas neither A nor B antigens on red cells (but both A and B antibody are in the plasma)
  27. 27. Blood Typing Each person’s blood is different from others’  Due to presence of marker proteins on surface of erythrocytes Must do blood typing before blood transfusion  Test to determine if donated blood is compatible with recipient’s blood There are many different blood markers  Two most important ones for transfusions are ABO system and Rh factor
  28. 28. ABO System There are two possible RBC markers, A and B Person with A marker has type A blood  Type A blood produces anti-B antibodies  Anti-B antibodies attack type B and type AB blood Person with B marker has type B blood  Type B blood produces anti-A antibodies  Anti-A antibodies attack type A and type AB blood
  29. 29. ABO System Person with no marker has type O blood  Type O blood produces anti-A & anti-B antibodies  These antibodies will attack type A, type B, and type AB blood Person with both markers has type AB blood  Type AB blood produces no antibodies  Therefore it will not attack any other blood types
  30. 30. ABO Blood Typing
  31. 31. Blood Type Exercise Click here to review antigens and antibodies in a labeling activity.
  32. 32. The ABO Blood Group SystemThere are very specific ways in which blood types must be matched for a safe transfusion:
  33. 33. Rh Factor:a genetically determined protein on the red blood cells of some people that is one of the substances used to classify human blood as to compatibility for transfusion and that when present in a fetus but not in the mother causes a serious immunogenic reaction in which the mother produces antibodies that cross the placenta and attack the red blood cells of the fetus—called also
  34. 34. Rh Factor Person with Rh factor on red blood cells is Rh positive (Rh+) = present  Will not make anti Rh antibodies Person without Rh factor is Rh negative (Rh-) = absent  Will produce anti Rh antibodies Rh+ person may receive either Rh+ or Rh- transfusion Rh- person can receive only Rh- blood
  35. 35. Universal Donor Because type O blood does not have either marker A or B, it will not react with anti-A or anti-B antibodies found in other blood types For this reason a person with type O blood is referred to as a …. universal donor In an extreme emergency, type O blood may be given to a person with any other blood type
  36. 36. Universal Recipient Because a person with type AB blood has no antibodies against other blood types, it will not react with other blood For this reason, type AB blood is the universal recipient In an extreme emergency, a person with type AB blood may receive any type of blood
  37. 37. Blood Typing CompatibilityType A+ A- B+ B- AB+ AB- O+ O-A+ + + - - - - + + A- - + - - - - - +B+ - - + + - - + + B- - - - + - - - +AB+ + + + + + + + +AB- - + - + - + - +O+ - - - - - - + +O- - - - - - - - + Copyright 2009 Dr. Bruce Forciea LLC. Visit our site at and
  38. 38. Word Building withfibrin/o and hem/o–gen fibrinogen–lysis fibrinolysis–ous fibrinous–globin hemoglobin–lysis hemolysis–lytic hemolytic–rrhage hemorrhage
  39. 39. Word Building withfibrin/o and hem/o–gen fibrinogen fiber producing–lysis fibrinolysis fiber destruction–ous fibrinous pertaining to fibers–globin hemoglobin blood protein–lysis hemolysis blood destruction–lytic hemolytic blood destruction–rrhage hemorrhage rapid flow of blood
  40. 40. Word Building withhemat/o and sanguin/o–ologist hematologist–ic hematic–ous sanguinous
  41. 41. Word Building withhemat/o and sanguin/o–ologist hematologist blood specialist–ic hematic pertaining to blood–ous sanguinous pertaining to blood
  42. 42. Word Building with –cyteerythr/o erythrocyteleuk/o leukocytethromb/o thrombocytegranul/o granulocytea– granul/o agranulocyte
  43. 43. Word Building with –cyteerythr/o erythrocyte red cellleuk/o leukocyte white cellthromb/o thrombocyte clotting cellgranul/o granulocyte granular cella– granul/o agranulocyte not a granular cell
  44. 44. Word Building withcytosis & –peniaerythr/o erythrocytosisleuk/o leukocytosisthromb/o thrombocytosiserythr/o erythropenialeuk/o leukopeniathromb/o thrombopeniapan– cyt/o pancytopenia
  45. 45. Word Building withcytosis & –peniaerythr/o erythrocytosis too many red cellsleuk/o leukocytosis too many white cellsthromb/o thrombocytosis too many clotting cellserythr/o erythropenia too few red (cells)leuk/o leukopenia too few white (cells)thromb/o thrombopenia too few clotting (cells)pan– cyt/o pancytopenia too few all cells
  46. 46. Word Building with –poiesiserythr/o erythropoiesisleuk/o leukopoiesisthromb/o thrombopoiesishemat/o hematopoiesis
  47. 47. Word Building with –poiesiserythr/o erythropoiesis red (cell) producingleuk/o leukopoiesis white (cell) producingthromb/o thrombopoiesis clotting (cell) producinghemat/o hematopoiesis blood producing
  48. 48. Blood Vocabulary (8) hard collection of fibrin, blood cells, andblood clot tissue debris; end result of hemostasis to convert a liquid to a solid; as in bloodcoagulate clottingdyscrasia general term for disease affecting blood branch of medicine specializing in bloodhematology conditions; physician is a hematologist
  49. 49. Electronmicrograph showing a blood clot, composed of fibrin, red blood cells, and tissue debris.
  50. 50. Blood Vocabulary collection of blood under skin as a resulthematoma of blood escaping into tissue from damaged blood vessels to stop bleeding or stagnation of bloodhemostasis flow through tissues transfusion of only blood cells withoutpacked cells plasma mixture of both plasma and formedwhole blood elements
  51. 51. Blood Pathology (14) genetic disorder; blood fails tohemophilia clot due to lack of one clotting factor excessive level of lipids in thehyperlipidemia blood stream; risk factor for atherosclerosis having bacteria or their toxins insepticemia the bloodstream; also called blood poisoning
  52. 52. Erythrocyte Pathology (10) group of conditions characterized by a reduction in number of RBCs or theanemia amount of hemoglobin; results in less oxygen reaching tissues severe anemia in which red bone marrowaplastic stops making sufficient blood cells; mayanemia require bone marrow transplanthemolytic results from excessive loss of RBCsanemia
  53. 53. Erythrocyte Pathology destruction of RBCs when patienthemolytic receives mismatched bloodreaction transfusion results from insufficient amount ofhypochromic hemoglobin in RBCs; unable toanemia transport sufficient oxygeniron-deficiency results from insufficient amount ofanemia iron to make hemoglobin for RBCs
  54. 54. Erythrocyte Pathologypernicious insufficient absorption of vitamin B12;anemia (PA) unable to make enough RBCspolycythemia condition of having too many RBCs;vera blood is too thick and flows sluggishly genetic disorder where RBCs take onsickle cell abnormal sickle shape; become moreanemia fragile leading to hemolytic anemia genetic disorder where unable tothalassemia produce functioning hemoglobin
  55. 55. Figure 6.5 – Comparison of normal-shaped erythrocytes and the abnormal sickle shape noted in patients with sickle cell anemia.
  56. 56. Sickle Cell Anemia Click here to view animation on sickle cell anemia.
  57. 57. Leukocyte Pathology cancer of white blood cell- forming portion of red boneleukemia marrow; results in large number of abnormal and immature WBCs circulating in blood stream
  58. 58. Leukemia Video Click here to view a video on leukemia. Back to Directory
  59. 59. Clinical Laboratory Tests (12)blood culture & blood is incubated to identify infectingsensitivity bacteria and then test determines(C&S) best antibiotic to use set of blood tests: RBC count, WBCcomplete blood count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, whitecount (CBC) blood cell differential, and platelet counterythrocyte determines rate at which RBCs settlesedimentation in a test tube; indicates presence ofrate (ESR) inflammation in body
  60. 60. Clinical Laboratory Testshematocrit measures volume of RBCs(HCT, Hct, crit)hemoglobin measures amount of hemoglobin(Hgb, hb) presentplatelet count determines number of plateletsprothrombin measures how long needed for bloodtime (Pro time, to coagulate and form a clotPT)
  61. 61. Clinical Laboratory Testsred blood cell measures number of RBCscount (RBC)red blood cell examines RBCs for abnormalitiesmorphology in shapesequential multiple machine for doing multiple bloodanalyzer computer chemistry tests automatically(SMAC)
  62. 62. Clinical Laboratory Testswhite blood cell measures number of leukocytescount (WBC)white blood cell determines the number of each typedifferential of WBC(diff)
  63. 63. Lab Technicians Click here to view a video about clinical lab technicians.
  64. 64. Medical Procedures (7) sample of bone marrow removed bybone marrow aspiration and examined for diseasesaspiration such as leukemia and aplastic anemia incision into vein in order to withdrawphlebotomy blood for testing; also called venipuncture
  65. 65. Phlebotomist using a needle to withdraw blood.
  66. 66. Phlebotomy Video Click here to view a video on phlebotomy.
  67. 67. Medical Procedures (5) collection and storage ofautologous patient’s own blood prior totransfusion actual need artificial transfer of blood intoblood transfusion the bloodstream patient receives red bonebone marrow marrow from donor aftertransplant (BMT) patient’s own bone marrow has been destroyed
  68. 68. Medical Procedureshomologous replacement blood with blood fromtransfusion another person removal of whole blood, separation of plasma from formed elements;plasmapheresis formed elements returned to patient with donor plasma transfusion
  69. 69. Blood Pharmacology (5) prevents blood clot warfarin,anticoagulant formation Coumadin Amicar,antihemorrhagic prevents bleeding Vitamin Kantiplatelet interferes with action Plavix, Ticlidagent of platelets increases number of Procrit,hematinic RBCs and hemoglobin Aranesp dissolves existing Activase,thrombolytic clots Streptase
  70. 70. Blood AbbreviationsALL acute lymphocytic leukemiaAML acute myelogenous leukemiabasos basophilsBMT bone marrow transplantCBC complete blood countCLL chronic lymphocytic leukemiaCML chronic myelogenous leukemia
  71. 71. Blood Abbreviationsdiff differentialeosins, eos eosinophilsESR, SR, sed rate erythrocyte sedimentation rateHCT, Hct, crit hematocritHbg, Hb, HGB hemoglobinlymphs lymphocytesmonos monocytes
  72. 72. Blood AbbreviationsPA pernicious anemiaPCV packed cell volumePMN, polys polymorphonuclear neutrophilPT, pro-time prothrombin timeRBC red blood cellRh+ Rh positive
  73. 73. Blood AbbreviationsRh- Rh negativesegs segmented neutrophilSMAC sequential multiple analyzer computerWBC white blood cell