Why are we combining these systems into a single unit ? Blood and Lymph are both fluids have functions within the immune system. We will begin with a discussion of the different elements found in blood and the function of each as part of the immune response…. Next slide
Blood is a very important and dynamic tissue… it carries nutrients, ions, gases and a number of chemical as well as specialized cells. It is capable of producing important reactions in stopping bleeding and fighting infection. Blood is considered a connective tissue. Its primary constituents include specialize cells such as … Red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC, cell fragments know as platelets, and straw colored liquid called plasma. The cells are know as formed elements of blood and each has specialized functions.
Blood 2012 summer
BloodLymphatic and Immune SystemHematology and Immunology Medical Terminology for Healthcare Professionals HSC 1531 Florida State College of Jacksonville Professor: Michael Whitchurch, MHS
Anatomy of hemat/o | hem/o | sanguin/o formed elements – hemat/opoiesis erythr/ocytes leuk/ocytes thromb/ocytes plasma (RBC) (WBC) plateletstransport substances fights path/ogens clots (hem/ostasis) carries formed elements Hgb Hem/oglobin viruses fibrin/o Oxygen O2 bacteria agglutin/o diseases coagul/o nutirents phag/ocytes waste neut/ophil bas/ophil eosin/ophil
Blood [Formed elements] Erythrocytes Red Cells - RBC Leukocytes White Cells - WBC Platelets
Blood at a Glance: Functions Transports substances throughout body Substances are attached to red blood cells or dissolved in plasma White blood cells fight infection and disease Platelets initiate blood clotting process
Red Blood Cells (RBC) Called erythrocytes Enucleated No nucleus Biconcave disk 5 million per cubic millimeter of blood Adult has 35 trillion; more in males
Erythrocytes (RBC) Hemoglobin (Hgb, Hb) gives red color Pigment containing iron Responsible for oxygen transport Life span of 120 days Spleen removes worn out ones Iron can be reused Bilirubin is waste product disposed of by liver http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/19/Hemoglobin.jpg
White Blood Cells (WBC) Also called leukocytes Spherical shape with large nucleus 8,000 per cubic millimeter of blood
WBC - Leukocytes Provide protection against pathogens Bacteria Viruses Foreign material Subdivided into two categories Granulocytes – have granules in cytoplasm Agranulocytes – no granules in cytoplasm
WBC - Leukocyte Classification Granulocytes Basophils Release histamine and heparin to damaged tissue Eosinophils Destroy parasites and increase during allergic reaction Neutrophils Important for phagocytosis, engulf and destroy bacteria Agranulocytes Monocytes Important for phagocytosis Lymphocytes Provide protection through immunity, destroys viruses and produces antibodies
Platelets Also called thrombocyte Smallest of all blood elements Plate-like fragments of larger cell 200,000-300,000 per cubic millimeter … that means they are very, very small !!
Platelets Critical in blood clotting Hemostasis Agglutinate into small clusters when blood vessel is damaged Leads to formation of thrombin (enzyme proteins catalyst) Which converts fibrinogen, (plasma protein) from the liver to form the fibrin protein Results in formation of mesh like blood clot
Blood Types Blood is made of the same basic elements, Not all blood is alike… In fact, there are .. 8 common blood types, which are determined by the presence or absence of certain antigens… substances that can trigger an immune response if they are foreign to the body. Since some antigens can trigger a patients immune system to attack the transfused blood, Safe blood transfusions depend on careful blood typing and cross-matching.
The ABO Blood Group SystemThere are four major blood groups determined by the presence or absence of two antigens, A and B, on the surface of red blood cells:Group AHas only the A antigen on red cells (and B antibody in the plasma)Group BHas only the B antigen on red cells (and A antibody in the plasma)Group ABHas both A and B antigens on red cells (but neither A nor B antibody in the plasma)Group OHas neither A nor B antigens on red cells (but both A and B antibody are in the plasma)
Blood Typing Each person’s blood is different from others’ Due to presence of marker proteins on surface of erythrocytes Must do blood typing before blood transfusion Test to determine if donated blood is compatible with recipient’s blood There are many different blood markers Two most important ones for transfusions are ABO system and Rh factor
ABO System There are two possible RBC markers, A and B Person with A marker has type A blood Type A blood produces anti-B antibodies Anti-B antibodies attack type B and type AB blood Person with B marker has type B blood Type B blood produces anti-A antibodies Anti-A antibodies attack type A and type AB blood
ABO System Person with no marker has type O blood Type O blood produces anti-A & anti-B antibodies These antibodies will attack type A, type B, and type AB blood Person with both markers has type AB blood Type AB blood produces no antibodies Therefore it will not attack any other blood types
Blood Type Exercise Click here to review antigens and antibodies in a labeling activity.
The ABO Blood Group SystemThere are very specific ways in which blood types must be matched for a safe transfusion: http://www.redcrossblood.org/learn-about-blood/blood-types
Rh Factor:a genetically determined protein on the red blood cells of some people that is one of the substances used to classify human blood as to compatibility for transfusion and that when present in a fetus but not in the mother causes a serious immunogenic reaction in which the mother produces antibodies that cross the placenta and attack the red blood cells of the fetus—called also
Rh Factor Person with Rh factor on red blood cells is Rh positive (Rh+) = present Will not make anti Rh antibodies Person without Rh factor is Rh negative (Rh-) = absent Will produce anti Rh antibodies Rh+ person may receive either Rh+ or Rh- transfusion Rh- person can receive only Rh- blood
Universal Donor Because type O blood does not have either marker A or B, it will not react with anti-A or anti-B antibodies found in other blood types For this reason a person with type O blood is referred to as a …. universal donor In an extreme emergency, type O blood may be given to a person with any other blood type
Universal Recipient Because a person with type AB blood has no antibodies against other blood types, it will not react with other blood For this reason, type AB blood is the universal recipient In an extreme emergency, a person with type AB blood may receive any type of blood
Word Building withfibrin/o and hem/o–gen fibrinogen–lysis fibrinolysis–ous fibrinous–globin hemoglobin–lysis hemolysis–lytic hemolytic–rrhage hemorrhage
Word Building withfibrin/o and hem/o–gen fibrinogen fiber producing–lysis fibrinolysis fiber destruction–ous fibrinous pertaining to fibers–globin hemoglobin blood protein–lysis hemolysis blood destruction–lytic hemolytic blood destruction–rrhage hemorrhage rapid flow of blood
Word Building withhemat/o and sanguin/o–ologist hematologist–ic hematic–ous sanguinous
Word Building withhemat/o and sanguin/o–ologist hematologist blood specialist–ic hematic pertaining to blood–ous sanguinous pertaining to blood
Word Building with –cyteerythr/o erythrocyteleuk/o leukocytethromb/o thrombocytegranul/o granulocytea– granul/o agranulocyte
Word Building with –cyteerythr/o erythrocyte red cellleuk/o leukocyte white cellthromb/o thrombocyte clotting cellgranul/o granulocyte granular cella– granul/o agranulocyte not a granular cell
Word Building withcytosis & –peniaerythr/o erythrocytosisleuk/o leukocytosisthromb/o thrombocytosiserythr/o erythropenialeuk/o leukopeniathromb/o thrombopeniapan– cyt/o pancytopenia
Word Building withcytosis & –peniaerythr/o erythrocytosis too many red cellsleuk/o leukocytosis too many white cellsthromb/o thrombocytosis too many clotting cellserythr/o erythropenia too few red (cells)leuk/o leukopenia too few white (cells)thromb/o thrombopenia too few clotting (cells)pan– cyt/o pancytopenia too few all cells
Word Building with –poiesiserythr/o erythropoiesisleuk/o leukopoiesisthromb/o thrombopoiesishemat/o hematopoiesis
Word Building with –poiesiserythr/o erythropoiesis red (cell) producingleuk/o leukopoiesis white (cell) producingthromb/o thrombopoiesis clotting (cell) producinghemat/o hematopoiesis blood producing
Blood Vocabulary (8) hard collection of fibrin, blood cells, andblood clot tissue debris; end result of hemostasis to convert a liquid to a solid; as in bloodcoagulate clottingdyscrasia general term for disease affecting blood branch of medicine specializing in bloodhematology conditions; physician is a hematologist
Electronmicrograph showing a blood clot, composed of fibrin, red blood cells, and tissue debris.
Blood Vocabulary collection of blood under skin as a resulthematoma of blood escaping into tissue from damaged blood vessels to stop bleeding or stagnation of bloodhemostasis flow through tissues transfusion of only blood cells withoutpacked cells plasma mixture of both plasma and formedwhole blood elements
Blood Pathology (14) genetic disorder; blood fails tohemophilia clot due to lack of one clotting factor excessive level of lipids in thehyperlipidemia blood stream; risk factor for atherosclerosis having bacteria or their toxins insepticemia the bloodstream; also called blood poisoning
Erythrocyte Pathology (10) group of conditions characterized by a reduction in number of RBCs or theanemia amount of hemoglobin; results in less oxygen reaching tissues severe anemia in which red bone marrowaplastic stops making sufficient blood cells; mayanemia require bone marrow transplanthemolytic results from excessive loss of RBCsanemia
Erythrocyte Pathology destruction of RBCs when patienthemolytic receives mismatched bloodreaction transfusion results from insufficient amount ofhypochromic hemoglobin in RBCs; unable toanemia transport sufficient oxygeniron-deficiency results from insufficient amount ofanemia iron to make hemoglobin for RBCs
Erythrocyte Pathologypernicious insufficient absorption of vitamin B12;anemia (PA) unable to make enough RBCspolycythemia condition of having too many RBCs;vera blood is too thick and flows sluggishly genetic disorder where RBCs take onsickle cell abnormal sickle shape; become moreanemia fragile leading to hemolytic anemia genetic disorder where unable tothalassemia produce functioning hemoglobin
Figure 6.5 – Comparison of normal-shaped erythrocytes and the abnormal sickle shape noted in patients with sickle cell anemia.
Sickle Cell Anemia Click here to view animation on sickle cell anemia.
Leukocyte Pathology cancer of white blood cell- forming portion of red boneleukemia marrow; results in large number of abnormal and immature WBCs circulating in blood stream
Leukemia Video Click here to view a video on leukemia. Back to Directory
Clinical Laboratory Tests (12)blood culture & blood is incubated to identify infectingsensitivity bacteria and then test determines(C&S) best antibiotic to use set of blood tests: RBC count, WBCcomplete blood count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, whitecount (CBC) blood cell differential, and platelet counterythrocyte determines rate at which RBCs settlesedimentation in a test tube; indicates presence ofrate (ESR) inflammation in body
Clinical Laboratory Testshematocrit measures volume of RBCs(HCT, Hct, crit)hemoglobin measures amount of hemoglobin(Hgb, hb) presentplatelet count determines number of plateletsprothrombin measures how long needed for bloodtime (Pro time, to coagulate and form a clotPT)
Clinical Laboratory Testsred blood cell measures number of RBCscount (RBC)red blood cell examines RBCs for abnormalitiesmorphology in shapesequential multiple machine for doing multiple bloodanalyzer computer chemistry tests automatically(SMAC)
Clinical Laboratory Testswhite blood cell measures number of leukocytescount (WBC)white blood cell determines the number of each typedifferential of WBC(diff)
Lab Technicians Click here to view a video about clinical lab technicians.
Medical Procedures (7) sample of bone marrow removed bybone marrow aspiration and examined for diseasesaspiration such as leukemia and aplastic anemia incision into vein in order to withdrawphlebotomy blood for testing; also called venipuncture
Phlebotomist using a needle to withdraw blood.
Phlebotomy Video Click here to view a video on phlebotomy.
Medical Procedures (5) collection and storage ofautologous patient’s own blood prior totransfusion actual need artificial transfer of blood intoblood transfusion the bloodstream patient receives red bonebone marrow marrow from donor aftertransplant (BMT) patient’s own bone marrow has been destroyed
Medical Procedureshomologous replacement blood with blood fromtransfusion another person removal of whole blood, separation of plasma from formed elements;plasmapheresis formed elements returned to patient with donor plasma transfusion
Blood Pharmacology (5) prevents blood clot warfarin,anticoagulant formation Coumadin Amicar,antihemorrhagic prevents bleeding Vitamin Kantiplatelet interferes with action Plavix, Ticlidagent of platelets increases number of Procrit,hematinic RBCs and hemoglobin Aranesp dissolves existing Activase,thrombolytic clots Streptase