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Plate Boundaries


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Plate Boundaries

  1. 1. Structure of the Earth & Plate Tectonics
  2. 2. The Structure of the Earth Continental Crust Mantle Inner Core Outer Core Oceanic Crust
  3. 3. COMPOSITION OF THE EARTH         TYPE THICKNESS TEMPERATURE MATERIAL   CRUST   5 – 30 km   N/A Rock   minerals MANTLE     1000 C   Iron, magnesium 2900 km & aluminium INNER       CORE 2200 km 4300 C Solid iron OUTER       CORE 1250 km 3700 C Molten iron
  4. 4. Check your learning - TRUE OR FALSE? Copy out the sentences you think are correct. Once you have done this turn the incorrect sentences into true facts by changing the necessary words. 1. The hottest part of the earth is the mantle. 2. The inner core is made of solid iron. 3. The mantle is roughly between 5-30km thick. 4. The crust is the name given to the outermost layer of the earth. 5. Molten rock inside the earth is called lava. 6. There are two different types of crust called oceanic crust and continental crust. 7. The outer core is a gas. 8. The crust of the earth is one solid shell that covers the mantle. 9. The temperature in the inner core is 3000°C
  5. 5. Plate Boundaries The Earth was formed million years ago. The crust has broken into sections called . The layer below the crust is called the . The plates on top of molten rock where convection rise. currents, mantle, 4600, float, plates Extension: 1) Name 2 pieces of evidence that scientists have found to prove the theory of ‘continental drift’. 2) Where in the world do you think earthquakes and volcanoes tend to happen?
  6. 6. P l a t e B o u n d a r This is a map that shows plate boundaries. i A plate boundary (sometimes called a plate margin) is e the place where 2 plates meet. s
  7. 7. This map shows the plates in colour so they are easier to distinguish. Each of the earth’s plates are moving and it is this that creates features such as fold mountains and hazards such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.
  8. 8. Why do the Earth’s plates move?
  9. 9. Plate Boundary volcanoes Direction of plate movement Is there a pattern between the volcanoes and the plate boundaries?
  10. 10. Plate Boundary Diagram Description Example Constructive plate boundaries occur when North American and Constructive two plates move away Eurasian Plate from each other . Destructive plate boundaries occur when an Pacific Plate and the Destructive oceanic plate is forced Eurasian Plate under (or subducts) a continental plate . Conservative plate boundaries occur when North American Plate and Conservative two plates slide past each the Pacific Plate other. Collision plate boundaries occur when two Indo-Australian and the Collision continental plates move Eurasian Plate towards each other.
  11. 11. Destructive Plate Margin Oceanic crust is denser (heavier) than continental crust so the continental crust forces the oceanic crust underneath it. This is a process called subduction. At the subduction zone a deep sea trench is formed where the plate is being forced downwards under the continental plate. When the oceanic crust begins to melt as it goes down into the hot mantle it starts to float back up, because it is made up of lighter material than the mantle. This means that the magma erupts back to the surface creating volcanoes.
  12. 12. Collision Plate Margin When continental plates meet continental plates neither can subduct the other because they both have the same density. The plates are being forced together at great pressure so the rocks crumble together and form massive mountain chains like the Himalayas. The Himalayas are still growing today as the plates continue to be pushed together at about 1 or 2cm a year! The Himalayas are an example of fold mountains, where the rocks are colliding and folding together to form mountains. The Earth’s crust is thickest at this point (70km thick)
  13. 13. Constructive Plate Margin There can never be any gaps on Earth so when tectonic plates pull apart magma from the mantle rises up and solidifies to fill the space. If oceanic crust is pulling apart from oceanic crust then new crust will made. This means that in some places the sea floor is actually growing! This is a process called sea floor spreading. This is happening along the mid- Atlantic ridge between the UK and America too. Small chains of islands are created in some places as new crust is created it builds into a small volcano that sometimes breaks the surface of the water. If continental crust pulls apart from continental crust then the same process occurs. As magma erupts to the surface to fill the gap a volcano is created.
  14. 14. Conservative Plate Margin When plates move along side each other in opposite directions or in the same direction but at different speeds earthquakes are created. The plate margins are made up of rock that is brittle and jagged so it is difficult for the plates to slide past each other. Sometimes the plates get stuck and pressure builds and builds until eventually they suddenly jerk forwards. This sudden movement and release of pressure is the cause of earthquakes at this type of margin. The most famous conservative plate margin is the San Andreas Fault on the western coast of North America.