Managing The Physical Environment 2 1200425132497774 3


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Managing The Physical Environment 2 1200425132497774 3

  1. 1. Tourism in MEDCs Case Study: The Peak District National Park, UK. The effects of the growth of recreation and tourism. National Parks
  2. 2. Why has there been a growth in recreation and tourism? <ul><li>An increase in the length of paid holidays </li></ul><ul><li>Greater wealth – more money to spend on holidays </li></ul><ul><li>An increase in car ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Improved communications </li></ul><ul><li>Increased awareness of different places </li></ul><ul><li>An increasing proportion of retired people </li></ul>
  3. 3. What are National Parks? <ul><li>National parks “Areas of outstanding scenery where human activity is controlled.” </li></ul><ul><li>National parks in England and Wales were set up in 1951 and had the following aims: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote areas of great natural beauty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote the enjoyment of recreational activity </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Where are National Parks? <ul><li>1 Peak District </li></ul><ul><li>2 LakeDistrict </li></ul><ul><li>3 Snowdonia </li></ul><ul><li>4 Dartmoor </li></ul><ul><li>5 Pembrokeshire Coast </li></ul><ul><li>6 North York Moors </li></ul><ul><li>7 Yorkshire Dales </li></ul><ul><li>8 Exmoor </li></ul><ul><li>9 Northumberland </li></ul><ul><li>10 Brecon Beacons </li></ul><ul><li>11 The Broads </li></ul><ul><li>12 New Forest </li></ul><ul><li>13 South Downs </li></ul>Many National Parks are located close to motorways and main cities in England and Wales.
  5. 5. Why do people go to National Parks? <ul><li>Attractive Scenery </li></ul><ul><li>Leisure Facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Historical Interest </li></ul><ul><li>Sporting Activities </li></ul>Honeypot site – places with special appeal that attract large visitor numbers e.g. Lake Windermere (Lake District)
  6. 6. What pressures does tourism create for National Parks? <ul><li>Traffic Congestion </li></ul><ul><li>Overcrowded towns </li></ul><ul><li>Litter/noise </li></ul><ul><li>Building development </li></ul><ul><li>Landuse conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Damage to plants and trees </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution </li></ul>National parks in England and Wales have permanent populations and most of the land is privately owned, which can lead to planning and tourism conflicts.
  7. 7. What is a Honeypot? <ul><li>A tourist honeypot is a place, which attracts large numbers of tourists. They usually contain attractive scenery or historic/culturally significant buildings. These areas are so called because tourists flock to these places like 'bees around honey' </li></ul><ul><li>Examples include: </li></ul><ul><li>Castleton, Peak District </li></ul>
  8. 8. Key features of Peak District; <ul><li>1. First National Park, covers 1404 sq. km </li></ul><ul><li>2. Land is privately owned </li></ul><ul><li>3. Run by National Park Authorities </li></ul><ul><li>4. Most money comes from the Government, some from local authorities </li></ul><ul><li>5. People attracted by large stately homes limestone caves, stalactites & stalagmites, hiking, climbing etc. </li></ul><ul><li>6. First National park in UK – set up </li></ul>
  9. 9. Where is the Peak District? l
  10. 10. Why is the Peak District so popular? Very accessible via road and public transport. Good access from motorways: M62, M1 It is located at the heart of several large conurbanations. Within two hours drive of major populated areas e.g. Leeds, Manchester, Birmingham, Sheffield Half of the population of England live within 60 miles of the Peak Park.
  11. 11. Physical Attractions of the Peak District. Attractive landscape (Mam Tor), geological features e.g. caves and caverns (Blue John, Treak Cliff), Woodland areas. Visitors therefore walk, cave, cycle in area.
  12. 12. Human Attractions of the Peak District. Pubs (the Castle), café’s (Three Roofs), hotels & Youth Hostels, gift shops (Blue John Gift Shop), Historic buildings (Chatsworth, Peveril Castle), local villages (Castleton)
  13. 13. Activities to do in the Peak District. Walking, Cycling, Caving, Climbing, Abseiling, Visiting villages, Sightseeing, Hand gliding, Watersports, Bird Watching
  14. 14. Can you identify the attractions in Castleton from the map extract below?
  15. 15. Advantages of tourism to the Peak District. <ul><li>Human. </li></ul><ul><li>Generates employment, though seasonal. 30% jobs linked to tourism -hotels, B&B’s, restaurants, cafes etc </li></ul><ul><li>People need tourist income – can bring in £137 million per year to Castleton and therefore improve the local economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Employment brings skills in the tourist industry. </li></ul><ul><li>Multiplier effect & positive spin off. </li></ul><ul><li>Additional income for diversifying farmers. </li></ul><ul><li>Entrance fees, for historical and culturally important monuments and buildings, such as Chatsworth house, help maintain them. </li></ul><ul><li>Visitors and those that relocate to the area, help sustain local services and traditions EG; Bus services & well dressing. </li></ul><ul><li>Rural communities within the area are sustained. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Disadvantages of tourism to the Peak District. <ul><li>Human </li></ul><ul><li>Employment is seasonal, low skill and minimum wage. </li></ul><ul><li>Towns dominated by tourist shops, at the expense of local needs, for example Bakewell. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased visitor numbers, increases, wear and tear on buildings and monuments. </li></ul><ul><li>The popularity of the area, has encouraged the development of second homes. </li></ul><ul><li>House prices rise, local young are forced to move elsewhere. </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of Dormitory settlements & decline in community spirit. </li></ul><ul><li>Congestion/parking-thousands of visitors on a single day – same pollution rate as London on a summer day. Up to 100,000 cars a day on summer Sundays, 22 million cars/year </li></ul><ul><li>Tourists taking over (Castleton can have up 30 million visitors per year, compared with 700 residents) </li></ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul><ul><li>Litter, footpath erosion, pollution from cars </li></ul><ul><li>Destruction of dry stone walls. </li></ul><ul><li>Disturbance of animals during mating season. </li></ul><ul><li>Gates left open, causing livestock to escape and graze sensitive areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Dogs scare or attack livestock. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Conflicts in the Peak District National Park <ul><li>Water - reservoirs flood land but are needed for water supply. </li></ul><ul><li>Forestry - looks out of place but need the pulp & paper. </li></ul><ul><li>Quarries - limestone needed for road building etc. Dust & noise from blasting, </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy traffic on narrow roads. </li></ul><ul><li>Tourists on farm land – leave open gates etc. </li></ul>
  18. 18. SUSTAINABLE TOURISM IN THE PEAK DISTRICT <ul><li>DEFINITION </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism which allows today’s visitors to enjoy an area without affecting the ability of future visitors to do the same. </li></ul><ul><li>Design new developments to fit in with old & environment, screen unsightly buildings & facilities – Tourist Info in Castleton </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage visitors for more of the year – Peak Cavern has a carol service. </li></ul><ul><li>Educate the public to respect the countryside & those who live & work there - country code. </li></ul><ul><li>Road signs to direct traffic to least congested routes, one-way systems, park & ride, encourage use of public transport, mini-buses, limit car parking, cycling, walking. E.G. Goyt valley scheme. </li></ul><ul><li>Admission & parking charges, double yellow lines to reduce traffic congestion - Castleton </li></ul><ul><li>Plan new footpaths, signposts, artificial surfaces, fence areas off – Mam Tor </li></ul><ul><li>Litter bins, recycling </li></ul>