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Inequality in the peak district & intro to field & case study


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Inequality in the peak district & intro to field & case study

  1. 1. Picture a ‘typical’ rural scene On your paper draw what you think is a typical rural scene. Once drawn add some labels to show the main features.
  2. 3. Definitions? <ul><li>Rural areas (also referred to as &quot;the country&quot;, countryside) are sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities. Such areas are distinct from more intensively settled urban and suburban areas, and also from unsettled lands such as outback, American Old West or wilderness. ... /wiki/Rural </li></ul><ul><li>2004 office for National Statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Urban = settlements of over 10000 people </li></ul><ul><li>Below 10000 people is rural. </li></ul><ul><li>Rural is split into 3 types of area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small town & fringe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Villages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dispersed </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>For the three contrasting pictures, identify the characteristics that make them ‘rural’. </li></ul>
  4. 5. The Rural Definition for Census Output Areas DEFRA Where are rural areas in England? <ul><li>9.5 million (19.3%) in England live in rural areas. </li></ul><ul><li>39.6 million (80.7%) in England live in urban areas. </li></ul><ul><li>80000 people per year migrate into rural areas – this increases the population but distorts the population structure – more old and less young adult in rural areas. </li></ul><ul><li>20% of the Yorkshire & Humberside’s population live in a rural area and 86% of the region is classified as ‘rural’ </li></ul><ul><li>2001 Census </li></ul>
  5. 7. How do you distinguish between urban & rural areas? <ul><li>The rural-urban continuum </li></ul>
  6. 8. Rural-urban continuum : <ul><li>This is the belief that between the truly rural and the truly urban are many shades of ‘grey’. </li></ul><ul><li>If we look along the scale from the single isolated farm all the way to the large city, we do not find any clear boundaries between hamlets, villages, towns and cities. </li></ul><ul><li>This change is seen as a continuum </li></ul>
  7. 9. Mapping patterns of deprivation in rural areas. <ul><li>Most deprived areas are those further away from urban areas. EG Cornwall, Devon, Norfolk, Lincolnshire, Cambridgeshire. </li></ul><ul><li>People living closer to urban areas have higher incomes and are less deprived mainly due to counter-urbanisation and commuter towns. </li></ul><ul><li>Rural haves tend to live near transport routes and ‘have nots’ further away from transport routes. </li></ul>
  8. 10. Clokes index of Rurality <ul><li>To help measure relative rurality and urbanity Cloke developed and index. </li></ul>
  9. 11. Cloke’s index of rurality <ul><li>Occupational structure </li></ul><ul><li>Pop density </li></ul><ul><li>Household amenities </li></ul><ul><li>% of pop 15-45 </li></ul><ul><li>Distance from nearest urban centre of 50,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Occupancy rate (% of pop at 1.5 per room) </li></ul><ul><li>% of pop resident <5yrs </li></ul><ul><li>% of people working outside settlement </li></ul><ul><li>% change in pop </li></ul><ul><li>Pop >65 </li></ul>
  10. 12. Barriers to equality in rural areas Out-migration of young people for better opportunities. Reduced access to employment opportunities – cost of accessing labour market due to increased transport costs. Low pay – small workplaces that dominate rural economies can trap people in low paid work. Traditionally policy makers have given a low priority to exclusion & deprivation in rural areas. Varying provision of education & child care - also a lack of choice. Seasonality of employment & problems of tied housing. Declining employment opportunities Lack of access to affordable/appropriate housing – the dumb-bell market & growth of dormitory towns. The rural ‘idyll’ Social exclusion refers to the exclusion of a minority of people from the opportunities and quality of life enjoyed by others.
  11. 13. Why is rural inequality harder to notice? <ul><li>Communities are remote </li></ul><ul><li>Many households keep poverty secret – don’t want to let affluent counter-urbanisers know. </li></ul><ul><li>People tolerate material deprivation due to the percieved benefits of a rural liifestyle. </li></ul><ul><li>Newcomers and outsiders to rural areas ‘don’t see’ poverty as it doesn’t fit into the rural idyll! </li></ul>
  12. 14. 3 main problems in rural areas <ul><li>Household or Resource Deprivation – income, housing and inability to maintain a reasonable standard of living. </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity Deprivation – lack of jobs & services – you have to travel further for basic services. </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility Deprivation – Concerns transport costs due to lack of transport leading to inability to access jobs, services & facilities. </li></ul>Rural deprivation is like a vicious circle with three main contributory factors potentially leading to what Shaw 1979) called a ‘self-sustaining spiral of rural disadvantage’.
  13. 16. How does inequality affect people in rural areas <ul><li>Isolation </li></ul><ul><li>Poor quality housing </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of services </li></ul><ul><li>Poorer health - depression </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimately the effects differ depending on the nature of the rural area. </li></ul><ul><li>An Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty </li></ul><ul><li>A Commuter Area </li></ul><ul><li>A Costal Area </li></ul>
  14. 18. Are the effects of rural inequality the same in every rural area?
  15. 19. Ultimately the effects differ depending on the nature of the rural area. <ul><li>For example the effects/barriers would differ between; </li></ul><ul><li>An Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty </li></ul><ul><li>A Commuter Area </li></ul><ul><li>A Costal Area </li></ul>
  16. 20. What fieldwork could you carry out to investigate inequality in rural areas? <ul><li>Villages closer to major urban areas are less deprived than villagers further away. </li></ul><ul><li>Villages closer to a main road will be less deprived than villages that are isolated. </li></ul><ul><li>Villages within commuter zones will be less deprived. </li></ul>
  17. 21. Learning Objectives <ul><li>To understand how the effects of rural inequality differ in different areas. </li></ul><ul><li>To investigate the pattern of rural inequality in the Peak District. </li></ul><ul><li>To investigate some measures taken to address the issues of inequality in urban areas. </li></ul>
  18. 28. Figure 1: Ranking on the IMD 2004 of the Peak District and its Constituent Authorities 334 25799 28 Barnsley 37 29330 43 Oldham 82 32223 60 Sheffield 274 29350 77 Kirklees 3099 31292 151 NE Derbyshire 3206 28671 182 Staffordshire Moorlands 2879 32008 211 High Peak 6382 30609 252 Derbyshire Dales 3973 32455 276 Macclesfield 8357 29662 254 Peak District (All SOA's) 17755 29662 239 Peak District (Whole SOA's) Lowest SOA Rank (out of 32,482) Highest SOA Rank (out of 32,482) IMD Rank (out of 354) Authority
  19. 30. <ul><li>SUMMARY </li></ul><ul><li>The Peak District has far less poverty than the surrounding urban areas (Sheffield, Manchester, Nottingham, Derby and Stoke.) </li></ul><ul><li>Inequality is highly geared in specific Peak District villages. </li></ul><ul><li>Wealth is most strongly concentrated in the villages closest to the main urban areas ; ie Hathersage as a commuter village for Sheffield </li></ul><ul><li>It is in the category ‘barriers to housing’ that the Peak District demonstrates ‘deprivation’. </li></ul><ul><li>A key issue is the growing gap between many rural jobs in farming, hospitality and tourism and the price of housing inflated by incoming professionals who either work in neighbouring cities or telecommute. </li></ul><ul><li>Much of the available social housing has been lost due to ‘right to buy’ legislation from 1981 onwards. </li></ul><ul><li>New housing should have an affordability element </li></ul><ul><li>Building new housing is problematic because of planning legislation as a result of being in a national park. </li></ul><ul><li>The Peak District Rural Deprivation Forum has been set up to address these issues and to come up with possible solutions. </li></ul><ul><li>These solutions include compulsory purchase and developing low cost land </li></ul>
  21. 32. HYPOTHESES <ul><li>1) The closer a settlement is to a main road the less deprived it is. </li></ul><ul><li>2) The closer a settlement is to a main urban area the less deprived it is. </li></ul>
  22. 33. Each group will research a village on the internet. You must gather information on the number of services/facilities in your village and make notes on the questions above. EYAM HATHERSAGE LONGNOR What evidence is there of services in the village? What is the evidence of neglect, dereliction, inequality and deprivation? What is the evidence of players and their role within the village environments? What is the evidence of management strategies aimed at reducing inequality?
  23. 34. Photo Trail – A virtual fieldtrip <ul><li>Identifying evidence of neglect, dereliction, inequality and deprivation. </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying evidence of players and their role within the village environments. </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying evidence of management strategies aimed at reducing inequality. </li></ul>
  24. 35. An Example for Eyam <ul><li>Remember your research needs to be much more detailed & thorough. </li></ul>
  25. 37. Village location Eyam Sheffield Peak District National Park boundary
  26. 38. Eyam lies 14 miles south-west of Sheffield in the heart of the Peak District National Park. It is not a wholly typical village as much of its development is linked to quarrying and industry rather than agriculture
  27. 39. Background Information - Eyam <ul><li>The beautiful, historic village of Eyam, (pronounced 'eem',) in the Derbyshire Peak National Park in England, became famous during the Black Death of 1665. An outbreak of the plague was contained when the villagers decided to isolate from the surrounding communities. It is also known that some of the village population were genetically unique and naturally immune to this very deadly disease. There are still descendants of this line in Eyam. </li></ul><ul><li>Village life in Britain has changed considerably in the past fifty years, and many villages have emptied as people moved away to the towns. Eyam however still has a vibrant community and thriving businesses. Eyam has links with industry, being a worldwide centre for the production of fluorspar, a material of great value in smelting and open hearth furnaces. </li></ul><ul><li>(Source: </li></ul>
  28. 40. All data and maps 2001 Census from: http:// / Eyam & Stoney Middleton Population 1576 Households 697 Owner occupied 78% Households no car/van 15% Unemployed 2.7% Retired 18%
  29. 43. ca
  30. 49. Total population of Hathersage and Eyam ward 3,677 ( of which about 750 live in the village of Eyam NB: figures in brackets are the national %. All data is from 2001 census Under 16 17.4% - 130 in Eyam (20.2%) Over 60 28.4% - 213 in Eyam (20%) White 99.2% (90.9%) Unemployed 1.7% (3.4%) Retired 19.1% (13.6%) With a university degree 34.6% (24.1%) Single parent households 2.4% (6.5%) HOUSING Owner occupier 76.7% (68.9%) Rented from local authority 11.6% (13.2%) No access to car 15.4% (26.8%) Own 2 or more cars 45.9% (29.4%0 Crime rate per 1000 people per year (figures for Derbyshire Dales) Theft of car 2.1 (6.4%) Violence against person 6.1 (11.4%) Burglary 2.0 (7.6%)
  31. 50. Charming three storey three bedroomed stone built end of terrace cottage with gas central heating, double glazing and rear terrace with out buildings. Accommodation includes inner lobby, kitchen, at first floor spacious landing, two bedrooms, bathroom & attic bedroom three. £155,000
  32. 51. Charming Stone Built Character Cottage located on the fringe of the sought after Peak District village of Eyam. The property briefly comprises: *Sitting Room *Dining Kitchen *Three Bedrooms *Upstairs W.C and Wash Hand Basin *Downstairs Bathroom *Walled Patio Garden. Situated in the heart of the Peak District National Park and surrounded by glorious countryside, the property stands in the historic village of Eyam. The village has a good selection of local amenities and historical interest of Eyam Hall; post office, general store, pubs, cafés etc. Eyam is within easy commuting distance of Sheffield, Chesterfield, Bakewell and Buxton. £239,000 (1.9.08)
  33. 56. Property type: 5-bedroom House, Detached for sale Number of bedrooms: 5 * A select development of individual properties which occupy an enviable location * Gas central heating and double glazing * Stunning dining kitchen with a full complement of appliances * Stunning views to the rear * Centrally situated in this historic village * Excellent local amenities and public transport, excellent school catchment £467,000
  34. 57. Tackling Inequality in the Peak District <ul><li>Scheme 1 – The Peak District Rural Deprivation Forum </li></ul><ul><li>Scheme 2 – LRM/Glebe Mine Development Project </li></ul>
  35. 58. WHO ARE WE? The Peak District Rural Deprivation Forum is a network of people living or working in the area wishing to address problems of overt and hidden deprivation in the Peak District. PDRDF brings together residents, voluntary groups and the statutory sector to work in partnership to enable Peak District inhabitants to take action for their own communities. PDRDF welcomes new members. We value the range of knowledge; skills and experience individual members bring and welcome their participation. We offer a variety of opportunities for different levels of involvement. By operating mainly through a system of working groups, the Forum aims to ensure representation from all sectors of the community and to promote informed debate. WHAT ARE OUR AIMS? To improve the quality of life for those in the Peak District who are disadvantaged by deprivation. To address the causes and symptoms of deprivation.
  36. 62. LRM/Glebe Mine Development Project <ul><li>Partnership between </li></ul><ul><li>LRM </li></ul><ul><li>Eyam Parish Council </li></ul><ul><li>Eyam Sports Association </li></ul><ul><li>Owners of Eyam Hall </li></ul><ul><li>Derbyshire Dales District Council </li></ul>
  37. 63. Aims of the Project <ul><li>Provision of a new car park – 84 space, 4 disabled space on old football pitch. </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of local needs affordable housing – based on 2000 Housing Needs Survey the provision of 10 low cost affordable housing units especially for young people for rent or shared ownership with a local housing association. </li></ul><ul><li>Provision of 17 open market houses. </li></ul><ul><li>Improved sports facilities </li></ul><ul><li>New Children’s playground </li></ul>
  38. 64. Using fieldwork techniques to assess how successful the scheme has been! To assess relative success BASELINE data will be needed to investigate change or success