Alternative Energy 1


Published on

Published in: Business, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Answers appear on click
  • The Department of Trade and Industry has a website dedicated to renewable energy where the latest facts and figures can be found about wind and many other types of renewable energy: for both staff and student research.
  • A short video clip about the Three Gorges Dam project can be found at: Also news stories and some good photos of the dam can be found at:
  • Alternative Energy 1

    1. 1. RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES CASE STUDIES: Wind Power – North Hoyle, Wales HEP – Three Gorges Dam, China
    2. 2. HOW MUCH DO YOU KNOW ABOUT NON-RENEWABLES? TRUE OR FALSE • Coal is estimated to run out by 2200. • App 99% of energy in the UK in 2003 came from non-renewable energy sources. • The Kyoto Protocol was an agreement to reduce use of CFCs. • All countries have signed the Kyoto Protocol. • It was part of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). • The agreement came into force on Feb 16th 2003. • Methane is a type of greenhouse gas. • Some countries such as China & India do not have to reduce emissions under the Kyoto Agreement. • The EU produces about 22% of global greenhouse emissions. • The EU can issue fines to countries within the EU who do not meet their obligations. • In the UK a bill has been presented to state that the UK will reduce
    3. 3. Renewable energy sources These will not run out because they can be regenerated. Examples are wind power, solar power, tidal power and biomass. Charcoal - a fuel produced from wood (biomass) Only 1% of the UK’s energy comes from these sources. Can you think of a reason why?
    4. 4. What are the main types of renewable energy? • Solar • Wind • Wave • Tidal • Hydro-electric • Geothermal
    5. 5. TEST YOURSELF - MATCH THE STATEMENT WITH THE ENERGY SOURCE located on the coast with a chamber Wave facing the prevailing wind often located in exposed areas such as mirrors concentrate the sun’s rays onto Solar mountainous regions water-filled black pipes water stored in damsthereleased onto mirrors concentrate is sun’s rays HEP water-filled black pipes through turbines to generate electricity heat produced by rocks under the Tidal powered by a man-made barrage, usually Earth’s surface found across an estuary often located man-made barrage, usually powered by a in exposed areas such as Wind found across an estuary mountainous regions Geothermal heat produced by rocks released water stored in dams is under the Earth’s surface to generate electricity through turbines
    6. 6. Wind energy I n s i d e a wi n d t u r b i n Wind energy is created from wind turbines. e Blades on the turbine turn as the wind blows and this is connected to a generator inside the turbine. Several turbine together are called a wind farm.
    7. 7. Wind energy - the disadvantages In theory, the UK could generate all its electricity from wind farms covering approximately 1% of the land. But the problems are wind turbine design and cost. Rotor blades can be damaged in strong and turbulent winds. It takes 30 wind farms to generate the same amount of electricity as one coal-fired power station. The setting up costs for wind farms are therefore more expensive than for traditional, fossil fuel power stations. Some people also consider the wind farms as visually unattractive and noisy. What are the advantages of wind energy?
    8. 8. Advantages of wind energy Wind farms create Wind fuel is free. jobs in rural areas. Wind farms can be constructed in a few months (thermal power stations take between 6-10 years to complete). cooling towers Wind power can be developed on a small scale.
    9. 9. Important location factors for wind farms Wind turbines need to be in areas with regularly high wind speeds. This means that exposed coasts or upland areas are best. There are 93 sites in the UK at present. Wind power will provide 1.3% of the UK’s electricity supply by the end of 2005 (UK Energy in Brief, July 2003). © Ed Linton / DOE - NREL Wind farms are now also built offshore. Two are already operating and there are plans for thirteen more.
    10. 10. Where should the new wind turbines be located? wind direction town 3 1 2 It has been decided to locate new wind turbines in this area. Choose from the three sites indicated and justify your answer.
    11. 11. Case Study: North Hoyle Offshore Wind Farm When did the construction of North Built in 2003 Hoyle offshore wind- farm begin? The project is located 4-5 miles off the North Wales coast between Rhyl and Prestatyn. It covers an area of Describe the location of approximately 10km2. North Hoyle offshore Why? wind-farm. It offers an ideal combination of relatively shallow waters, good strong winds and proximity to the national electricity network. How many turbines are at North Hoyle offshore 30 turbines each rated at 2 megawatts wind-farm?
    12. 12. What are the advantages of North Hoyle for the location of a wind farm?
    13. 13. WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF THE NORTH HOYLE OFFSHORE WIND-FARM? 1. COMMUNITY npower renewables has set up the North Hoyle Offshore Wind Farm Community Fund in partnership with Denbighshire County Council and the Area Partnerships for Rhyl and Prestatyn & Meliden. The Community Fund, set up as part of the North Hoyle project, is ploughing £60,000 into the communities of Rhyl and Prestatyn & Meliden every year for the 20 year life of the wind farm. Will provide power for 200,000,000 kWh (units) enough for app 40000 homes. 2. ENVIRONMENT Does not produce harmful pollutants or damaging gas emissions that contribute to climate change. Approx. 160000 less tonnes of CO2 in atmosphere. It is sustainable energy. 3. EDUCATION Work with 20 local schools to raise profile of alternative energy sources and problems of climate change. Have a classroom on site for local schools to visit. 4. JOBS For example, 10 full-time positions in operations and maintenance at the North Hoyle Offshore Wind Farm project have been filled by people living locally to the project. In addition, there is evidence to suggest that the wind farm has had a positive impact on tourism in the area.
    14. 14. WHAT ARE THE DISADVANTAGES OF THE NORTH HOYLE OFFSHORE WIND-FARM? 1. Damage to the seabed and therefore some marine habitats. 2. Noise disturbance for local wildlife & danger of birds flying into rotor blades. 3. Expensive to build 4. Could disrupt shipping routes. 5. Easily damaged in storms
    15. 15. Hydroelectric power Hydroelectric electricity is the most popular type of renewable energy. Hydroelectric energy is produced from fast flowing water, such as at a waterfall or by an artificial dam.
    16. 16. Hydroelectric power - impact of building dams silt is trapped behind the dam and is not may decrease transported flooding downstream where it downstream is needed for farmers and fishermen dams control the flow of water the water behind the dam is stagnant and algae builds up tourists may be attracted to building dams floods the area large areas These are some of the advantages and disadvantages of building a dam. Explain one advantage and one disadvantage in more detail.
    17. 17. Three Gorges Dam project in China The Three Gorges Dam project is the largest undertaking by the Chinese since they built the Great Wall. When it is finally completed in 2009 it will be the largest hydroelectric scheme in the world, generating thousands of megawatts of electricity to meet the demands of China’s growth. It will create a reservoir that will span 410 miles and make the Yangtze the longest navigable river in the world.
    18. 18. Impacts of the Three Gorges Dam Advantages Disadvantages Will help prevent loss of life 2.3 million people have been forced out to build downstream as it will control the dam/lake. flooding. 13 cities, 140 large villages and hundreds of small villages have been flooded to create the lake. The stagnant water could lead to an increase in diseases. 1300 archaeological sites will be lost. Once finished it will provide reliable 3000 farmers have lost their land to the lake. & cheap energy source that could Building costs are nearly $30 billion. provide 10% of China’s energy needs. Historical & archaeological sites lost could mean There is improved industry in the less tourists. area as large cargo ships can now go 1500 miles inland. It provides jobs for the people building the dam and afterwards. It will reduce China’s reliance on coal Threatens rare species like the Baiji river fired power stations so there will be dolphin. less harmful emissions. There could be problems of silt building up in the lake. Human and industrial waste could pollute the lake waters.
    19. 19. Solar energy Photovoltaic cells are made of the abundant element silicon. Photovoltaic cells have low maintenance costs. Photovoltaic cells are silent. Solar panels Why isn’t solar energy popular in the UK?
    20. 20. Tidal energy Energy is generated by the tidal rise and fall. The tides come in and pass through holes in a dam wall. The water is then trapped in a river estuary. Then the tide ebbs and passes back through the barrage, driving the turbines and producing electricity. Tidal energy is generated at La Rance in western France. A suitable site in Britain would be the River Severn. This barrage would cost between £3 billion and £9 billion and be able to generate between 5% and 10% of Britain’s total electricity demand.
    21. 21. Wave energy The island of Islay, off the west coast of Scotland has had a Limpet (land-installed marine-powered energy transformer) constructed, which should provide a reliable electricity supply for the 3,400 residents. A 25-metre notch has been cut into Islay’s south west facing cliffs at Portnahaven into which a wave chamber has been inserted. The waves rise and fall in this wave chamber compressing the air and so driving the turbines which power the generators. turbo generator Why has the wave chamber been placed on the south west of the island? high tide low tide incoming waves
    22. 22. Geothermal energy Geothermal energy is obtained from heated rocks and molten magma under the Earth’s surface. geothermal plant Hot water Cold Water fractured rock