The Department of Trade and Industry has a website dedicated to renewable energy where the latest facts and figures can be found about wind and many other types of renewable energy: http://www.dti.gov.uk/renewables/index.htmUseful for both staff and student research.
A short video clip about the Three Gorges Dam project can be found at: http://school.discovery.com/lessonplans/programs/threegorges/q.html. Also news stories and some good photos of the dam can be found at: http://www2.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2005-06/01/content_439788.htm.
Alternative Energy 1
Wind Power – North Hoyle,
HEP – Three Gorges Dam, China
HOW MUCH DO YOU KNOW ABOUT NON-RENEWABLES? TRUE OR FALSE
• Coal is estimated to run out by 2200.
• App 99% of energy in the UK in 2003 came from non-renewable energy
• The Kyoto Protocol was an agreement to reduce use of CFCs.
• All countries have signed the Kyoto Protocol.
• It was part of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
• The agreement came into force on Feb 16th 2003.
• Methane is a type of greenhouse gas.
• Some countries such as China & India do not have to reduce emissions
under the Kyoto Agreement.
• The EU produces about 22% of global greenhouse emissions.
• The EU can issue fines to countries within the EU who do not meet
• In the UK a bill has been presented to state that the UK will reduce
These will not run out because they can be regenerated.
Examples are wind power, solar power, tidal power and
Charcoal - a fuel produced
from wood (biomass)
Only 1% of the UK’s energy comes from these sources.
Can you think of a reason why?
What are the main types of
TEST YOURSELF - MATCH THE STATEMENT WITH THE
located on the coast with a chamber
Wave facing the prevailing wind
often located in exposed areas such as
mirrors concentrate the sun’s rays onto
Solar mountainous regions
water-filled black pipes
water stored in damsthereleased onto
mirrors concentrate is sun’s rays
HEP water-filled black pipes
through turbines to generate electricity
heat produced by rocks under the
Tidal powered by a man-made barrage, usually
found across an estuary
often located man-made barrage, usually
powered by a in exposed areas such as
Wind found across an estuary
Geothermal heat produced by rocks released
water stored in dams is under the
Earth’s surface to generate electricity
I n s i d e
a wi n d
t u r b i n
Wind energy is created from wind turbines. e
Blades on the turbine turn as the wind blows
and this is connected to a generator inside
Several turbine together are called a wind
Wind energy - the disadvantages
In theory, the UK could generate all its electricity from
wind farms covering approximately 1% of the land.
But the problems are wind turbine design and cost.
Rotor blades can be damaged in strong and turbulent winds.
It takes 30 wind farms to generate the same amount of
electricity as one coal-fired power station. The setting up
costs for wind farms are therefore more expensive than for
traditional, fossil fuel power stations.
Some people also consider the wind
farms as visually unattractive and noisy.
What are the advantages of wind energy?
Advantages of wind energy
Wind farms create Wind fuel is free.
jobs in rural areas.
Wind farms can be constructed in a few
months (thermal power stations take
between 6-10 years to complete).
Wind power can be
developed on a small scale.
Where should the new wind turbines be located?
It has been decided to locate new wind turbines in this area.
Choose from the three sites indicated and justify your answer.
North Hoyle Offshore Wind
When did the
construction of North
Built in 2003
Hoyle offshore wind-
The project is located 4-5 miles off the North Wales
coast between Rhyl and Prestatyn. It covers an area of
Describe the location of approximately 10km2.
North Hoyle offshore Why?
wind-farm. It offers an ideal combination of relatively shallow
waters, good strong winds and proximity to the national
How many turbines are at
North Hoyle offshore 30 turbines each rated at 2 megawatts
What are the advantages of North Hoyle
for the location of a wind farm?
WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF THE NORTH HOYLE OFFSHORE
npower renewables has set up the North Hoyle Offshore Wind Farm Community
Fund in partnership with Denbighshire County Council and the Area Partnerships
for Rhyl and Prestatyn & Meliden. The Community Fund, set up as part of the North
Hoyle project, is ploughing £60,000 into the communities of Rhyl and Prestatyn &
Meliden every year for the 20 year life of the wind farm.
Will provide power for 200,000,000 kWh (units) enough for app 40000 homes.
Does not produce harmful pollutants or damaging gas emissions that contribute to
climate change. Approx. 160000 less tonnes of CO2 in atmosphere.
It is sustainable energy.
Work with 20 local schools to raise profile of alternative energy sources and
problems of climate change. Have a classroom on site for local schools to visit.
For example, 10 full-time positions in operations and maintenance at the North
Hoyle Offshore Wind Farm project have been filled by people living locally to the
project. In addition, there is evidence to suggest that the wind farm has had a
positive impact on tourism in the area.
WHAT ARE THE DISADVANTAGES OF THE NORTH
HOYLE OFFSHORE WIND-FARM?
1. Damage to the seabed and therefore some marine
2. Noise disturbance for local wildlife & danger of birds
flying into rotor blades.
3. Expensive to build
4. Could disrupt shipping routes.
5. Easily damaged in storms
Hydroelectric electricity is the most popular type of renewable
Hydroelectric energy is produced from fast flowing water, such as
at a waterfall or by an artificial dam.
Hydroelectric power - impact of building dams
silt is trapped behind
the dam and is not
may decrease transported
flooding downstream where it
downstream is needed for farmers
dams control the
flow of water the water behind the dam is
stagnant and algae builds up
be attracted to building dams floods
the area large areas
These are some of the advantages and disadvantages of
building a dam. Explain one advantage and one
disadvantage in more detail.
Three Gorges Dam project in China
The Three Gorges
Dam project is the
by the Chinese since
they built the Great
When it is finally
completed in 2009 it
will be the largest
scheme in the world, generating thousands of megawatts of
electricity to meet the demands of China’s growth. It will create a
reservoir that will span 410 miles and make the Yangtze the
longest navigable river in the world.
Impacts of the Three Gorges Dam
Will help prevent loss of life 2.3 million people have been forced out to build
downstream as it will control the dam/lake.
flooding. 13 cities, 140 large villages and hundreds of small
villages have been flooded to create the lake.
The stagnant water could lead to an increase in
1300 archaeological sites will be lost.
Once finished it will provide reliable 3000 farmers have lost their land to the lake.
& cheap energy source that could Building costs are nearly $30 billion.
provide 10% of China’s energy needs. Historical & archaeological sites lost could mean
There is improved industry in the less tourists.
area as large cargo ships can now go
1500 miles inland.
It provides jobs for the people
building the dam and afterwards.
It will reduce China’s reliance on coal Threatens rare species like the Baiji river
fired power stations so there will be dolphin.
less harmful emissions. There could be problems of silt building up in the
Human and industrial waste could pollute the lake
Photovoltaic cells are made
of the abundant element
Photovoltaic cells have
low maintenance costs.
Photovoltaic cells are silent.
Why isn’t solar energy popular in the UK?
Energy is generated by the tidal rise and fall. The tides
come in and pass through holes in a dam wall. The water
is then trapped in a river estuary. Then the tide ebbs and
passes back through the barrage, driving the turbines and
Tidal energy is generated at La Rance in western France.
A suitable site in Britain would be the River Severn. This
barrage would cost between £3 billion and £9 billion and
be able to generate between 5% and 10% of Britain’s
total electricity demand.
The island of Islay, off the west coast of Scotland has had
a Limpet (land-installed marine-powered energy
transformer) constructed, which should provide a reliable
electricity supply for the 3,400 residents. A 25-metre
notch has been cut into Islay’s south west facing cliffs at
Portnahaven into which a wave chamber has been
inserted. The waves rise and fall in this wave chamber
compressing the air and so driving the turbines which
power the generators.
Why has the wave chamber been placed
on the south west of the island?
low tide incoming waves
Geothermal energy is obtained from heated rocks and
molten magma under the Earth’s surface.
Hot water Cold Water