Business Law Chapter 9 Section 1-2 Mr. Whisel
Section 9.1 Goals <ul><li>Define consideration </li></ul><ul><li>Determine when there is no consideration </li></ul><ul><l...
HOT DEBATE <ul><li>For a college graduation present, a wealthy aunt promised to give Maureen two round-trip tickets for a ...
What’s Your Verdict? <ul><li>Your Neighbors are going skiing in the Canadian Rockies near Calgary, Alberta. Their vacation...
Consideration <ul><li>Main purpose of consideration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distinguish between social promise and more seri...
Consideration <ul><li>Donor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Person giving the gift </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Donee </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
Act, Forbearance, or Promise <ul><li>Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Something you do for the promise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For...
Trading <ul><li>Promisor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Person promising an action or forbearance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Promisee <...
Legal Value <ul><li>Legal Value </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There has been a change in the party’s legal position as a result of...
More Consideration <ul><li>Nominal Consideration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Token amount known when either or both parties do n...
Section 9.1 Goals <ul><li>Define consideration </li></ul><ul><li>Determine when there is no consideration </li></ul><ul><l...
End of Section 9.1 Questions <ul><li>Think About Legal Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Think Critically About Evidence </li></ul>
Section 9.2 Goals <ul><li>Identify when there is legal value. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine when there is a bargained for ex...
What’s Your Verdict? <ul><li>Lemsky employed Vork under a three-year contract. The contract called for Vork to manage a mo...
Legal Value <ul><li>Changing the legal position of the party as a result of the contract </li></ul><ul><li>Illusory Promis...
Promises <ul><li>Termination Clauses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power to withdraw from a contract if business circumstances cha...
Promises <ul><li>Implied Duty or Fair Dealings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Means that the clause cannot be exercised arbitrarily...
Existing Duties <ul><li>Existing Public Duty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Making a promise not to drink until your 21 for $10,000...
Existing Duties <ul><li>Settlement of Liquidated Debts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One where the parties agree that the debt exi...
What’s Your Verdict? <ul><li>Francis, a pedestrian, saw a car pulled over by the side of the road with a  flat tire. He ca...
Bargained-For Exchange <ul><li>Mutual Gifts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A consideration must be traded one for the other, otherw...
Section 9.2 Goals <ul><li>Identify when there is legal value. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine when there is a bargained for ex...
End of Section 9.2 Questions <ul><li>Think About Legal Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Think Critically About Evidence </li></ul>
Section 9.3 Goals <ul><li>Identify when promissory estoppel applies </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss situations in which consider...
What’s Your Verdict? <ul><li>Silverstone, a wealthy financier, strongly believes that world travel is essential for a bala...
Promissory Estoppel <ul><li>When someone intends a gift but consideration is not present, a promise may be enforced under ...
What’s Your Verdict? <ul><li>Branyan pledged $25,000 to the building fund of a community hospital. Relying on this the oth...
Exceptions to Consideration <ul><li>Promises to Charitable Organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Courts will enforce </li></...
Section 9.3 Goals <ul><li>Identify when promissory estoppel applies </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss situations in which consider...
End of Section 9.3 Questions <ul><li>Think About Legal Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Think Critically About Evidence </li></u...
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Chapter 9 section1-3

  1. 1. Business Law Chapter 9 Section 1-2 Mr. Whisel
  2. 2. Section 9.1 Goals <ul><li>Define consideration </li></ul><ul><li>Determine when there is no consideration </li></ul><ul><li>Standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading and Writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.1.11 CDEFG, 1.2.11 AB, 1.3.11 C, 1.4.11 BCD, 1.5.11 ACE, 1.6.11 ACDF, 1.7.11 AC, 1.8.11 ABC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civics and Government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5.1.12 ABCDEFHIJM, 5.2.12 ABCDEFG, 5.3.12 AB </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. HOT DEBATE <ul><li>For a college graduation present, a wealthy aunt promised to give Maureen two round-trip tickets for a cruise for her and a friend. The promised trip was to be along the “Mexican Riviera” from Long Beach, California, to Acapulco, Mexico. At the graduation exercises however, her aunt gave a kiss instead and said, “The stock market is down, Sorry, darling!” </li></ul><ul><li>Where do you stand? </li></ul>
  4. 4. What’s Your Verdict? <ul><li>Your Neighbors are going skiing in the Canadian Rockies near Calgary, Alberta. Their vacation will last 10 days. They unilaterally offer to pay you $30 on their return if you pick up their mail each day they are gone. You accept by picking up their mail every day. </li></ul><ul><li>Is there consideration for both parties? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the contract enforceable? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Consideration <ul><li>Main purpose of consideration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distinguish between social promise and more serious transactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchanging one thing for another </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gift </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the transfer of ownership without receiving anything in return </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promise to give a gift is usually never enforceable </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Consideration <ul><li>Donor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Person giving the gift </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Donee </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Person receiving the gift </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Three Requirements of Consideration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each party must give an act, forbearance, or promise to the other party </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each party must trade what they contribute to the transaction for the other party’s contribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What each party trades must have legal value, that is, it must be worth something in the eyes of the law. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Act, Forbearance, or Promise <ul><li>Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Something you do for the promise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forbearance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Something that you are told not to do </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trading </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What’s your verdict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pick up the mail for $30 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Trading <ul><li>Promisor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Person promising an action or forbearance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Promisee </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Person to whom the promise is made </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consideration must be mutual when trading occurs </li></ul>
  9. 9. Legal Value <ul><li>Legal Value </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There has been a change in the party’s legal position as a result of the contract. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Picking up the mail benefited the neighbor because he didn’t have to have his mail stopped. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You gained $30 for providing this act </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Adequacy of Consideration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need not be of equal economic value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As long as there is a genuine agreement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic value could lead to a mutual mistake, duress, fraud, or undue influence </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. More Consideration <ul><li>Nominal Consideration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Token amount known when either or both parties do not want to publicize the exchange of something </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Section 9.1 Goals <ul><li>Define consideration </li></ul><ul><li>Determine when there is no consideration </li></ul><ul><li>Standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading and Writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.1.11 CDEFG, 1.2.11 AB, 1.3.11 C, 1.4.11 BCD, 1.5.11 ACE, 1.6.11 ACDF, 1.7.11 AC, 1.8.11 ABC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civics and Government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5.1.12 ABCDEFHIJM, 5.2.12 ABCDEFG, 5.3.12 AB </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. End of Section 9.1 Questions <ul><li>Think About Legal Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Think Critically About Evidence </li></ul>
  13. 13. Section 9.2 Goals <ul><li>Identify when there is legal value. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine when there is a bargained for exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading and Writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.1.11 CDEFG, 1.2.11 AB, 1.3.11 C, 1.4.11 BCD, 1.5.11 ACE, 1.6.11 ACDF, 1.7.11 AC, 1.8.11 ABC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civics and Government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5.1.12 ABCDEFHIJM, 5.2.12 ABCDEFG, 5.3.12 AB </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. What’s Your Verdict? <ul><li>Lemsky employed Vork under a three-year contract. The contract called for Vork to manage a motel for Lemsky at $25,000 a year, as well as receive a free apartment. After six months, Flemming offered Vork $30,000 a year to manage a larger motel. Upon learning of the offer, Lemsky said to Vork, “You’re competent. You’re honest. I need you. I’ll meet any offer you get from anyone else.” Vork remains on the job. </li></ul><ul><li>Must Lemsky pay her the higher salary? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Legal Value <ul><li>Changing the legal position of the party as a result of the contract </li></ul><ul><li>Illusory Promises </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To be consideration a promise must be binding. In other words the promise must create a duty or impose an obligation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contract with the clause stating you can escape the legal obligation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Painting the house, when you have time. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You may never have time to paint the house </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Promises <ul><li>Termination Clauses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power to withdraw from a contract if business circumstances change. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Illusory promise- for any reason </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not-Illusory promise- specific reason </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Output and Requirement Contracts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Output Contract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supplying all of the output to a company </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requirements Contract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only supplying what is needed </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Promises <ul><li>Implied Duty or Fair Dealings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Means that the clause cannot be exercised arbitrarily, but must be exercised in a way that constitutes fair dealings. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Existing Duty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Something that you are already required to do by law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not consideration because your supposed to be doing this by law. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Existing Duties <ul><li>Existing Public Duty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Making a promise not to drink until your 21 for $10,000 dollars. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Your already required to do so, so your legal value didn’t change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Existing Private Duty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If a contract creates a duty, this duty cannot be the basis of consideration in a different contract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lemsky promising money is unenforceable due to the current contract. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Existing Duties <ul><li>Settlement of Liquidated Debts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One where the parties agree that the debt exists and on the amount of the debt. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Settlement of Unliquidated Debts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Making a mutual forbearance from litigating the amount owed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also called Accord and Satisfaction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Release </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Party that settles a claim before the damages are certain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Composition of Creditors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creditors accepting less that what they are entitled to, in full satisfaction of their claims against the debtor, in turn the debtor cannot file bankruptcy </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. What’s Your Verdict? <ul><li>Francis, a pedestrian, saw a car pulled over by the side of the road with a flat tire. He came to the drivers aid, replacing the flat with the spare tire. Then he accompanied the driver to the nearest gas station where her flat was repaired. She thanked Francis and said she would give him $20 on her next payday. Later she changed her mind, and Francis sued. </li></ul><ul><li>Can Francis win $20? </li></ul>
  21. 21. Bargained-For Exchange <ul><li>Mutual Gifts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A consideration must be traded one for the other, otherwise there is no consideration. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bargained-For Exchange </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agreeing before something happens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Happens immediately or for future performance by both parties. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An act already performed cannot serve as consideration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Called Past Consideration </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Section 9.2 Goals <ul><li>Identify when there is legal value. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine when there is a bargained for exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading and Writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.1.11 CDEFG, 1.2.11 AB, 1.3.11 C, 1.4.11 BCD, 1.5.11 ACE, 1.6.11 ACDF, 1.7.11 AC, 1.8.11 ABC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civics and Government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5.1.12 ABCDEFHIJM, 5.2.12 ABCDEFG, 5.3.12 AB </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. End of Section 9.2 Questions <ul><li>Think About Legal Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Think Critically About Evidence </li></ul>
  24. 24. Section 9.3 Goals <ul><li>Identify when promissory estoppel applies </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss situations in which consideration is not needed </li></ul><ul><li>Standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading and Writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.1.11 CDEFG, 1.2.11 AB, 1.3.11 C, 1.4.11 BCD, 1.5.11 ACE, 1.6.11 ACDF, 1.7.11 AC, 1.8.11 ABC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civics and Government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5.1.12 ABCDEFHIJM, 5.2.12 ABCDEFG, 5.3.12 AB </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. What’s Your Verdict? <ul><li>Silverstone, a wealthy financier, strongly believes that world travel is essential for a balanced education. Accordingly, he told his twin niece and nephew that if they would “ cap their college degrees with a trip around the world.” he would pay all their expenses upon their return, up to $9,500 for each. Using saving and some borrowed money, the twins took off on a 90-day journey. Total reasonable expenses for each exceeded $9,500 by the time they returned home. </li></ul><ul><li>Is Silverstone liable to the twins? </li></ul>
  26. 26. Promissory Estoppel <ul><li>When someone intends a gift but consideration is not present, a promise may be enforced under this doctrine. </li></ul><ul><li>Must meet the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The promisor should reasonably foresee that the promisee will rely on the promise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The promisee does, in fact, act in reliance on the promise. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The promisee would suffer a substantial economic loss if the promise is not enforced. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Injustice can be avoided only by enforcement of the promise. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. What’s Your Verdict? <ul><li>Branyan pledged $25,000 to the building fund of a community hospital. Relying on this the other pledges, the hospital’s board of directors entered into a contract for construction of a new section. </li></ul><ul><li>Can the Branyans be held to their pledge? </li></ul>
  28. 28. Exceptions to Consideration <ul><li>Promises to Charitable Organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Courts will enforce </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Statue of Limitations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specifies a time limit for bringing a lawsuit. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Breach of Contract- 3 Years </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Uniform Commercial Code </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Option Contract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leaving an offer open until its accepted </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Firm Offer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Promise to leave an offer open for a time limit without consideration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modifications to contracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Good-faith agreement </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Section 9.3 Goals <ul><li>Identify when promissory estoppel applies </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss situations in which consideration is not needed </li></ul><ul><li>Standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading and Writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.1.11 CDEFG, 1.2.11 AB, 1.3.11 C, 1.4.11 BCD, 1.5.11 ACE, 1.6.11 ACDF, 1.7.11 AC, 1.8.11 ABC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civics and Government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5.1.12 ABCDEFHIJM, 5.2.12 ABCDEFG, 5.3.12 AB </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. End of Section 9.3 Questions <ul><li>Think About Legal Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Think Critically About Evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter in Review </li></ul>

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