Chapter 5 Crimes


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Business Law, Business, Law, Crimes, Elements of Crimes, Mr. Whisel

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Chapter 5 Crimes

  1. 1. Business Law Mr. Whisel Chapter 5 Sections 1-2
  2. 2. Section 5-1 Goals <ul><li>Define the elements present in all crimes </li></ul><ul><li>Describe crimes that commonly occur in the business environment </li></ul>
  3. 3. What’s Your Verdict? <ul><li>Davis, the chief accountant of the Del Norte Credit Union, cleverly juggled the company records over a period of years. During that time, she took at least $35,000 belonging to the credit union. When the theft was discovered by outside auditors, Davis repaid the money with interest. </li></ul><ul><li>Has she committed a crime despite the repayment? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Verdict! <ul><li>What must be present? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Duty, Act, Omission, Criminal Intent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Did she violate her duty? </li></ul><ul><li>What was her criminal intent? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Crime <ul><li>Punishable offense against society </li></ul><ul><li>Society (Police and Prosecutors) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempt to Identify, Arrest, Prosecute, and Punish for crimes committed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Almost all crimes someone can sue for civil damages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Crimes are defined by statutes, allowing us to know what we can and cannot do. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Elements of A Crime <ul><li>Three Elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A duty to do or not to do a certain thing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Statues describe what is not acceptable </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An act or omission in violation of that duty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Breach of duty, conduct that violates that duty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Criminal Act </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specific Conduct that violates a state statute </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Criminal Intent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intended to commit that act and intended to do evil. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Criminal Intentions <ul><li>Embezzlement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The criminal conduct of taking another’s property or money by a person to whom it has been entrusted </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vicarious Criminal Liability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Substituted Criminal Liability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boss or owner could be held accountable for your acts/duty </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Criminal Intent <ul><li>Old laws </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children under the age of 7 were considered to be below the age of reason. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Young Adults over the age of 14 are presumed to know the difference between right and wrong. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New Laws </li></ul><ul><ul><li>7 and above can be punished juvenile delinquency. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Criminal Intent <ul><li>One must have sufficient mental capacity to know the difference between right and wrong </li></ul><ul><li>Insane Persons are not held responsible for their criminal acts </li></ul><ul><li>Neither voluntary intoxication nor use of drugs relieves a person from criminal responsibility in most circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>Not always does it require criminal intent (parking tickets or driving drunk) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Criminal Conduct <ul><li>Crimes against a person (assualt and battery, kidnapping, rape, and murder). </li></ul><ul><li>Crimes against property (theft, robbery, and embezzlement). </li></ul><ul><li>Crimes against the government and administration of Justice (treason, tax evasion, and perjury). </li></ul>
  11. 11. Criminal Conduct <ul><li>Crimes against public peace and order (rioting, disorderly conduct, and illegal speeding). </li></ul><ul><li>Crimes against realty (burglary, arson, and criminal trespass). </li></ul><ul><li>Crimes against consumers (fraudulent sale of securities, violation of pure food and drug laws) </li></ul><ul><li>Crimes against decency (bigamy, obscenity, and prostitution) </li></ul>
  12. 12. What’s Your Verdict? <ul><li>Murdock was a witness at a civil trial for damages. Before testifying, he took an oath, “to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth,” Nevertheless, while being questioned by one of the attorney’s, Murdock deliberately lied, hoping to help the defendant. </li></ul><ul><li>If this could be proved, could he be punished for a crime? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Classification of Crimes <ul><li>Felonies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crime punishable by confinement for more than a year in a state prison or by fine of more than $1000, or both, or even death. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Murder, kidnapping, arson, rape, robbery, embezzlement, forgery, theft of large sums, and perjury are examples </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Perjury </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crime of lying under oath. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Classification of Crimes <ul><li>Misdemeanor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less serious crime. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Punishable by confinement in a county or city jail for less that one year, by fine, or both. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disorderly conduct, speeding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Infractions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lesser Misdemeanor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Just fined </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not entitled to a jury trial </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parking violations or Littering </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. What’s Your Verdict? <ul><li>Officers of six competing cosmetic manufactures met at a trade convention. All of the officers agreed to use the same wholesale prices. They also agreed to follow the lead of the biggest company in making future price charges. Each officer agreed to promote sales by advertising only within an assigned geographical region. </li></ul><ul><li>Were the officers and their companies guilty of any crime? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Business Related Crimes <ul><li>White-Collar Crimes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crimes committed in the Business World </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not involve force, violence, do not cause injury to people, and do not cause physical damage to property. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evading income tax, defrauding consumers, cheating with false weighing machines, conspiring to fix prices, making false fire insurance and auto insurance claims, false advertising, bribery, political corruption, and embezzlement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually receive a fine or short sentence. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Business Related Crimes <ul><li>Antitrust Law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competing companies may not cooperate in fixing prices or in dividing sales regions, demand competing with others. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Larceny </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrongful taking of money or personal property belonging to someone else, with intent to deprive the owner of processions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Robbery and Burglary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often a felony or misdemeanor </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Business Related Crimes <ul><li>Receiving Stolen Property </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With intent to deprive the rightful owner of the property. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One who receives stole property is known as a fence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>False Pretenses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One who obtains money or other property by lying about a past or existing fact is guilty of this. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of fraud </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Business Related Crimes <ul><li>Forgery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is falsely making or materially altering a writing to defraud another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unauthorized </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bribery </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlawfully offering or giving anything of value to influence performance of an official. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Computer Crime </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No real definitive laws against this, case by case basis </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Business Related Crimes <ul><li>Extortion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blackmail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtaining money or other property from a person by wrongful use of force, fear, or the power of office. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conspiracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agreement between two or more person to commit a crime. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crime separate from the crime the parties plan to commit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Arson </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Willful and illegal burning of a building. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Section 5-1 Goals <ul><li>Define the elements present in all crimes </li></ul><ul><li>Describe crimes that commonly occur in the business environment </li></ul>
  22. 22. Section 5.1 Questions <ul><li>Think About Legal Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Think Critically About Evidence </li></ul>
  23. 23. Section 5-2 Goals <ul><li>Know the rights a person has when arrested </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize a person’s potential criminal liability for the action of others </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the justifiability of the common defenses to criminal charges </li></ul>
  24. 24. What’s Your Verdict? <ul><li>A state law makes “hit and run” driving a crime. The law requires drivers of motor vehicles involved in an accident to stay at the scene, give their names and addresses, and show the drivers licenses. Barlow, who was arrested for violating this law, claimed that the law was unconstitutional. He said that the law violated his fifth amendment right against self-incrimination. </li></ul><ul><li>Is he correct? </li></ul>
  25. 25. Rights and Responsibilities <ul><li>Rights when arrested </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Due Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fundamental Fairness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Representation by a lawyer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to not testify against oneself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to Cross-Examine witnesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trial by jury </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To be convicted of a crime </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must prove beyond a reasonable doubt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject to reasonable limitations </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Responsibility for the Conduct of Others <ul><li>If your involved in any way you too can be convicted of the same crime </li></ul><ul><li>Corporations are Vicariously Liable </li></ul>
  27. 27. Defense to Criminal Charges <ul><li>Remember </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Proven guilty beyond a reasonable doubt” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defense </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Procedural </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Substantive </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Procedural Defense <ul><li>Problems with the way evidence is obtained or the way the person is arrested, questioned, tried, or punished. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember the legal system assumes you know all the laws </li></ul>
  29. 29. Substantive Defense <ul><li>Disprove, justify, or excuse the alleged crime. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eyewitness places you somewhere else at the time of the crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-defense, Insanity, Immunity. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-defense </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of force that appears to be reasonable necessary to the victim to prevent death, bodily harm, rape, kidnapping. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Defense <ul><li>Criminal Insanity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proving that you did not know the difference between right and wrong. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Immunity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom from prosecution even when one has committed the crime. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exchanged for guilty plea. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Contempt of Court </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Action that hinders the administration of justice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plea Bargaining </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agree to plead guilty to a less serious crime in exchange for having a more serious charge dropped. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Section 5-2 Goals <ul><li>Know the rights a person has when arrested </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize a person’s potential criminal liability for the action of others </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the justifiability of the common defenses to criminal charges </li></ul>
  32. 32. Section 5 Questions <ul><li>Think About Legal Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Think Critically About Evidence </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter in Review </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Page 74-77 </li></ul></ul>