A Generative Method for Infrastructure Emergence

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Every society has structures which influence collective behavior. With all of the possible configurations of people in a population, the question emerges for designers of how to implement a method to use the collective information and create a successful design solution. We show how the fractal shape can emerge from a generative process that takes information on the scale of individuals or groups, and uses it to design a permanent infrastructure on the scale of a city. In this sense, we grow cities consisting of individuals and roads, starting from just individuals.

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A Generative Method for Infrastructure Emergence

  1. 1. A Generative Method for Infrastructure Emergence! Marcos! Gaudiano! Kawandeep! Virdee! Marco! Lagi! NECSI Winter School Project, 2009!
  2. 2. Overview! 1. 2. !Design and Complexity! !Rules! 3. !Varying the parameters! Complex Systems! 4. !Summary! Assumption: !city growth shows a fractal behavior! Question:! !what set of rules would produce such an effect?! 1. !Introduction to Design and Complexity! 2. !Rules for Emergence of Infrastructure! 3. !Varying the Parameters! 4. !Summary! 1/13
  3. 3. Design and Complexity! 1. 2. !Design and Complexity! !Rules! 3. !Varying the parameters! Inspiration! 4. !Summary! Emergence as a Design Method! Collective! Intelligence! Architecture! Inspiration! Self-Organizing Human-Environment Systems as Designers! Interaction! 2/13
  4. 4. Design and Complexity! 1. 2. !Design and Complexity! !Rules! 3. !Varying the parameters! Goal! 4. !Summary! If we study the patterns of interaction, ! we can design a better world! 3/13
  5. 5. Design and Complexity! 1. 2. !Design and Complexity! !Rules! 3. !Varying the parameters! Compex dynamics of design! 4. !Summary! 4/13
  6. 6. Design and Complexity! 1. 2. !Design and Complexity! !Rules! 3. !Varying the parameters! Compex dynamics of design! 4. !Summary! 4/13
  7. 7. Rules for Emergent Infrastructure! 1. 2. !Design and Complexity! !Rules! 3. !Varying the parameters! Cells! 4. !Summary! 6(.%!2*,(5-!! '(#)*.!)/,(*0! '(#)*! "*,(5-!-(#)*.! )/,(*0!! +,,!#)*&!-(#)*.! )/,(*0!,/!%,,!123! 4,%!2*,(5-! -(#)*.!)/,(*0! -(#)*.!)/,(*0! "#$%&! 5/13
  8. 8. Rules for Emergent Infrastructure! 1. 2. !Design and Complexity! !Rules! 3. !Varying the parameters! Cells! 4. !Summary! 6(.%!2*,(5-!! '(#)*.!)/,(*0! "*,(5-!-(#)*.! )/,(*0!8!123! '(#)*! /,)0.!)/,(*0! "*,(5-!-(#)*.! )/,(*0!,/!2*,(5-! -(#)*.!8!/,)0!! )/,(*0! +,,!#)*&!-(#)*.! )/,(*0!,/!%,,!123! 7,)0.!0,!*,%! 4,%!2*,(5-! -(#)*.!)/,(*0! 9-)*52!):2/!%-2&! -(#)*.!)/,(*0! )/2!;(<=%! "#$%&! 7,)0! 5/13
  9. 9. Rules for Emergent Infrastructure! 1. 2. !Design and Complexity! !Rules! 3. !Varying the parameters! Humans! 4. !Summary! Modification of the Game of Life! Birth Rule! Death Rule! If there is a road, it counts as 2 humans (but Death Rule doesnʼt apply)! 6/13
  10. 10. Rules for Emergent Infrastructure! 1. 2. !Design and Complexity! !Rules! 3. !Varying the parameters! Roads! 4. !Summary! If Humans {range} – A*Roads {range-not} > threshold! range! Build a Road!! range-not! 2 agents:! 3 parameters:! 1) Humans (mortal, mobile)! 1) range! 2) Roads (permanent, immobile)! 2) range-not! 3) threshold! 7/13
  11. 11. Varying the parameters! 1. 2. !Design and Complexity! !Rules! 3. !Varying the parameters! Range and Range-not! 4. !Summary! range-not! range! 8/13
  12. 12. Varying the parameters! 1. 2. !Design and Complexity! !Rules! 3. !Varying the parameters! The City! 4. !Summary! 8, 7, 23! Self-similarity,! Recursion…! Itʼs a fractal!! fractal dimension D = 1.77 ! 9/13
  13. 13. Varying the parameters! 1. 2. !Design and Complexity! !Rules! 3. !Varying the parameters! Calculating the fractal dimension! 4. !Summary! Box-counting method! 5 4 log (N) 3 2 -4.5 -4.0 -3.5 -3.0 -2.5 -2.0 -1.5 log (1/!) 10/13
  14. 14. Varying the parameters! 1. 2. !Design and Complexity! !Rules! 3. !Varying the parameters! Different geometries! 4. !Summary! 2, 8, 6! 5, 4, 20! 8, 7, 23! D = 1.63 ! D = 1.60 ! D = 1.62 ! New York City (NY): !D = 1.70 (maximum)! Omaha (NE):! ! !D = 1.28 (minimum) ! 11/13
  15. 15. Varying the parameters! 1. 2. !Design and Complexity! !Rules! 3. !Varying the parameters! Time dependence! 4. !Summary! 2, 8, 6! D = 0.97! D = 1.40! D = 1.63! time! Baltimore (MD): ! !D = 1.02 (1822); !D = 1.72 (1992) ! 12/13
  16. 16. Summary! 1. 2. !Design and Complexity! !Rules! 3. !Varying the parameters! Complex Systems! 4. !Summary! 1. ! Real cities grow like fractals! A simple set of rules built on the Game of Life can 2. ! reproduce such a behavior! The geometry of the city can be changed varying just 3. !! 3 parameters ! 4. !! Their fractal dimension grows over time, reaching an equilibrium value around D ~ 1.6 – 1.8! 13/13

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