Major trends included a growing disillusionment of government, advances in civil rights, increased influence of the women's movement, a heightened concern for the environment, and increased space exploration AND technological advancements
Richard Nixon was re-elected in 1969 because he promised to end the Vietnam War.
It launched on July 16 , 1969 carrying Commander Neil Armstrong , Command Module Pilot Michael Collins and Lunar Module Pilot Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin . On July 21 , Armstrong and Aldrin became the first humans to set foot on the Moon, while Collins orbited above.
The US and the Soviet Union signed the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. The NPT is a landmark international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote co-operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament. The Treaty represents the only binding commitment in a multilateral treaty to the goal of disarmament by the nuclear-weapon States. A total of 187 parties have joined the Treaty, including the five nuclear-weapon States. More countries have ratified the NPT than any other arms limitation and disarmament agreement, a testament to the Treaty's significance.
To further the goal of non-proliferation and as a confidence-building measure between States parties, the Treaty establishes a safeguards system under the responsibility of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Safeguards are used to verify compliance with the Treaty through inspections conducted by the IAEA. The Treaty promotes co-operation in the field of peaceful nuclear technology and equal access to this technology for all States parties, while safeguards & prevents the diversion of fissile material for weapons use .
SALT I is the common name for the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks Agreement . SALT I froze the number of strategic ballistic missile launchers at existing levels, and provided for the addition of new submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) launchers only after the same number of older intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) and SLBM launchers had been dismantled. Picture -- banned anti-ballistic missile defense systems like Nike
The USA had substantial economic interests in Chile (through ITT , Anaconda, Kennecott , and other large corporations which could potentially be nationalized or expropriated by a socialist government. – primarily copper mining)
The Nixon administration in particular was the most strongly opposed to Allende, a hostility that Nixon admitted openly. During Nixon's presidency, U.S. officials attempted to prevent Allende’s election by financing opposing political parties -- as well as strikes in the mining and commercial and public transportation sectors – aggravating an already failing Chilean economy.
On September 11, 1973, the Chilean military, led by General Pinochet – commander in chief of the army - staged the coup against Allende. It is known that the United States played a role in Chilean politics prior to the coup, but its degree of involvement in the coup itself is debated. The CIA was notified by its Chilean contacts of the impending coup two days in advance, but contends it &quot;played no direct role in&quot; the coup. After Pinochet assumed power, U.S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger told U.S. President Richard Nixon that the U.S. &quot;didn't do it&quot; (referring to the coup itself) but had &quot;created the conditions as great as possible&quot; , including leading economic sanctions.
Pinoche would remain the military dictator of Chile from 1973 through 1990
The war began on the day of Yom Kippur (Jewish Day of Atonement - it is considered the holiest day of the Jewish year) with a surprise joint attack by Egypt and Syria . They invaded the Sinai and Golan Heights, respectively, which had been captured by Israel in 1967 during the Six-Day War . The Egyptians and Syrians advanced during the first 24–48 hours, after which momentum began to swing in Israel's favor. By the second week of the war, the Syrians had been pushed entirely out of the Golan Heights – the Israelis had crossed the Suez Canal (where the old cease-fire line had been), and cut off an entire Egyptian army just as a United Nations cease-fire came into effect.
The war had far-reaching implications – The Camp David Accords which came soon after led to normalized relations between Egypt and Israel—the first time any Arab country had recognized the Israeli state. Egypt, which had already been drifting away from the USSR, then left the Soviet sphere of influence almost entirely.
Pinoche would remain the military dictator of Chile from 1973 through 1990
referred to the break-in and electronic bugging in 1972 of the Democratic National Committee (DNC) headquarters in the Watergate apartment and office building complex in Washington, D.C.
Nixon’s Vice President – Spiro Agnew had resigned when it was announced he was being investigated for extortion, bribery and income-tax violations while governor of Maryland. During the Watergate investigation, more than 30 Nixon administration officials, campaign officials, and financial contributors pleaded guilty or were found guilty of breaking the law. It was made public that the White House had a system of audio surveillance that was used to record conversations and telephone calls – these tapes were instrumental in detailing Nixon’s involvement with the subsequent cover-up.
The worst political scandal in U.S. history. It led to the resignation of a president, Richard M. Nixon, after he became implicated in an attempt to cover up the scandal. Nixon, facing possible indictment after his resignation, received from his successor, Gerald Ford, a full pardon &quot;for all offenses … which he … has committed or may have committed. &quot;
He was appointed to the vice presidency under Richard Nixon , after Spiro Agnew had been forced to resign. In 1974 President Nixon resigned, and Gerald &quot;Gerry&quot; Ford took office. Ford is famous for granting Nixon a full pardon of any crimes (&quot;Our long national nightmare is over.&quot;), and for being the target of two assassination attempts while in office. He ran for re-election in 1976, but lost to Democrat Jimmy Carter .
When the Shah relaxed censorship laws in 1977, Iran erupted into a series of demonstrations and dissents. The writings of Ayatollah Khumayni began to circulate widely, and the amount of protest material in general began to flood the country. All through the 1960's and 1970's, Iranians were deeply discontent with the dictatorship of the Shah, but the flood of protest material fanned this discontent into a raging passion. People demanded more reforms, more human rights, more freedom, and more democracy.
Starting in the 1950s, the USSR began giving aid to Afghanistan. The Soviets built roads, irrigation and even some oil pipelines. In the 1970s, a Communist party overthrew the monarchy and tried to institute social reforms. The rural populations saw land distribution and women's rights as alien to their traditional Islamic culture, a culture in which polygamy, covering of women, and blood for blood practices are accepted. The Communist governments in Kabul in the 1970s lacked the popular support of the rural population.
The Soviets sent troops into Afghanistan in 1979 for a number of reasons. First, they wished to expand their influence in Asia. They also wanted to preserve the Communist government that had been established in the 1970s, and was collapsing because of its lack of support other than in the military. Third, the Soviets wanted to protect their interests in Afghanistan from Iran and western nations.
The Soviets brought in over one hundred thousand soldiers, secured Kabul quickly and installed Babrak Karmal as their puppet leader. However, they were met with fierce resistance when they ventured out of their strongholds into the countryside.
Resistance fighters, called mujahidin , saw the Christian or atheist Soviets controlling Afghanistan as a defilement of Islam as well as of their traditional culture. Proclaiming a &quot;jihad&quot;(holy war), they gained the support of the Islamic world.
The US gave them weapons and money. The mujahidin employed guerrilla tactics against the Soviets. Osama bin Laden became the head of al-Qaeda (non-Afghani, Arab Muslim fighters) leading guerilla warfare against the Soviet Army. They would attack or raid quickly, then disappear into the mountains, causing great destruction without pitched battles. The fighters used whatever weapons they could take from the Soviets or were given by the US.
The tide of the war would be turned by the introduction of US-made shoulder-launched antiaircraft missiles in 1987. With these missiles, the mujahidin shot down Soviet planes and helicopters every day, increasing the monetary and human cost of the war, and making Soviet strike tactics ineffective. Demoralized and with no victory in sight, the USSR's forces are forced to leave Afghanistan.
In 1989, Soviet forces pulled out of Afghanistan. Fifteen thousand Soviet soldiers and countless Afghans had been killed in the decade-long war. Billions of dollars had been spent each year to support troops in Afghanistan. Unable to defeat the mujahidin and pressed by world opinion to leave Afghanistan, Soviet leader Gorbachev decided that the USSR had to get out.
The war had far-reaching effects on Afghanistan, the Soviets, and the US. Several million Afghans had either fled to neighboring Pakistan for refuge or had become internal refugees. In addition, millions more had died from starvation or from the Soviet bombings and raids. Among the survivors were a generation that had known only war, hatred, and fear. Homes, animals, and precious irrigation systems were destroyed, leaving the country barren and in ruin. Also, thousands of miniature land mines dropped by the Soviet planes continued to pose a hazard to the Afghan people long after the war with the USSR ended.
One long-term effect of the Soviet invasion and pull-out was the establishment of a weak state full of religious hatred and hatred of richer nations: a breeding ground for terrorism. Though supplying the Afghan resistance with American guns and anti-aircraft missiles seemed like a good idea for the US in the 1980s, and was the reason for the Soviets’ defeat, now as the US invades, they are met with their own guns.
The Seventies CRyan WHistory
FACTS about this decade. Population: 204,879,000 Unemployed in 1970: 4,088,000 National Debt: $382 billion Average salary: $7,564 Food prices: milk, 33 cents a qt.; bread, 24 cents a loaf; round steak, $1.30 a pound Life Expectancy: Male, 67.1; Female, 74.8
Major Trends <ul><li>Growing disillusionment of gov’t </li></ul><ul><li>Advances in civil rights </li></ul><ul><li>Increased influence of women’s movement </li></ul><ul><li>Heightened concern for environment </li></ul><ul><li>Increased space exploration </li></ul><ul><li>Technological advancements </li></ul>
The US & USSR signed the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Prohibits acquiring or helping others acquire nuclear weapons.
The International Atomic Energy Agency <ul><li>A safeguard system </li></ul><ul><li>Verifies compliance through inspections conducted by the IAEA </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes international cooperation and equal access in the field of peaceful nuclear technology </li></ul>
SALT I 1972 Limited the production of nuclear weapons. Signed by Nixon and Brezhnev.
"I don't see why we need to stand by and watch a country go communist due to the irresponsibility of its own people. The issues are much too important for the Chilean voters to be left to decide for themselves." — Henry Kissinger
Yom Kippur War (1973 Arab-Israeli War) October 6 – 26, 1973 between Israel and a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria
<ul><li>The Syrians invaded the Golan Heights and the Egyptians invaded the Sinai Peninsula </li></ul>
Camp David Peace Accords – normalized relations between Egypt and Israel – the first time ANY Arab country had recognized the state of Israel.
Effects of the war on Afghanistan <ul><li>Several million Afghan refugees </li></ul><ul><li>Millions more died from starvation and Soviet bombing raids </li></ul><ul><li>A generation that knows only war, hatred, and fear </li></ul><ul><li>Country in barren and in ruin </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands of miniature land mines were dropped by Soviet planes </li></ul>
Effects on U.S.S.R. <ul><li>Lost 15,000 troops </li></ul><ul><li>Degradation of Soviet image – no longer invincible </li></ul><ul><li>Billions spent on the ten year war weakened an already unsteady Soviet economy </li></ul>
Long Term Consequence <ul><li>The establishment of a weak state full of religious fanaticism and a hatred of richer nations; in short, a breeding ground for terrorism. </li></ul>