PSYCHOLOGY
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    Chapter 3
    BIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR
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35          HOLT, RINEHART   AND   WINSTON
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Ryans Psy Ch03 2010

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Ryans Psy Ch03 2010

  1. 1. PSYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Chapter 3 BIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR Section 1: The Nervous System Section 2: The Brain: Our Control Center Section 3: The Endocrine System Section 4: Heredity: Our Genetic Background 1 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
  2. 2. Chapter 3 PSYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Human Nervous System ______________ ______________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ ________________________ 2 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
  3. 3. Chapter 3 Section 1: The Nervous System PSYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Question: What are the two main parts of the nervous system? Central nervous system Brain and spinal cord Peripheral nervous system Everything else… 3 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
  4. 4. Chapter 3 Section 1: The Nervous System PSYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE In order to understand how it works, we must first understand what the nerve cells are and how do they communicate. Nerve cells are called neurons. …send and receive messages from other structures in the body. 4 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
  5. 5. Chapter 3 Section 1: The Nervous System PSYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Question: What are the components of a neuron? Cell body Dendrites Axon 5 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
  6. 6. Chapter 3 Section 1: The Nervous System PSYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Question: How do neurons communicate? Synapse: a junction between the axon terminals of one neuron and the dendrites of another neuron. 6 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
  7. 7. Chapter 3 PSYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Question: If there is no physical connection between neurons, how is the message relayed? Neurotransmitters: chemicals that are stored in sacs in the axon terminals. The message is converted into an electrical impulse that travels the length of the neuron. It is then transmitted to the next neuron by neurotransmitters until it arrives at its destination – usually the brain. 7 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
  8. 8. Chapter 3 Section 1: The Nervous System PSYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Question: Why are neurotransmitters so important? Neurotransmitters are involved in everything we do. Some diseases and psychological disorders may be caused by the presence of too much or too little of various neurotransmitters. 8 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
  9. 9. Chapter 3 PSYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Researchers have identified dozens of neurotransmitters and their functions. Acetylcholine: involved in muscle control Dopamine: primarily motor behavior Noradrenaline: “fight or flight” chemical Serotonin: involved in emotional arousal and sleep 9 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
  10. 10. Chapter 3 PSYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Human Nervous System Central ____________________ Nervous System ____________________ ________________________ _____________________ ________________________ 10 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
  11. 11. Chapter 3 PSYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Question: What makes up the Central Nervous System (CNS)? the spinal cord the brain 11 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
  12. 12. Chapter 3 PSYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Question: What is a spinal reflex? …a simple automatic response to something. 12 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
  13. 13. Chapter 3 PSYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Human Nervous System Central Peripheral Nervous System Nervous System ______________________ _______________________ ________________________ __________________________ 13 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
  14. 14. Chapter 3 PSYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Question: What is the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)? …is responsible for transmitting messages between the central nervous system and all parts of the body. There are two main divisions of the PNS: Somatic nervous system Autonomic nervous system 14 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
  15. 15. Chapter 3 PSYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Human Nervous System Central Peripheral Nervous System Nervous System Somatic _______________________ Nervous System _______________________ _________________________ 15 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
  16. 16. Chapter 3 PSYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Question: What is the Somatic Nervous System? …is the portion of the nervous system responsible for voluntary body movement and for sensing external stimuli. All five senses are controlled by the somatic nervous system. 16 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
  17. 17. Chapter 3 PSYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Human Nervous System Central Peripheral Nervous System Nervous System Somatic Autonomic Nervous System Nervous System _______________________ _________________________ 17 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
  18. 18. Chapter 3 PSYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Question: What is the autonomic nervous system? … is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart and the widening or narrowing of your blood vessels. 18 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
  19. 19. Chapter 3 PSYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Question: Why would psychologists be interested in the autonomic nervous system? … because of its involvement in the experience of emotion. …particularly when someone experiences something stressful in the environment. 19 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
  20. 20. Chapter 3 PSYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Human Nervous System Central Peripheral Nervous System Nervous System Somatic Autonomic Nervous System Nervous System Sympathetic Nervous System Parasympathetic Nervous System 20 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
  21. 21. Chapter 3 PSYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Question: What are the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system? Sympathetic system …activated when a person is going into action. “fight or flight” response Parasympathetic system …restores the body – constant opposition to the sympathetic system “rest and digest” 21 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
  22. 22. Chapter 3 PSYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 22 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
  23. 23. Chapter 3 PSYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE END OF SECTION 1 23 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
  24. 24. Chapter 3 Section 2: The Brain: Our Control Center PSYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Question: What are the major structures of the brain, and what is the function of each structure? MAJOR STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS OF THE BRAIN Hindbrain – lower part of the brain involved in many vital functions such as heart rate, respiration and balance Midbrain – includes areas that are involved in vision and hearing Forebrain – front area of the brain involved in complex functions such as thought and emotion 24 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
  25. 25. Chapter 3 Section 2: The Brain: Our Control Center PSYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Question: What are the major structures of the hindbrain? The "lower" brain, or hindbrain, mainly supports vital bodily functions. medulla ~ heartbeat, blood pressure and breathing pons ~ face sensation and movement, sleep/wake cycle cerebellum ~ balance & coordination 25 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
  26. 26. Chapter 3 Section 2: The Brain: Our Control Center PSYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Question: What is the function of the midbrain? … is the smallest region of the brain that acts as a sort of relay station for auditory and visual information. … controls many important functions such as the visual and auditory systems as well as eye movement. Contains part of the reticular activating system. 26 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
  27. 27. Chapter 3 Section 2: The Brain: Our Control Center PSYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Question: What is the reticular activating system? …is like a filter between your conscious mind and your subconscious mind. Important for attention, sleep, and arousal. 27 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
  28. 28. Chapter 3 Section 2: The Brain: Our Control Center PSYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Question: What are the four major areas of the forebrain? Thalamus Hypothalamus Limbic system Cerebrum 28 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
  29. 29. Chapter 3 Section 2: The Brain: Our Control Center PSYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Question: What is the function of the thalamus? …serves as a relay station for sensory stimulation i.e., input from eyes and ears for interpretation 29 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
  30. 30. Chapter 3 Section 2: The Brain: Our Control Center PSYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Question: What is the function of the hypothalamus? …thirst, hunger, body temperature, water balance, and blood pressure, and links the nervous system to the endocrine system. 30 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
  31. 31. Chapter 3 Section 2: The Brain: Our Control Center PSYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Question: What is the function of the limbic system? …involved in learning and memory, emotion, hunger, sex, and aggression 31 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
  32. 32. Chapter 3 Section 2: The Brain: Our Control Center PSYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Question: What is the function of the cerebrum? …things like perception, imagination, thought, judgment, and decision occur here. 70% of the weight of the brain Surface is called the cerebral cortex. 32 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
  33. 33. Chapter 3 Section 2: The Brain: Our Control Center PSYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE The Cerebral Cortex: What Makes Us Unique! Composed of two sides called hemispheres The two hemispheres are connected by the corpus callosum Each hemisphere is divided into four parts or lobes. 33 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
  34. 34. Chapter 3 Section 2: The Brain: Our Control Center PSYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Question: What are the four parts of each hemisphere? Frontal Pariental Temporal Occipital 34 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
  35. 35. Chapter 3 PSYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE 35 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
  36. 36. Chapter 3 Section 2: The Brain: Our Control Center PSYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Question: 36 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
  37. 37. Chapter 3 Section 3: The Endocrine System PSYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Question: How do hormones secreted by the major glands of the endocrine system affect the body? HORMONES AND EFFECT ON THE BODY Pituitary Gland – responsible for the secretion of many different hormones that affect various aspects of behavior such as the growth hormone Thyroid Gland – produces thyroxin which affects the body’s metabolism Adrenal Gland – the outer layer of the adrenal gland, or cortex, secretes cortical steroids which increase resistance to stress and promote muscle development 37 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
  38. 38. Chapter 3 Section 3: The Endocrine System PSYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Question: How do hormones secreted by the major glands of the endocrine system affect the body? HORMONES AND EFFECT ON THE BODY (continued) Testes and Ovaries – produce the hormones testosterone, estrogen, and progesterone that play an important role in development, development of primary and secondary sex characteristics and have psychological as well as biological effects 38 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
  39. 39. Chapter 3 Section 4: Heredity: Our Genetic Background PSYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Question: What is the role of chromosomes and genes in heredity, and how do psychologists study the role of heredity in determining traits? ROLE OF CHROMOSOMES AND GENES IN HEREDITY Genes are the basic building blocks of heredity and traits are determined by pairs of genes Most normal human cells contain 46 hormones which develop particular traits in an individual The 23rd pair of chromosomes determines the male or female sex 39 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON
  40. 40. Chapter 3 Section 4: Heredity: Our Genetic Background PSYCHOLOGY PRINCIPLES IN PRACTICE Question: What is the role of chromosomes and genes in heredity, and how do psychologists study the role of heredity in determining traits? THE STUDY OF THE ROLE OF HEREDITY Role of heredity in studies through various types of kinship research such as: A. Twin Studies – a useful way to learn about nature and nurture B. Adoptee Studies – provide ways of sorting out the effects of nature and nurture C. Twins Reared Apart – a way of finding out that twins reared apart share many of the same mannerisms despite their separation 40 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON

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