CHAPTER 18 Section 1: Setting the Stage for War Section 2: World War I: A New Kind of War Section 3: The Russian Revolution Section 4: The Terms of Peace Section 5: Creating a “New” Europe World War I and the Russian Revolution
SECTION 4 Bell Ringer 18.4: What events led to the end of World War I? The Terms of Peace The End of the War: September-November, 1918 September October November _________ are stopped at the Marne River ________ surrenders _______ ask for peace ______________ stops fighting, forms separate governments __________abdicates, ___________republic is announced _________ signs armistice
SECTION 4 The Terms of Peace January 1918 Fourteen Points speech … outlined a set of ideas for after the war.
Six General Points <ul><li>NO secret treaties </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of the seas for ALL nations </li></ul><ul><li>Removal of economic barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of armaments </li></ul><ul><li>Adjust colonial claims </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment of a general association of nations </li></ul>SECTION 4 The Terms of Peace
What was the overall purpose of the Fourteen Points? … a just and safer world SECTION 4 The Terms of Peace
SECTION 4 The Terms of Peace Treaty of Brest Litovsk allowed the Germans to concentrate on their Western front against France and Britain in the summer of 1918.
SECTION 4 The Terms of Peace Second Battle of the Marne Battle of Château-Thierry
SECTION 4 The Terms of Peace July – Allied Counterattack Bulgaria surrenders 29 Sept Turks ask for peace – 30 Oct 14 Oct –Austria-Hungary asks for armistice Kaiser Wilhelm abdicates 9 Nov Europe 1918
SECTION 4 The Terms of Peace … eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month…
SECTION 4 The Terms of Peace Paris Peace Conference 1919 Wilson Clemenceau Lloyd George Orlando All three men wanted to stop a war ever happening again, but they did not agree about how to do this. They wanted different things from the peace, and they did not get on well.
SECTION 4 The Terms of Peace Georges Clemenceau He was the Prime Minister of France. He wanted revenge , and to punish the Germans for what they had done. He wanted to make Germany pay for the damage done during the war. He also wanted to weaken Germany, so France would never be invaded again.
SECTION 4 The Terms of Peace Woodrow Wilson He wanted to make the world safe . He wanted to end war by making a fair peace . He said that he wanted disarmament , and a League of Nations (where countries could talk out their problems, without war). He also promised self-determination for the peoples of Eastern Europe.
SECTION 4 The Terms of Peace David Lloyd George He was Prime Minister of Great Britain. He said he would ‘ make Germany pay’ – because he knew that was what the British people wanted to hear. He wanted ‘ justice ’, but he did not want revenge . He said that the peace must not be harsh – that would just cause another war in a few years time. He tried to get a ‘ halfway point’ – a compromise between Wilson and Clemenceau. He ALSO wanted to expand the British Empire, maintain British control of the seas, and increase Britain's trade.
Visual Source The Terms of Peace In this Swiss WWI-era cartoon titled "At the Peace Conference," the nations of France, England, the US, Belgium and Italy sit around the conference table smoking pipes together, with a PAX statue in the center of the table. The conference table is supported by a platform of bombs and powder kegs, labeled "World Revolution." The caption reads, "I hope they will soon get through with this Peace Pipe smoking. A spark might fall underneath, and then--!!!?" The cartoon was published during the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, and reflects fears that the victors of WWI, by attempting to create a lasting peace would instead destabilize Europe.
SECTION 4 The Terms of Peace September October November Germans are stopped at the Marne River Bulgaria surrenders Turks ask for peace Austria-Hungary stops fighting, forms separate governments German Kaiser abdicates, German republic is announced Germany signs armistice The End of the War: September-November, 1918