Napoleon seized Prussian lands, limited the size of Prussia’s army, and forced Prussia to contribute money and soldiers to France.
The Austro-Prussian War was short and victorious. Moltke and Von Roon had re-organized the Prussian army and turned it into an exceptionally effective fighting machine, and defeated Austria in The Seven Weeks War . Austria was humiliated, but rather than press on Bismarck got Wilhelm to stop the war early, and forced Austria to cede all of its German possessions (Prussia could have gone for more, but Bismarck did not want to engender future disagreements over this). The result of the war was threefold: first Austria was no longer a player in Germany politics, second the German confederation was disbanded, and third Prussia was acknowledged as the new leader of Germany internationally. To solidify his successes Bismarck North German Confederation as a federation between the Northern German allies from the last war and Prussia, with Prussia at its head with King Wilhelm as President, and Bismarck as chancellor. This successful war ended the domestic disturbances at home, helped Bismarck's supporters into the Prussian Landtag, and provided support to Bismarck in the times to come.
With the Liberals squelched at home for now, Austria out of the picture, and North Germany united Bismarck just needed a way to get the southern German states under Prussian control. The only feasible way Bismarck saw to do this was to have a foreign power invade Germany and for Germany to unify to face the threat. Then Prussia could seize the opportunity to permanently unify as one nation under that system. The chance arrived in 1870 when the throne of Spain was offered to a relative of the Hohenzollern clan (The ruling family of Prussia). Napoleon the Third announced not only that he would not stand for his candidacy for the throne, but demanded that King Wilhelm promise never to allow a member of the Hohenzollern family to ascend to the Spanish throne. Wilhelm wrote a cordial reply to Napoleon saying that while he would not remove his support from the candidate immediately he would be willing to discuss the issue with Napoleon. Bismarck, however, took the telegram, edited it so as to read as an affront to Napoleon and leaked it to the press in the famous Ems Dispatch . The French reacted vehemently and in a national uproar declared the Franco-Prussian war . Seeing them as an aggressor the entirety of Germany rallied behind Prussia, and Prussia defeated the French invasion force, counter-invaded, and utterly defeated France, all in under a month. France was forced to pay a large indemnity to Prussia and to surrender the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine (Bismarck opposed this, saying that the territories would only cause more trouble than they were worth). Bismarck used the opportunity to unify Germany, and through a variety of incentives got the southern German states to agree to form a German Empire with Prussia as Primus inter Pares (first among equals) and King Wilhelm as the first German Emperor.
&quot;Germany’s Future&quot; (1870) Published in the Austrian journal Kikeriki , this caricature (“Deutschlands Zukunft”) captured fears shared by the French and the non-Prussian German states. The caption reads: “Will it fit under one hat? I believe it is more likely to come under a [Prussian] Pickelhaube !&quot; By this point, the iconic Prussian military helmet had long provided caricaturists with a powerful symbol of Prussian hegemony and aggressive militarism.
&quot;Prussia’s New Coat of Arms&quot; (August 30, 1871) This French caricature, “Le Nouveau Blason Prussien,” is directed against Prussia’s hegemonic claims in the new German Empire. The eagle’s right talon holds the French war indemnity, while his left grips the sword of war. The federal states of Germany are listed on wings clearly resembling those of a bat, and the whole image drips blood. This caricature originally appeared as a lithograph in the journal Le Charivari on August 30, 1871.
CHAPTER 16 Section 1: The Unification of Italy Section 2: The Unification of Germany Section 3: Opposition to Bismarck Section 4: Reform and Revolution in Russia Section 5: Unrest in Austria-Hungary Nationalism in Europe
SECTION 2 The Unification of Germany ___________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ State within country that led unification process ___________________ Means by which unification was achieved Acquisition of land in unification process Major factors leading to unification Ch 16.2 Bell Ringer: What are some important facts about the unification of Germany?
SECTION 2 The Unification of Germany “ We want Germany to be considered one land and one people … We want a constitution for the people that fits in with the spirit of the times and with the people’s own level of enlightenment, rather than what each prince gives his people.”
SECTION 2 The Unification of Germany … a patchwork of independent states ~ each with its own laws, currency, and rulers.
SECTION 2 The Unification of Germany Prussia had become strong in the 1700s…
SECTION 2 The Unification of Germany Within the Austrian Empire boundaries lived Austrian Germans, the Magyars of Hungary, Slovenes, Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Ruthenians (Slavs), Romanians, Serbs, and Croats. Its people practiced the Roman Catholic, Protestant, Eastern Orthodox, and Muslim religions. Little other than geography held these groups together.
SECTION 2 The Unification of Germany … the first step toward unification involved the ECONOMY. Junkers ~ aristocratic landowners 1834 – treaties were signed that created … the Zollverein Which German state was NOT INCLUDED?
SECTION 2 The Unification of Germany Politically, however, each state in the German Confederation continued to act independently.
SECTION 2 The Unification of Germany William I ~ King of Prussia Otto von Bismarck ~ Chancellor
SECTION 2 The Unification of Germany Bismarck as Minister-President of Prussia … opposed democracy and the idea of a parliament …believed the state – not the people- should hold authority … believed that it was Prussia’s destiny to lead German unification.
SECTION 2 The Unification of Germany The obstacle to Prussia dominating German unification was … AUSTRIA! How would Bismarck take Austria out of the picture? WAR
Bismarck would use THREE WARS to unify the German states. <ul><li>The Danish War </li></ul><ul><li>The Seven Weeks’ War </li></ul><ul><li>The Franco-Prussian War </li></ul>SECTION 2 The Unification of Germany
The Danish War-1864 SECTION 2 The Unification of Germany Schleswig Holstein
The Seven Weeks’ War 1866 SECTION 2 The Unification of Germany
SECTION 2 The Unification of Germany The Ems Dispatch Original telegram with Bismarck’s “editing”
The Franco-Prussian War 1870-71 SECTION 2 The Unification of Germany
SECTION 2 The Unification of Germany <ul><li>The treaty provided that the French province of Alsace-Lorraine was to be ceded to the German Empire, </li></ul><ul><li>and that France was to pay a war indemnity of 5 billion gold francs ($1 billion), </li></ul><ul><li>submitting to occupation by German troops until the amount was rendered in full. </li></ul><ul><li>This heavy obligation was discharged in September 1873, and during the same month, after an occupation of almost three years, France was at last freed of German soldiers. </li></ul>The Treaty of Frankfurt, signed on May 10, 1871, ended the war between France and Germany.
Political Cartoon The Unification of Germany 1871 Engraved cartoon by Thomas Nast, the most famous political cartoonist of the nineteenth century. Title is "Thrown Completely Into the Shade." The cartoon shows the German Kaiser standing triumphantly in front of a map of France, with a portrait of Napoleon behind him. The Kaiser’s shadow is covering Napoleon, who looks completely defeated .
Formation of the German Empire <ul><li>capital of the Empire would be Berlin </li></ul><ul><li>King Wilhelm I was proclaimed kaiser </li></ul><ul><li>Bismarck was named chancellor </li></ul><ul><li>His nickname became the “Iron Chancellor” </li></ul><ul><li>Constitution united the 25 German states </li></ul><ul><li>Federal gov’t controlled national defense, foreign affairs, and commerce </li></ul>SECTION 2 The Unification of Germany
The New German Empire <ul><li>Legislative Branch of the new gov’t </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bundesrat (upper house – appointed members) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reichstag (lower house – elected legislature) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How did this constitution favor Prussia? </li></ul>SECTION 2 The Unification of Germany
SECTION 2 The Unification of Germany The caption reads: “Bismarck (leading Alsace and Lorraine): Dear Reichstag, we have the two lads back again, but now tell me where and how we should accommodate them!”
SECTION 2 The Unification of Germany Prussia Bismark built strong Prussian military machine, defeated Austria and held her hold over Bavaria by fighting 3 successful wars Schleswig, Holstein, the North German Confederation, independent states of southern Germany, Alsace, and Lorraine German nationalism Zollverein Bismark’s Prussian army State within country that led unification process Means by which unification was achieved Acquisition of land in unification process Major factors leading to unification