Ch 2 Lawmaking Copyright 2008  PresentationFx.com  | Redistribution Prohibited | Image © 2008 Thomas Brian | This text sec...
Legislatures <ul><li>Congress is made up of two houses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the Senate is composed of 100 members </li><...
Lawmaking authority <ul><li>… laws passed by Congress are known as  federal statutes </li></ul><ul><li>… federal statutes ...
State Statutes <ul><li>… except for Nebraska – every state has a two-house legislature </li></ul><ul><li>Most meet on an a...
Federal gov’t power is limited <ul><li>Congress cannot legislate unless given the power to do so in the Constitution. </li...
Bills <ul><li>…  legislation is introduced as a bill. </li></ul><ul><li>Bills are introduced to enact new laws or amend or...
… after a bill becomes a law. <ul><li>…  the people must obey it. </li></ul><ul><li>sometimes the language of the law is o...
Drafting a Bill <ul><li>When a bill is drafted – the actual  language is written. </li></ul><ul><li>Bills are often drafte...
Evaluating a bill <ul><li>Questions often asked: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it written in clear language? </li></ul></ul><ul...
Agencies <ul><li>Agency rules and regulations have the power of law. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress passed a law requiring...
Administrative agencies are really hidden lawmakers – making numerous rules and regulations that affect business, industry...
Courts <ul><li>Law is also made by courts. </li></ul><ul><li>When a case is appealed to a higher court, that court issues ...
International Lawmaking <ul><li>…  usually defined as the law that applies to the conduct of countries. </li></ul><ul><li>...
European Union <ul><li>… created by a series of treaties by various European countries. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are 27...
United Nations <ul><li>…  is an international organization </li></ul><ul><li>…  facilitates cooperation in international l...
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Ch 2 lawmaking 2010

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Ch 2 lawmaking 2010

  1. 1. Ch 2 Lawmaking Copyright 2008 PresentationFx.com | Redistribution Prohibited | Image © 2008 Thomas Brian | This text section may be deleted for presentation .
  2. 2. Legislatures <ul><li>Congress is made up of two houses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the Senate is composed of 100 members </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the House of Representatives has 435 members </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Congress passes laws that are binding on people of every state. </li></ul>Copyright 2008 PresentationFx.com | Redistribution Prohibited | Image © 2008 Thomas Brian | This text section may be deleted for presentation .
  3. 3. Lawmaking authority <ul><li>… laws passed by Congress are known as federal statutes </li></ul><ul><li>… federal statutes deal with environment, national defense, homeland security, labor relations, veterans’ affairs, public health, civil rights, economic development, postal services, and federal taxes </li></ul>Copyright 2008 PresentationFx.com | Redistribution Prohibited | Image © 2008 Thomas Brian | This text section may be deleted for presentation .
  4. 4. State Statutes <ul><li>… except for Nebraska – every state has a two-house legislature </li></ul><ul><li>Most meet on an annual basis – a few meet every two years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mississippi’s legislature meets every year </li></ul></ul><ul><li>State laws impact education, traffic, state taxes, marriage/divorce, most criminal laws, and the powers & duties of state gov’t officials </li></ul>Copyright 2008 PresentationFx.com | Redistribution Prohibited | Image © 2008 Thomas Brian | This text section may be deleted for presentation .
  5. 5. Federal gov’t power is limited <ul><li>Congress cannot legislate unless given the power to do so in the Constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>The states have a much broader power to legislate. </li></ul><ul><li>Supremacy clause – when a state law conflicts with a federal law – the state laws are invalid. </li></ul><ul><li>Cities, towns, and counties also have lawmaking bodies (councils/boards) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These laws are known as ordinances or regulations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local laws only apply to a county, city, or town. </li></ul></ul>Copyright 2008 PresentationFx.com | Redistribution Prohibited | Image © 2008 Thomas Brian | This text section may be deleted for presentation .
  6. 6. Bills <ul><li>… legislation is introduced as a bill. </li></ul><ul><li>Bills are introduced to enact new laws or amend or repeal old laws. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bills can come from anyone – legislators, gov’t officials, individual citizens, businesses, or lobbyists that represent various groups or interests. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A bill passed by the legislature and not vetoed by the executive branch becomes a law. </li></ul>Copyright 2008 PresentationFx.com | Redistribution Prohibited | Image © 2008 Thomas Brian | This text section may be deleted for presentation .
  7. 7. … after a bill becomes a law. <ul><li>… the people must obey it. </li></ul><ul><li>sometimes the language of the law is open to differing interpretations – it’s not always easy to know exactly what a law prohibits or allows. </li></ul><ul><li>Determining Legislative Intent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disputes over what a law means will end up in court where a judge interprets what the law means. </li></ul></ul>Copyright 2008 PresentationFx.com | Redistribution Prohibited | Image © 2008 Thomas Brian | This text section may be deleted for presentation .
  8. 8. Drafting a Bill <ul><li>When a bill is drafted – the actual language is written. </li></ul><ul><li>Bills are often drafted and redrafted before being introduced and discussed. </li></ul><ul><li>Many laws are difficult to read AND understand. </li></ul>Copyright 2008 PresentationFx.com | Redistribution Prohibited | Image © 2008 Thomas Brian | This text section may be deleted for presentation .
  9. 9. Evaluating a bill <ul><li>Questions often asked: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it written in clear language? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it understandable? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When does it go into effect? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does the law contradict any other laws? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the law enforceable? Who will enforce it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are the penalties for breaking the law clear and reasonable? </li></ul></ul>Copyright 2008 PresentationFx.com | Redistribution Prohibited | Image © 2008 Thomas Brian | This text section may be deleted for presentation .
  10. 10. Agencies <ul><li>Agency rules and regulations have the power of law. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress passed a law requiring safe working conditions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To implement this law, Congress created OSHA (Occupational Safety & Health Administration) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In response to the attacks of 9/11, the federal gov’t created new agencies and in 2002, President Bush created the Department of Homeland Security. </li></ul>Copyright 2008 PresentationFx.com | Redistribution Prohibited | Image © 2008 Thomas Brian | This text section may be deleted for presentation .
  11. 11. Administrative agencies are really hidden lawmakers – making numerous rules and regulations that affect business, industry, and individuals. Copyright 2008 PresentationFx.com | Redistribution Prohibited | Image © 2008 Thomas Brian | This text section may be deleted for presentation . Agencies usually hold public hearings before proposing regulations giving individuals or businesses an opportunity to express their views. Regulations proposed by the federal gov’t must be Published in a special newspaper called the Federal Register .
  12. 12. Courts <ul><li>Law is also made by courts. </li></ul><ul><li>When a case is appealed to a higher court, that court issues a written opinion. </li></ul><ul><li>That opinion sets a precedent for similar cases in the future. </li></ul><ul><li>All lower courts in that jurisdiction where the precedent was issued MUST follow it. </li></ul>Copyright 2008 PresentationFx.com | Redistribution Prohibited | Image © 2008 Thomas Brian | This text section may be deleted for presentation .
  13. 13. International Lawmaking <ul><li>… usually defined as the law that applies to the conduct of countries. </li></ul><ul><li>… is most often made when national gov’ts make treaties with each other or with a group of countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Various international laws regulate commerce (trade) between countries, refugees crossing national borders, ownership of property including copyrights and patents, the environment, and many other areas. </li></ul>Copyright 2008 PresentationFx.com | Redistribution Prohibited | Image © 2008 Thomas Brian | This text section may be deleted for presentation .
  14. 14. European Union <ul><li>… created by a series of treaties by various European countries. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are 27 member countries. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>… established a European Parliament which has the power to make laws that promote political and economic cooperation in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>… a common currency called the euro. </li></ul><ul><li>… ensures the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital. </li></ul>Copyright 2008 PresentationFx.com | Redistribution Prohibited | Image © 2008 Thomas Brian | This text section may be deleted for presentation .
  15. 15. United Nations <ul><li>… is an international organization </li></ul><ul><li>… facilitates cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace. </li></ul><ul><li>There are currently 192 member states, including nearly every sovereign state in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Six principal organs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General Assembly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security Council (Ch, Fr, GB, Russia, US – 10) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic & Social Council (World Bank, IMF) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretariat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International Court of Justice (The Hague) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UN Trusteeship Council (inactive) </li></ul></ul>Copyright 2008 PresentationFx.com | Redistribution Prohibited | Image © 2008 Thomas Brian | This text section may be deleted for presentation .

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