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The Definition and Measurement of Creativity: What Do We Know? <ul><li>by Jaafar El-Murad & Douglas C. West </li></ul>Arin...
Agenda <ul><li>Creativity and Advertising  </li></ul><ul><li>The Creative Idea </li></ul><ul><li>What Do We Know About Adv...
The Authors <ul><li>Dr. Jaafar El-Muraad  - Dept. Head of Marketing & Business Strategy at Westminister Business School (L...
<ul><li>Definition Varies by Context </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of Attributes  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Originality” </li></...
Advertising Creativity  <ul><li>“ Creativity is at once the least scientific aspect of advertising and the most important”...
The Creative Idea <ul><li>Effect on Sales and Agency Employment </li></ul><ul><li>Random Process or Systematic </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Successful taglines have impact beyond their original intent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ A Diamond is Forever” -DeBeer...
Theories <ul><li>Primary Process Cognition </li></ul><ul><li>Defocused Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Associative Hierarchies...
Typologies <ul><li>Rhodes: “(1) the  creative person , who, by means of (2) the  creative process  produces (3) the  creat...
Measuring Creativity <ul><li>Psychometric Tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tests of Divergent Thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Measuring Advertising Creativity <ul><li>Panel of Industry Experts </li></ul><ul><li>Creative Personality Scale </li></ul>...
www.oneclub.com
Old Spice “The Man Your Man” <ul><li>2010 One Show(Gold Pencil) Award Winner (Television :30-Single) </li></ul><ul><li>CLI...
Enhancing & Encouraging Creativity <ul><li>Workplace Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Managerial Practices </li></ul><ul><ul>...
Discussion Questions
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Definition and Measurement of Creativity

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A class presentation for ADV 6383 - Creativity as Problem Solving by graduate students Arin Forstenzer and Trudy Thomason at SMU's Temerlin Advertising Institute.

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Definition and Measurement of Creativity

  1. 1. The Definition and Measurement of Creativity: What Do We Know? <ul><li>by Jaafar El-Murad & Douglas C. West </li></ul>Arin Forstenzer & Trudy Thomason
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Creativity and Advertising </li></ul><ul><li>The Creative Idea </li></ul><ul><li>What Do We Know About Advertising Creativity? </li></ul><ul><li>How Can We Measure it? </li></ul><ul><li>How Can Advertising Creativity Be Encouraged and Enhanced? </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Authors <ul><li>Dr. Jaafar El-Muraad - Dept. Head of Marketing & Business Strategy at Westminister Business School (London) </li></ul><ul><li>Likes to scuba dive and research creativity in advertising, sustainability & ethics in advertising and marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Douglas C. West </li></ul><ul><li>Professor of Marketing at the University of Birmingham (UK) </li></ul><ul><li>Executive Editor, Journal of Advertising Research </li></ul><ul><li>Research Interests: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>advertising agency management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>creativity and risk </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Definition Varies by Context </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of Attributes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Originality” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Novelty” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Problem solving” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Appropriate” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Ability” </li></ul></ul>Creativity
  5. 5. Advertising Creativity <ul><li>“ Creativity is at once the least scientific aspect of advertising and the most important” (Reid, King and DeLorne, 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Advertising Creativity involves the conceptualization and production of an object from new or existing components in a novel way that is also relevant to the task in hand” (El-Murad and West, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Features of Successful Advertising Creativity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Achieves specified objectives </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Creative Idea <ul><li>Effect on Sales and Agency Employment </li></ul><ul><li>Random Process or Systematic </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on Ad’s Effectiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ originality and imagination must operate within a goal-directed and problem-solving context” (Reid, King and DeLorne, 1998, p. 3) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4 Key Elements to Effective Creative Advertisements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Originality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imagination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal-Direction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem Solving </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Successful taglines have impact beyond their original intent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ A Diamond is Forever” -DeBeers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ When it Rains it Pours”-Morton Salt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Always a Bridesmaid, Never a Bride” - Listerine </li></ul></ul>Taglines
  8. 8. Theories <ul><li>Primary Process Cognition </li></ul><ul><li>Defocused Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Associative Hierarchies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>dominates literature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>flat vs. steep associative hierarchies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All three theories focus on the individual’s associative ability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Investment Theory of Creativity” </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Typologies <ul><li>Rhodes: “(1) the creative person , who, by means of (2) the creative process produces (3) the creative product , in response to the macro/micro environment in which he or she is located...(4) the creative press ” </li></ul><ul><li>Sternberg and Lubart (1999): seven approaches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mystical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pragmatic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychodynamic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychometric </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive** </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social-Personality* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confluence </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Measuring Creativity <ul><li>Psychometric Tests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tests of Divergent Thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitude & Interest Inventories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality Inventories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biographical Inventories </li></ul></ul>Hocevar (1981) 10 categories of Classification, 2 Broad Categories <ul><ul><li>Expert Opinion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher Nominations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer Nominations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supervisor Ratings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judgment of Products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eminence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-reported Creative Activities & Achievements </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Measuring Advertising Creativity <ul><li>Panel of Industry Experts </li></ul><ul><li>Creative Personality Scale </li></ul><ul><li>One Show Advertising Creativity Awards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>highly coveted in the industry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TV commercial popularity </li></ul><ul><li>Expert Panel of Advertising Students </li></ul>
  12. 12. www.oneclub.com
  13. 13. Old Spice “The Man Your Man” <ul><li>2010 One Show(Gold Pencil) Award Winner (Television :30-Single) </li></ul><ul><li>CLIO Award, 2010 (Bronze)- Direction </li></ul><ul><li>London International Awards-LIA, 2010 (Gold) for Cosmetics/Toiletries/Pharmaceuticals </li></ul><ul><li>London International Awards-LIA, 2010 (Gold) for Direction </li></ul><ul><li>AICP 2010 (Winner) for Humor </li></ul><ul><li>AICP 2010 (Winner) for Performance/Dialogue or Monologue </li></ul><ul><li>AICP 2010 (Winner) for Humor </li></ul><ul><li>New York Festivals World’s Best Advertising 2010 (Silver) for Cosmetics/Beauty Aids/Toiletries </li></ul>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=owGykVbfgUE
  14. 14. Enhancing & Encouraging Creativity <ul><li>Workplace Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Managerial Practices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amabile (1998): Six factors that impact creativity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nurture appropriate risk-taking </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage freedom within boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Teams </li></ul><ul><li>Sternberg (2000): “10 Decisions” </li></ul>
  15. 15. Discussion Questions

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