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Creativity Across Cultures


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A class presentation for ADV 6383 - Creativity as Problem Solving by graduate students Jingya Huang, Danielle Latta and Katie McCarney at SMU's Temerlin Advertising Institute.

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Creativity Across Cultures

  1. 1. Creativity across cultures Todd I. Lubart<br />Jingya Huang, Danielle Latta, Katie McCarney<br />
  2. 2. Topics To Be Covered<br />Creativity Across Cultures<br />Todd I. Lubart<br />Defining Culture<br />Conceptions of Creativity<br />Cultural Variation in Creative Process<br />Culture as a Channel for Creativity<br />Forms and Domains of Creativity<br />Social Structure and Creativity<br />Culture, Language, and Creativity<br />Nurturance of Creativity<br />Discussion Questions<br />
  3. 3. Todd I. Lubart<br />Professor of Psychology at the Université Paris Descartes, and Member of the Institut Universiatire de France.<br />Ph.D. from Yale University and was an invited professor at the Paris School of Management (ESCP). <br />His research focuses on creativity, its identification and development in children and adults, the role of emotions, the creative process and intercultural issues. <br />Co-founder of the International Centre for Innovation in Education (ICIE), and the Associate Editor of Gifted and Talented International. <br />Source: (<br />Source:<br />
  4. 4. What is Culture?<br />
  5. 5. The Definition of Culture<br />“A shared system of cognitions, behaviors, customs, values, rules, and symbols concerning the manner in which a set of people interact with their social and physical environment,”<br />(Sternberg 339). <br />Characteristics of culture:<br />learned and socially transmitted from generation to generation<br />identified at the societal level, following geographic boundaries<br />can be further categorized to subcultures within it<br />dynamic and change over time.<br />
  6. 6. Conceptions of Creativity<br />
  7. 7. Cultural Definitions of Creativity<br />Novel and appropriate<br />“…its relationship to an observable product (Hughes & Drew, 1984),” (Sternberg, 339)<br />Amabile: creativity of a product is to a large extent a social judgment<br />Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking<br />“a state of personal fulfillment, a connection to a primordial realm, or the expression of an inner essence or ultimate reality (Chu, 1970; Kuo, 1996; Mathur, 1982),” (340)<br />Krippner & Arons<br />Hinduism: spiritual or religious expression rather than an innovative solution to a problem<br />“To create is to imitate the spiritual,” (Hallman, 340)<br />Western<br />Eastern<br />Process, Reinterpretation of Traditional<br />Product<br />
  8. 8. Creation Myth - Conception of Creativity Link<br />Linear movement toward a new point<br />Judeo-Christian: Book of Genesis - observable progress<br />“…an insightful production achieved by an individual engaged in a working process with a finite beginning and end(Mason, 1988; Wonder & Blake, 1992),” (Sternberg, 341)<br />Sinclair: “an ongoing process – a developing, an unfolding”<br />Development and progress toward realization of the nature of the universe<br />Circular movement in the sense of successive reconfigurations of an initial totality<br />Western<br />Eastern<br />Modern views of creativity seem to echo cultural creation myths and may derive from them (341)<br />
  9. 9. Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking<br />Product-oriented, originality-based definition<br />Relatively simple verbal and figural tasks that involve divergent thinking plus other problem-solving skills<br />Scored for fluidity, flexibility, originality, elaboration<br />Flaws in different cultures<br />Source:<br />
  10. 10. Connection: Cross-Cultural Differences in Advertising<br />Western<br />Eastern<br />Source:<br />Source:<br />
  11. 11. Cultural Variation in the Creative Process<br />
  12. 12. The Creative Process<br />Western<br />Wallas’ Four-Stage Model<br />Eastern<br />Model Based on Yoga Sutras<br />The Process Model<br />Preparatory<br />Internal Identification<br />Insight<br />Communication of Realizations<br />The Process Model<br />Preparation<br />Incubation<br />Illumination<br />Verification<br />
  13. 13. Vishvakarma<br />God of architecture and engineering<br />VishvakarmaPuja<br />Hindu celebration<br />Source:<br />
  14. 14. Forms and Domains of Creativity <br />Social Structure and Creativity <br />Culture, Language, and Creativity<br />Culture as a Channel for Creativity<br />
  15. 15. Culture as a Channel<br />Source:<br />
  16. 16. Forms & Domains of Creativity<br />Instances of selectivity for creativity<br />Topic’s role in the maintenance of cultural patterns affects degree of creative permissiveness <br />“The more serious the art form…the less the permitted change,” (Ludwig)<br />Within culturally selected domain, expression of creativity may be further specified<br />
  17. 17. Connection: Cultural Restrictions in Advertising<br />Source:<br />
  18. 18. Connection: Cultural Restrictions in Advertising<br />Source:<br />
  19. 19. Social Structure and Creativity<br />Cultures can restrict creativity based on social structure<br />Omaha Indian culture<br />Bali<br />Kaluli of Papua New Guinea<br />Gender-based differences on the quantity or quality of creative work<br />
  20. 20. Culture, Language, and Creativity<br />Language shapes thought (Whorf, 1956)<br /> Language structures categories and expresses a culture’s understanding of the world (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980)<br />Positive link between bilingualism and creativity<br />Suggests that language as an integral part of culture may restrict the ways that people can creatively conceive of a problem<br />Connection: Left-Handedness & Creativity <br />
  21. 21. The Nurturance of Creativity<br />
  22. 22. Culture’s Influence on Level of Creative Activity<br />“Culture may influence the overall level of creative activity. Creativity may be stimulated or hindered by cultural features such as worldview and the value placed on conformity or tradition,” (Sternberg 345)<br />Worldview – the culture’s conception of the nature of the world and people’s role in the world<br />Collectivist vs.Individualistcultures<br />Beliefs and Values<br />Conformity and Tradition<br />Other Influential Characteristics<br />
  23. 23. Conclusion<br /> “A given culture, may contain some elements that foster creativity and others that stifle it, yielding an overall influence that may be positive, negative, or neutral. Also, cultural features may not operate to the same extent in all domains of endeavor,” (Sternberg 346)<br />
  24. 24. Discussion Questions<br />