Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.



Published on

Published in: Business, Economy & Finance
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this


  1. 1. TERMS
  2. 2. <ul><li>Societal Values: Those things considered by a group of people to be good, right or important </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Norms: The usual or normal ways of doing things. The written and unwritten rules of a culture. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Prescriptions: Types of norms that tell us what to do </li></ul><ul><li>Wear clothing in public, obey the law </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Proscriptions: Types of norms that tell us what not to do; prohibited behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Do not kill, do not be disrespectful towards authority </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Folkways: Types of norms that are considered unimportant and do not carry stiff penalties for violation. Punishment may be very informal, such as being laughed at or more formal, such as paying a fine </li></ul><ul><li>Eat turkey at Thanksgiving, comb your hair before going outdoors, don’t park in a no-parking zone </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Mores: Types of norms that are considered important and so carry a heavier penalty for violating. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not kill, Do not spy for another country </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Laws: Those norms that the government has created or taken responsibility for enforcing </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Sanctions: The methods used by society to encourage people to follow the norms </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Types of sanctions: </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Positive : Rewards for doing what is expected (money for bringing home a good report card, a pat on the back, applause) </li></ul><ul><li>Negative: Punishment for norm violation (jail, a spanking, detention, being made fun of) </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Formal: Sanctions issued by some organization, documented sanctions, etc. (jail, detention, grades, diploma) </li></ul><ul><li>Informal: Sanctions which are not formal (laughter, pat on the back, a kiss) </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Physical: Sanctions which involve touching or affect the body physically (a pat on the back, a kiss, being grounded – because you are forced to stay in a physical place) </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological: Those sanctions which affect you in a mental way (a school letter, being told you did a nice job, being called names) </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Economic: Those sanctions which involve money (a fine, promotion at work, money for a good report card, a boycott of a store) </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Economic: The opposite of the above </li></ul>