email@example.com://blogs.epb.uni-hamburg.de/metagames The Breaking of the Circle Playing with, through, against medial boundaries
Narratives | „Why?“ Text „Doom“ „Ultima Underworld II - Labyrinth of Worlds“ (Id 1993) (Origin 1993) [Juha Keinänen (DoeL 2011): „Good guys are handsome, bad guys are ugly. Is there an application in education?“] [Paul Lowe (DoeL 2011): „The more you know the more you see.“] [Stephanie Rothenburg (DoeL 2011): WoW embodies the capitalistic dream.]
Rules | „How?“ Learning games created by teachers-to-be Start (Ignorance) Finish (Knowledge) ? ? ? ? „Crossing the fairy woods“ „Spelunking the cave of wisdom“ „Climbing the mountain of knowledge“ or just „School“ ?
Narratives | cultural inscription „In elementary school kids learn about the actions of the Continental Army that won our freedoms under George Washington and the Armys role in ending Hitlers oppression. Today they need to know that the Army is engaged around the world to defeat terrorist forces bent on the destruction of America and our freedoms.“ „Americas Army. FAQ – Parentʼs Info“, United States Army (2003-2004) „Americaʻs Army“,US Army (2002, 2003, 2009) "In (...) World War II games, where is the liberation of the concentration camps? I [Lauri Tammi: Is there am looking for the motivation rather than historical accuracy in just shooting a bunch of human ﬁgures." „Medal of Honor“?] David Franzoni, Screenwriter, on the DICE-Convention 2006
Rules | explicitly implicit „Three-Learning-Theories-Mini-Games“, Tan (2009) „Ayiti - The Cost of Life“, Global Kids (2006) [Salvatore Iaconesi: How to patent rules to create 20 Millionen Chairs? What is the product? The rules or the chairs?]
Magic Circles | receding borderlines Gamiﬁcation Ludic Design Serious Games Beyond Usability Game Based Playsuasion Assessment Educational Alternate Reality Games “(…) the interference is drawn that any contamination by ordinary life runs the risk of corrupting and destroying its very nature.” - Caillois (2001): “Men, Play and Games”
‚Game‘ | authored environments decontex- toying, ‚playing‘, tualisation setting rules and ‚gaming‘ narratives First order gaming within the game • Liberating, non-serious virtuality • Meaningful, expressive choices • Experiment, repetition and variation
‚Play‘ | re-interpreted givens decontex- toying, ‚playing‘, tualisation setting rules and ‚gaming‘ narratives Second order gaming targeting the game • Liberating, non-serious virtuality • Meaningful, expressive choices • Experiment, repetition and variation
transmediality/pervasivity | abduction The hijacked thread - „digital borderliners“ "(2) The form of the culture of the next society isnt balance anymore, but the system. Identities cant be gained from letting disruptions fade out, but that deviancies will be ampliﬁed and will be upgraded to niches. Equilibrations are empty states; they wait for the next disturbance. (…)" "(7) The art of the next society is light and smart, loud and unbearable. It evades and binds with wit; it hassles and tempts. Its images, stories and sounds attack and deny having done so." „Futurecapability: 15 theses for a coming society“, Dirk Baecker (2011) (translated)Ben Jammin vs. Ben Zol17 Posts in 6 days13.000 letters / 2000 words / 4 pages „May I ask whats happening here?“ - ThorstenA http://www.thorstena.de/?p=4143
transmediality/pervasivity | abduction „Hardliner - Keine Zeit für Helden?!“, Jens Wiemken (2000) “When the three expansions of pervasive games are taken to extremes, the magic circle starts to „Cruel 2 B Kind“, lose its meaning as a contractual boundary McGonigal & Bogost (2006) between ludic and ordinary. Extreme temporal expansion leads to ordinary life becoming a pervasive game. The same happens with space if the ordinary world is seen primarily as a game world: There cannot be a game world without the ordinary world. And, ﬁnally, a game where everyone is only an unaware participant is no longer a game.” Montola et al. (2010) „Pervasive Games“
Unusability | wrong interface „September 12th -‐ A toy world“, Gonzalo Frasca (2003)
Unusability | unbearable ‚realism‘ „Violence. „The Ultimate War The Roleplaying Game of Simulation Game“, Egregious and Repulsive David Wong (2007) Bloodshed“, Greg Costikyan (1999),
Unusability | wrong narrative or rules Patent drawing for „Starpower“, „The Landlordʻs Gary Shirts (1969) Game“, Elizabeth Magie (1905) „The University of Hamburg Game“, Tan (2011)“Suppose we could admit that most of us act as we dobecause of our places in the system. Suppose we [Ben Betts: going againstturned our energy from blaming each other to blamingthe structure of the games we play.” functional ﬁxedness]Meadows (2004): “Why would anyone want to play Starpower?”
2nd order gaming | some assumptions • The more ubiquitious the gameworlds become, the stronger the desire to appropriate the actual possibility space for interpretation and action. • The richer the range of alternative medial modes of representation, the more tempting to transfer content. • The more familiar and meaningful the gameworlds appear, the stronger is the potential for irritation, sabotage, or perturabtion. Thus (educational) game design may follow two roads. Deliver the content as challenging and balanced as can be, to draw the player smoothly into the conﬁnes and safety of the magic circle. Or hint on the magic circle, given rules and narratives as something expandable, mobile, artiﬁcial, modiﬁable, where the decision to take the game serious as is is up to the player - and at oneʻs own ‚riskʻ.
Paradoxes and questions • How can one encode the failing of the code into a medium, in this case into a game? • How can one encode the challenge to change the code by the user? • How can one motivate the user to endure the irritation and the consequential strenous re- generation, testing and tuning of a new code? • Is it possible at all to turn the above into an educational method? Is this desirable?