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Group Dynamics


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Group Dynamics

  1. 1. GROUP DYNAMICS MAKING YOUR PROJECT TEAM WORK Bill Taylor Northeast Area Extension Educator The University of Wyoming is an equal opportunity/affirmative action institution.
  2. 2. PROJECT WORK TEAMS <ul><li>Tomorrow you will be assigned to project teams. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teams will be expected to complete a community project of your design by the end of the institute. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Important for you to understand how groups work, how they should work, some of the pitfalls you may fall into. </li></ul><ul><li>We want your project to be a success. </li></ul>
  3. 3. REFERENCES <ul><li>Team Power by Jim Temme </li></ul><ul><li>How to Lead Work Teams by Fran Rees </li></ul><ul><li>Various papers and articles from Free Management Library at </li></ul>
  4. 4. WHAT IS A TEAM? <ul><li>Definition that fits your project groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A group of people who have been empowered to set goals, make decisions, and solve problems and who have the commitment to make changes to implement their goals and decisions. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. KEY WORDS <ul><li>Empowerment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing of power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsibility for outcomes w/ authority to produce those outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Absolutely essential to success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WBHLI has set the broad goal of developing and completing (or handing off) a community service project </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. KEY WORDS (cont.) <ul><li>Commitment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Without commitment goals will not be reached </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Above all this means participation! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WBHLI is committed to your success – each group will be assigned a staff liaison to assist you in the process. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. KEY WORDS (cont.) <ul><li>Change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teams require change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support, not competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share power, not withhold it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take on new responsibilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May push you out of your comfort zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is one of the purposes of WBHLI – to help you learn new things </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. KEY TRAITS <ul><li>Putting together a team does not necessarily mean it is one. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It must begin to function in the traits of a team. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the main reasons you have been placed in teams is to begin learning and practicing the traits of a team. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The success or failure of your team project will depend on to what degree you can incorporate these principles. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Your liaison will be there to assist you, but it will be up to you to make your team work. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. KEY TRAITS (cont.) <ul><li>Trust </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Team members must learn to trust each other. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Actions speak louder than words. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistent in word and follow-through. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially true for the team leader. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It will be up to your team to determine your leader. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If your leader is not leading your team you will need to communicate that to them and your liaison. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. KEY TRAITS (cont.) <ul><li>Empowerment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You will have the responsibility and power to influence your team outcomes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The leader must be willing to share power. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Team members must be willing to assume responsibility. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. KEY TRAITS (cont.) <ul><li>Authentic participation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the most important. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hand in hand with empowerment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can speak up and act without fear of reprisal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing your energy to help the team complete tasks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How many persons have you seen that simply attend some or all the meetings, but do nothing to help the group get the work done? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. KEY TRAITS (cont.) <ul><li>Ability to manage conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict is not bad – it is to be expected. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is how it is handled that can make it bad. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open communication, willingness to listen, being non-judgmental is essential. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strive for a win-win or consensus where everyone can support at least part of a decision or task. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. KEY TRAITS (cont.) <ul><li>Communications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper communications – other person gets same message I intended. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If not, I need to try again and the other person needs to focus on what they may have missed. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentrate on giving feedback: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ I heard you say…” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ What you just said makes me feel…” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Will you explain or give another example.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The team is in trouble if you feel someone else is taking over and don’t express your thoughts and/or feelings. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. KEY TRAITS (cont.) <ul><li>Delegation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaders must delegate tasks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Goes back to trust – leader must trust members to get the work done, team members must come through on their responsibilities. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides learning experience for team members. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generates motivation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No one is motivated by watching someone else do all the work. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. KEY TRAITS (cont.) <ul><li>Embrace innovation, creativity, risk taking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t stifle ideas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage everyone to be creative. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create energy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be willing to try something new and risk a mistake. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We will only be creative if we trust the people we are working with. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. KEY TRAITS (cont.) <ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not only accomplishing team goals and purposes, but also helping team members grow and prosper. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empowering of team members to be best they can be. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaders should be quick to give praise received to the team, and quick to take the blame for mistakes and failures. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. KEY TRAITS (cont.) <ul><li>Decision-making skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accomplishing goals and objectives means effective problem solving – this requires making decisions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brainstorming generates creative, innovative ideas. However, then the group must act decisively to choose the best and implement them. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. KEY TRAITS (cont.) <ul><li>Integration of personalities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Successful team members complement each other. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>We will assess and explain the characteristics of your personalities tonight. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A team needs both detailed persons and dreamers; those task oriented and those people oriented. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A strong team recognizes differences and embraces and capitalizes on them. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. KEY TRAITS (cont.) <ul><li>Need for constructive change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Key word – “flexibility.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Willingness to adapt and make timely changes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Northeast Wyoming is one of the bastions of “We’ve always done it that way!” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The world around us is in a constant state of change – we must be willing to try new things. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. KEY TRAITS (cont.) <ul><li>Goals and objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must have a common purpose. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WBHLI will give you your general purpose, but you must come to agreement on your specific goals. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This means give and take to come to consensus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment comes from the team agreeing on their own goals and objectives. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. KEY TRAITS (cont.) <ul><li>Training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Team members need training in decision-making, problem-solving, consensus, integrating personalities, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WBHLI will be providing training during monthly classes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of your training will be hands-on as you work as a team to accomplish your project. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>Every group goes through a progression of stages as it matures. </li></ul><ul><li>A group cannot skip a stage, but some may be shortened with proper preparation. </li></ul><ul><li>Each time the basic purpose of the group changes or members change, some repeat of the stages occur. </li></ul><ul><li>Groups may show characteristics of more than one stage, but one will usually be predominant. </li></ul>
  23. 23. STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT (cont.) <ul><li>Stage 1: Forming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The group is just getting started. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characterized by dependence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Members will use behaviors to stay safe, as no trust has yet been built. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Members desire group acceptance. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Members attempt to become oriented to tasks and each other. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition of scope. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To grow to the next stage each member must give up some comfort. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT (cont.) <ul><li>Stage 2: Storming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characterized by competition and conflict in personal relations, organization in task functions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The power structure is being determined, alliances made. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Members waiting to see who has real power and whether they will be accepted. Who can be trusted? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Due to discomfort, some members may remain silent while others dominate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To progress, must move from “testing & proving” to problem-solving. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most important trait – ability to listen. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT (cont.) <ul><li>Stage 3: Norming </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characterized by cohesion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engaged in acknowledgement of contributions of all members. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Willing to change ideas. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growth of trust. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense of belonging and relief. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major task: data flow between members – sharing, feedback, exploring actions to address tasks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May feel so good they begin to fear future breakup of the group and begin to resist change. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT (cont.) <ul><li>Stage 4: Performing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not reached by all groups. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>True interdependence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can work independently, in subgroups, or as complete team equally. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roles & authority adjust to task at hand. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Members feel self-assured in the group. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genuine problem-solving begins. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to optimal solutions and group development. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Support for experimentation with emphasis on achievement. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT (cont.) <ul><li>Stage 5: Adjourning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Termination of task behaviors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disengagement from relationships. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best to have a planned conclusion to provide closure and memories. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Celebration of group achievements. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recognition of individual contributions. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can create apprehension. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Giving up relationships and group inclusion. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. TEAM RULES <ul><li>The first meeting of a team should establish the basic ground rules for operation. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These may be amended by agreement as needed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WBHLI teams should determine a chair(s) and recorder. </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorm rules of operation. </li></ul><ul><li>Record those rules agreed upon for later reference. </li></ul>
  29. 29. TEAM RULES (cont.) <ul><li>Sample rules: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We will be on time, every time, in the delivery of our goods and services and for our team meetings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s okay to disagree with each other, but it’s not okay to be disagreeable. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All team members will participate in problem solving and decision making. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We will always strive for quality in producing goods and services. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. TEAM RULES (cont.) <ul><li>Sample rules (cont.): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We will always strive to set goals that are measurable and attainable. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If we disagree with each other, we will always make an honest attempt to resolve our differences. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All team members will strive for open and honest communication. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The team leader will coach team members to function effectively and efficiently. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. TEAM RULES (cont.) <ul><li>Sample rules (cont.): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Team members will take responsibility for their own outcomes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New team members will be welcomed to the team enthusiastically. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We will be flexible and change-oriented rather than opposed to change. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We will emphasize innovation and creativity. </li></ul></ul>