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Garden Prep/Planting

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Garden Prep/Planting

  1. 1. GARDENING PREPARATION, PLANTING, CARE Owen Miller Master Gardener Weston County Extension Service
  2. 2. SEEDBED <ul><li>LOOSE GRANULAR STRUCTURE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FREE OF CLODS, OLD STEMS, ETC. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>OVERWORKING DESTROYS STRUCTURE </li></ul><ul><li>WORKING TOO WET DESTROYS STRUCTURE </li></ul>
  3. 3. FERTILIZATION <ul><li>POUNDS NUTRIENT/1000 FT 2 </li></ul><ul><li>PRIMARY CONCERN </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen (N) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphorus (P) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FERTILIZER BAG LABEL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Percentages of N, P, & Potassium (K) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>25-5-5 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10-10-10 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. FERTILIZER CALCULATION <ul><li>Recommendation: N – 2.4 lb./1000 sq. ft. </li></ul><ul><li>Garden Size: 20’ X 30’ </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizer Used: 25-5-5 ( N-P-K ) </li></ul><ul><li>100% / 25% = 4 lbs. fert. for a lb. of N </li></ul><ul><li>2.4 lbs. N needed X 4 lbs. fert. = 9.6 lbs. fert. per 1000 sq. ft. </li></ul><ul><li>20’ X 30’ = 600 sq. ft. in garden </li></ul><ul><ul><li>600 / 1000 = 0.6 1000s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>0.6 1000s X 9.6 lbs. fert. per 1000 sq. ft. = 5.76 lbs. fert. (6 lbs.) </li></ul>
  5. 5. FERTILIZER CALCULATION (cont.) <ul><li>Same recommendation </li></ul><ul><li>Same garden </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizer used: 10-10-10 </li></ul><ul><li>100% / 10% = 10 lbs. fert. for a lb. of N </li></ul><ul><li>2.4 lbs. N needed X 10 lbs. fert. = 24 lbs. fert. per 1000 sq. ft. </li></ul><ul><li>0.6 1000s X 24 lbs. fert. per 1000 sq. ft. = 14.4 lbs. fert. (14½ lbs.) </li></ul>
  6. 6. FERTILIZER SAMPLE PROBLEM <ul><li>Garden size: 25’ X 50’ </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizer recommendation: 4.3 lb N per 1000 sq. ft. </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizer purchased: 20-8-5 </li></ul><ul><li>Calculate how much to apply to your garden. </li></ul>
  7. 7. FERTILIZER SAMPLE PROBLEM SOLUTION <ul><li>25 ft. X 50 ft. = 1250 sq. ft. </li></ul><ul><li>1250 sq. ft. / 1000 = 1.25 1000s of sq. ft. </li></ul><ul><li>100% / 20 % = 5 lbs. of fert. for 1 lb. of N </li></ul><ul><li>4.3 lb. N recommended X 5 lb. fert. for a lb. of N = 21.5 lb. fert. per 1000 sq. ft. </li></ul><ul><li>21.5 lb. fert. for 1000 sq. ft. X 1.25 1000s of sq. ft. = 26.875 (27) lb. fert. needed for the garden </li></ul>
  8. 8. TIMING <ul><li>NEWCASTLE GROWING SEASON - 101-136 days </li></ul><ul><li>PLANT WHEN GROUND IS WARM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cool seasons earlier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radishes, carrots, beans, potatoes, onions, peas, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm seasons later - warm nights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Squash, pumpkins, melons, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>LENGTHEN SEASON W/ INDOOR OR COLD FRAME PLANTING </li></ul>
  9. 10. WHAT TO PLANT <ul><li>HARDINESS ZONE 3b-4a </li></ul>
  10. 11. USDA PLANT HARDINESS ZONES UNITED STATES
  11. 12. USDA PLANT HARDINESS ZONES WYOMING
  12. 13. WHAT TO PLANT (cont.) <ul><li>DISEASE AND INSECT RESISTANCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tomato </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>V - Verticillium wilt resistant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>F - Fusarium wilt resistant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>N - Nematode resistant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>T - Tobacco mosaic virus resistant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>PRECIPITATION 14” </li></ul><ul><li>ELEVATION 5000’ </li></ul>
  13. 14. SEED QUALITY <ul><li>USE NEW SEED </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Store 2-3 years in refrigerator </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HIGH QUALITY SEED, WELL KNOWN SUPPLIER </li></ul>PLANTING DEPTH <ul><li>SMALL SEED - SHALLOW </li></ul><ul><li>LARGE SEED - DEEPER </li></ul>
  14. 15. GERMINATION <ul><li>REQUIRES: </li></ul><ul><li>ADEQUATE MOISTURE </li></ul><ul><li>SUFFICIENT TEMPERATURE </li></ul><ul><li>OXYGEN </li></ul>
  15. 16. WATERING <ul><li>WATER AT SEEDING </li></ul><ul><li>LIGHTLY & OFTEN UNTIL SEEDLINGS EMERGE </li></ul><ul><li>AFTER ESTABLISHMENT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less often, longer periods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check soil 1”-2” below surface </li></ul></ul><ul><li>OVERWATERING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yellowing, root rot, fungus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UNDERWATERING </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stunting, wilting, leaf burning, small or shriveled fruit </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. THINNING <ul><li>NECESSARY FOR SMALL SEEDED CROPS WHICH CANNOT BE PLANTED FAR ENOUGH APART </li></ul><ul><li>AFTER SEEDLINGS WELL ESTABLISHED, LEAVE STRONGEST </li></ul><ul><li>USE THINNED PLANTS IN SALADS, ETC. </li></ul>
  17. 18. REPLANTING, STAGGERING <ul><li>SHORT SEASON CROPS CAN BE REPLANTED SEVERAL TIMES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radish </li></ul></ul><ul><li>STAGGER PLANTING TO EXTEND HARVEST </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant more every 7-10 days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lettuce, Corn </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. WEEDING <ul><li>WHY? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition for water & nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents weeds from going to seed or reproducing </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. PLANTING BALLED ROOTS <ul><li>CAREFULLY CHOOSE SITE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mature size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roots beyond fall line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sidewalks, driveways, sewers, buildings, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil </li></ul></ul>
  20. 29. PLANTING BALLED ROOTS (cont.) <ul><li>MAY BUILD WATER WELL </li></ul><ul><li>STAKE IF NEEDED 1 ST AND 2 ND YEAR </li></ul><ul><li>DEEP WATER EACH SUMMER MONTH </li></ul>
  21. 30. PLANTING BARE ROOTS <ul><li>KEEP ROOTS DAMP </li></ul><ul><li>SAME HOLE PROPORTIONS AS BALLED ROOT </li></ul><ul><li>SMALL MOUND OF SOIL IN CENTER </li></ul><ul><li>PLACE TREE AND SPREAD ROOTS </li></ul><ul><li>FILL & COMPLETE AS BALLED ROOT </li></ul>
  22. 31. PRUNING FRUIT TREES <ul><li>PROVIDES ROOM, LIGHT, ENERGY FOR FRUIT </li></ul><ul><li>LARGER, HEATHIER FRUIT </li></ul><ul><li>VERTICAL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ladder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8”-12” apart </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RADIAL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wheel spokes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MAIN LEADER TO SIDE BRANCH WHEN DESIRED HEIGHT IS REACHED </li></ul>
  23. 32. PRUNING FRUIT TREES (cont.) <ul><li>CROTCHES 45° OR MORE </li></ul><ul><li>REMOVE ALL DEAD, INJURED, DYING </li></ul><ul><li>ELIMINATE DOUBLE TOPS </li></ul><ul><li>REMOVE RUBBING, CROSS-OVERS </li></ul><ul><li>DO NOT REMOVE MORE THAN  -  LIVE WOOD </li></ul>
  24. 34. Inside view of pruning cuts that removed collar (flush cut) left, and proper cut, right.

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