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Garden Pathology/Pests

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Garden Pathology/Pests

  1. 1. FERTILIZER ASSIGNMENT - SOLUTION <ul><li>NORTH HALF </li></ul><ul><li>Recommended – 3.0 lb. N </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizer – 25-5-5 </li></ul><ul><li>Garden size – ½ acre </li></ul><ul><li>43,560 sq. ft. per acre / 2 = 21,780 sq. ft. </li></ul><ul><li>21,780 sq. ft. / 1000 = 21.78 1000s </li></ul><ul><li>100% / 25% = 4 lb. fertilizer per lb. of N </li></ul>
  2. 2. FERTILIZER ASSIGNMENT – SOLUTION (cont.) <ul><li>3.0 lb. N per 1000 sq. ft. recommended x 4 lb. fert. per lb. N = 12 lb. fert. per 1000 sq. ft. </li></ul><ul><li>12 lb. fert. X 21.78 1000s = 261.36 lb. fertilizer </li></ul>
  3. 3. FERTILIZER ASSIGNMENT – SOLUTION (cont.) <ul><li>SOUTH HALF </li></ul><ul><li>Recommended – 3.1 lb. N </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilizer – 10-10-10 </li></ul><ul><li>Covering 21.78 1000s as in north half </li></ul><ul><li>100% / 10% = 10 lb. fert. per lb. N </li></ul><ul><li>3.1 lb. N per 1000 sq. ft. recommended x 10 lb. fert. per lb. N = 31 lb. fert. per 1000 sq. ft. </li></ul><ul><li>31 lb. fert. x 21.78 1000s = 675.18 lb. fertilizer </li></ul>
  4. 4. PATHOLOGY & PESTS
  5. 5. METHODS OF CONTROL <ul><li>Resistant varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical controls </li></ul><ul><li>Organic controls </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical controls </li></ul>INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) <ul><li>Best combination of all methods </li></ul><ul><li>As environmentally friendly as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Economical </li></ul>
  6. 6. RESISTANT VARIETIES <ul><li>ADVANTAGES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Little or no other control needed for that pest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DISADVANTAGES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resistant only to specific pests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seed may be more expensive </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. MECHANICAL CONTROLS <ul><li>Rotate plantings </li></ul><ul><li>Netting, exclosures </li></ul><ul><li>Picking insects </li></ul><ul><li>Water spray </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanical traps </li></ul><ul><li>Insect vacuums </li></ul><ul><li>Diatomaceous earth </li></ul><ul><li>Clean up trash </li></ul><ul><li>Hoe weeds </li></ul><ul><li>Weed barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Insecticidal soaps </li></ul><ul><li>Horticultural oils </li></ul>
  8. 8. MECHANICAL CONTROLS (cont.) <ul><li>ADVANTAGES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often cheap </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmentally friendly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DISADVANTAGES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May not be as effective as chemical or organic </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. ORGANIC CONTROLS <ul><li>Release of natural enemy of pest </li></ul><ul><li>Lady bird beetle (lady bug) - aphids </li></ul><ul><li>Preying mantis - other insects </li></ul><ul><li>Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) - bacterial disease of insects </li></ul>
  10. 10. ORGANIC CONTROLS (cont.) <ul><li>ADVANTAGES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmentally friendly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May last longer than chemicals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DISADVANTAGES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May be expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May not be as quick or effective as chemical controls </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. CHEMICAL CONTROLS <ul><li>ADVANTAGES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually immediate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes specific to pest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often quite effective </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DISADVANTAGES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Least environmentally friendly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be dangerous to humans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often kills other insects or plants besides pest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be toxic to birds, animals, fish, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. PESTICIDE SAFETY <ul><li>Homeowners are worst contaminators </li></ul><ul><li>Latest label is the LAW </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Violations may be costly & deadly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Designed to be safe if THE LABEL IS FOLLOWED </li></ul><ul><li>Exposures are cumulative </li></ul>
  13. 13. PESTICIDE SAFETY (cont.) <ul><li>Avenues of exposure: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mouth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Breathing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hands, face & neck, groin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eyes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>USE THE REQUIRED SAFETY EQUIPMENT </li></ul><ul><li>If contaminated immediately flush w/ water, shower, change clothes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See doctor immediately if symptoms occur </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. PESTICIDE SAFETY (cont.) <ul><li>Always shower & change clothes after application </li></ul><ul><li>Wash clothes separate </li></ul>
  15. 15. Dermal (skin) absorption rates Scalp 3.7 Forehead 4.2 Ear canal 5.4 Abdomen 2.1 Groin area 11.6 Forearm 1.0 Palm 1.3 Ball of foot 1.6
  16. 30. PESTICIDE LABELS <ul><li>Brand Name </li></ul><ul><li>Active Ingredients </li></ul><ul><li>Type </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unclassified </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restricted Use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Private Applicator Certification </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial Applicator Certification </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 31. PESTICIDE LABELS (cont.) <ul><li>Warning Statement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caution - slightly or nontoxic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warning - moderately likely to cause acute illness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Danger - highly toxic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May be accompanied by “POISON” & skull and crossbones if especially toxic </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 32. PESTICIDE LABELS (cont.) <ul><li>Statement of practical treatment (first aid) </li></ul><ul><li>Hazards to humans & domestic animals </li></ul><ul><li>Allergic effects statement </li></ul><ul><li>Personal protective equipment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is a minimum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BE SURE TO READ & FOLLOW </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmental hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Physical or chemical hazards </li></ul>
  19. 33. PESTICIDE LABELS (cont.) <ul><li>Directions for use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixing levels - ILLEGAL TO EXCEED </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crops & weeds specified - CANNOT BE USED ON OTHERS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Entry statement </li></ul><ul><li>Storage & disposal </li></ul>

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