Intro To Islam


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Intro To Islam

  1. 1. Islam
  2. 2. <ul><li>The crescent, star, and the color green are symbols often associated with Islam. The star represents knowledge and light, and the crescent represents progress. You will find these symbols on the flags of many Muslim nations. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Need to know <ul><li>Islam is the religion </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim is a person </li></ul><ul><li>Both can be adjectives – Islamic, …in the “Muslim tradition” </li></ul><ul><li>Holy book of Islam is? </li></ul><ul><li>… .Qur’an or Koran </li></ul><ul><li>The writer of the Qur’an is? </li></ul><ul><li>… .Muhammad the Prophet (pbuh) </li></ul><ul><li>This month is what month for Muslims? </li></ul><ul><li>… .Ramadan </li></ul><ul><li>What is the holy city of Islam? </li></ul><ul><li>… .Mecca </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>… .it is the site of the Kaaba, the most sacred spot in the world; it was first built by the first man, Adam, then rebuilt by Abraham and his son Ishmael </li></ul>
  4. 4. Mapping our introduction <ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World Distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Story of Abraham </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land of Canaan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life of Muhammad </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Qur’an </li></ul><ul><li>Five Pillars of Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Sunnis and Shi‘ites </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic Law ( shari’a ) </li></ul><ul><li>Sufism – mysticism of Islam </li></ul>
  5. 5. World Muslims <ul><li>1.5 billion , Muslims represent between 19.2% and 22% of the world's population. </li></ul><ul><li>One of every five persons in the world is a Muslim </li></ul><ul><li>Second largest religion in the world </li></ul>
  6. 6. World Distribution of Muslims Source:   Wikipedia, 2007 Africa 412,324,632 27.2% Asia 1,023,564,005 69.3% Europe 44,090,000 2.98% Latin America 4,515,000 0.26% North America 5,115,000 0.34% World 1.45 – 1.5 billion ~100%
  7. 8. Muslim percentage of population by country <ul><li>Source: Wikipedia </li></ul>
  8. 10. Distribution of Islam per country. Green represents a Sunni majority and blue represents a Shia majority <ul><li>Source: Wikipedia </li></ul>
  9. 11. American Muslims <ul><li>There is no accurate count of the number of Muslims in the United States, because the U.S. Census Bureau does not collect data on religious identification: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1% of population (2002) CIA World Factbook </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1.1 million (2001): ~ 0.5% of national adult population City University of New York - American Religious Identification Survey </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.35 million (2007) Pew Research Center </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4.7 million (2005): ~ 1.5% of national population Encyclopædia Britannica </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>6.7 million (1997): ~ 2.2% of national population J. Ilyas Ba-Yunus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>About 40% Afro-American </li></ul><ul><li>Not all Muslims are Arabs and not all Arabs are Muslims </li></ul>
  10. 12. Mapping our introduction <ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World Distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Story of Abraham </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land of Canaan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life of Muhammad </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Qur’an </li></ul><ul><li>Five Pillars of Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Sunnis and Shi‘ites </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic Law ( shari’a ) </li></ul><ul><li>Sufism – mysticism of Islam </li></ul>
  11. 13. The Story of Abraham <ul><li>In the Old Testament: Genesis 16:1-3, 15-16, 17, 21:1-2 </li></ul><ul><li>Main characters : Abraham, Sarah, Hagar, Ishmael, Isaac </li></ul><ul><li>A promise is given by Yahweh to Abraham and his barren wife Sarah. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The promise: descendents more numerous than the stars, of which great nations will arise. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abraham faithfully follows the voice of God in a time of polytheistic idolatry. </li></ul>
  12. 14. The Story of Abraham – cont’d <ul><li>As Sarah continued to be infertile , God's promise that Abraham's seed would inherit the land seemed incapable of fulfillment. </li></ul><ul><li>So, Sarah gives her maid-servant, Hagar , to Abraham and she bears him a son. </li></ul><ul><li>Ishmael is born, the first-born of Abraham . </li></ul><ul><li>Sarah is jealous and banishes Hagar and Ishmael from their household, into the desert. But God is faithful: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ God called to Hagar from heaven, and said to her, &quot;What troubles you, Hagar? Do not be afraid; for God has heard the voice of the boy where he is. Come, lift up the boy and hold him fast with your hand for I will make a great nation of him.&quot; Gen. 16 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both Jewish and Islamic traditions consider Ishmael as the ancestor of Arab people . </li></ul><ul><li>According to the Muslim tradition, Muhammad was a descendant of Ishmael through his son Kedar. </li></ul>
  13. 15. The Story of Abraham – cont’d <ul><li>Sarah and Abraham eventually gave birth to Isaac, the father of the 12 tribes of Israel. </li></ul><ul><li>Ishmael and Isaac , the fathers of the Jewish and Arab peoples, are from one father Abraham. Each is the fulfillment of God’s promise to Abraham. </li></ul><ul><li>Death of Abraham : He was buried by his sons Isaac and Ishmael, in the Cave of the Patriarchs, where he had deposited the remains of his beloved Sarah. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gen. 25:7-10 “Altogether, Abraham lived a hundred and seventy-five years. 8 Then Abraham breathed his last and died at a good old age, an old man and full of years; and he was gathered to his people. 9 His sons Isaac and Ishmael buried him in the cave of Machpelah near Mamre, in the field of Ephron son of Zohar the Hittite, 10 the field Abraham had bought from the Hittites. There Abraham was buried with his wife Sarah. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This biblical reference substantiates the close origins of Jews, Christians and Muslims. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 16. WHAT’S the POINT with Abraham? <ul><li>Christian claims to exclusive covenantal relationship with YHWH, Jehovah, Elohim are unfounded. </li></ul><ul><li>All three religions proclaim the same origins with God to be true. </li></ul><ul><li>Through Abraham God made an everlasting covenant with the Arabic people through Abraham’s son Ishmael. </li></ul><ul><li>Israel = Isaac (other covenants w/ Israel?) </li></ul><ul><li>Pagans = ? Covenant with God ? </li></ul>
  15. 17. The Land <ul><li>The story of Abraham is the origin of three peoples, three religions (Judaism, Islam, Christianity) </li></ul><ul><li>It supports two claims to one holy, ’promised land’, the land of Canaan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Jews explain that the Land of Israel is theirs by divine right, though they acknowledged that their ancestors had not originated there, they point to the promise made to Abraham (who is originally from the city of Ur). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ironically, this same story also tells of the origin of another people, the offspring of Ishmael, whom Muslims identify as the Arabs. Both religions (Judaism and Islam) therefore trace their origins back to Abraham, and both hold the land of Palestine sacred, though neither accepts the other's claims. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 18. The Land of Canaan
  17. 19. <ul><li>Fertile Crescent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RIVERS: Watered by the Nile, Jordan, Euphrates and Tigris rivers and covering some 400-500,000 square kilometers, the region extends from the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea around the north of the Syrian Desert and through the Jazirah and Mesopotamia to the Persian Gulf. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate: this region has a very diverse zone of high snow-covered mountains, fertile broad basins and desert plateau, which has allowed for a greater biodiversity and enabled the survival of species not found elsewhere. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crops: Evolutionarily, eight important crops of early agriculture and four of the five most important domesticatable species were found there (cows, goats, sheep, pigs). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Land Bridge and central port : trading routes and cultural diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ON LAND before advanced navigation techniques and ship construction this region was the crossroads and gateway for trading in other parts of the world. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By SEA Its strategic position on the Mediterranean, Red Sea gives it access to Middle East, Asia, North, South and East Africa </li></ul></ul>Center of the World
  18. 20. So WHAT? <ul><li>With so much cultural and societal diversity and strength in the region many people were bound to flourish. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plenty of food, water, land, and flow of goods and people. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is no wonder that three of the world’s most influential religions developed in the Fertile Crescent. </li></ul><ul><li>It is no wonder that the three religions claim this region as their origin. </li></ul>
  19. 21. <ul><li>Israel, Gaza Strip, West Bank </li></ul>
  20. 22. The Land of Canaan The Territory of Palestine <ul><li>In Jerusalem there are the holiest sites of Judaism, Christianity and Islam, such as the </li></ul><ul><li>Temple Mount </li></ul><ul><li>Dome of the Rock </li></ul><ul><li>Al-Aqsa Mosque </li></ul><ul><li>Western Wall </li></ul><ul><li>Church of the Holy Sepulcher </li></ul>
  21. 23. <ul><li>Known as the Noble Sanctuary </li></ul><ul><li>In 621 the Prophet Muhammad (c. 570-632) took a journey, called the ‘Isra and Mi'raj’, on the winged steed Buraq , which was brought to him by the Archangel Gabriel. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Qur'anic verse, Muhammad took the journey in a single night from &quot;the sacred mosque&quot; (in Mecca) to &quot;the farthest mosque&quot; (al-Masjid al-Aqsa). From a rock there, Muhammad ascended to heaven, accompanied by Gabriel, touring heaven and receiving the commandments, including the five daily prayers, before returning to Earth and back to Mecca to communicate them to the faithful. </li></ul><ul><li>According to the teachings of Islam, Allah in the Qur'an refers to the sites established by Abraham and his progeny as houses of worship. The first of these spots is Masjid al-Haram in Mecca and the second is Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem . </li></ul>Al-Aqsa Mosque The Farthest Mosque المسجد الاقص
  22. 24. Dome of the Rock <ul><li>The rock in the center of the dome is the spot from which, according to Islamic tradition, Muhammad ascended for a night-long journey (Isra and Mi'raj) to Heaven in AD 621 , accompanied by the angel Gabriel. </li></ul><ul><li>In Judaism the stone is the site where Abraham fulfilled God's test to see if he would be willing to sacrifice his son Isaac . </li></ul><ul><li>The rock where Jacob dreamed about angels ascending and descending on a ladder to heaven. </li></ul><ul><li>Situated inside the Holy of Holies, this was the rock upon which the Ark of the Covenant was placed in the First Temple. </li></ul>
  23. 25. <ul><li>The Temple Mount is the holiest site for Judaism . </li></ul><ul><li>The Jewish Temple in Jerusalem stood there: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the First Temple (built c. 967 BCE, destroyed c. 586 BCE by the Babylonians) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the Second Temple (rebuilt c. 516 BCE, destroyed in the siege of Jerusalem by the Romans in 70 CE). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>According to a commonly held belief in Judaism, it is to be the site of the final Third Temple , to be rebuilt with the coming of the Jewish Messiah </li></ul></ul>Temple Mount Aerial photo of the Temple Mount surrounding Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem. A, B, C indicate the proposed northern, central and southern sites for the First and Second Temples.
  24. 26. <ul><li>The Western Wall is the most holy place accessible to the Jewish people because of Muslim control of the Temple Mount.  </li></ul><ul><li>It was built by Herod the Great as the retaining wall of the Temple Mount complex. </li></ul><ul><li>It is sometimes referred to as the Wailing Wall, referring to Jews mourning the destruction of the Temple. </li></ul>Western Wall or Wailing Wall
  25. 27. <ul><li>The ground on which the church stands is venerated by most Christians as Golgotha, the Hill of Calvary, where the New Testament says that Jesus was crucified. It is said to also contain the place where Jesus was buried (the sepulcher). </li></ul><ul><li>Status quo </li></ul>Church of the Holy Sepulcher
  26. 28. Arab – Israeli Conflict <ul><li>Ottoman Empire – rules Middle East for nearly 400 years (~1600 – 1920) </li></ul><ul><li>Post-WWI OE was penalized for its alliance with Germany. It was split apart by external (Treaty of Sèvres) and internal forces (popular ethnic national forces). </li></ul><ul><li>League of Nations administered these portions of the defunct OE until they were strong enough and unified enough to rule themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>British Mandate of Palestine was part of this split. </li></ul>
  27. 29. Palestinian Territory post-WWI
  28. 30. UN Partition Plan <ul><li>The modern state of Israel has its roots in the Land of Israel, a concept central to Judaism for over three thousand years. </li></ul><ul><li>After World War I, the League of Nations approved the British Mandate for Palestine with the intent of creating a &quot;national home for the Jewish people&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1947, the United Nations approved the partition of the Mandate of Palestine into two states, one Jewish and one Arab. </li></ul><ul><li>The Arab League rejected the plan, but on May 14, 1948, Israel declared its independence. All of the surrounding Arab nations declared war on Israel (Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon). </li></ul><ul><li>The new country's victory in the subsequent Arab-Israeli War expanded the borders of the Jewish state beyond those in the UN Partition Plan. Since then, Israel has been in conflict with many of the neighboring Arab countries, resulting in several major wars and decades of violence. </li></ul>
  29. 31. Present day Middle East
  30. 32. Mapping our introduction <ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World Distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Story of Abraham and Sarah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land of Canaan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life of Muhammad </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Qur’an </li></ul><ul><li>Five Pillars of Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Sunnis and Shi‘ites </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic Law ( shari’a ) </li></ul><ul><li>Sufism – mysticism of Islam </li></ul>
  31. 33. Life of the Prophet Muhammad <ul><li>Born in 570 AD into leading tribe of Mecca, the Koreish. </li></ul><ul><li>Harsh, desert world into which he was born: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No loyalty outside tribe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood feuds and public fights among tribes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scarcity of resources led to raiding parties of bandits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drunken orgies, gambling in Mecca were common place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predominant religion: animistic polytheism, which demonstrated no moral restraint. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tragic Childhood: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Father died – a few days before his birth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mother died – at the age of six </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grandfather died – age of eight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>After his mother’s death grandfather cared for Muhammad </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopted into poor uncle’s home, forcing young Muhammad to work hard tending uncle’s flocks. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 34. Pure-hearted and beloved <ul><li>Orphan Muhammad was warmly welcomed into uncle’s family. </li></ul><ul><li>As a young boy who had suffered great losses, he grew sensitive to human suffering and the fragility of life. </li></ul><ul><li>He was removed and inward looking. </li></ul><ul><li>His hard work ethic and honesty gained him the respect of many around him. </li></ul><ul><li>This disposition also separated him from the corruption, general immorality and cynicism of the day. </li></ul>
  33. 35. Young Man <ul><li>Took up caravan business </li></ul><ul><li>Entered the service of wealthy widow, Khadija, at age of 25 </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad’s prudence and integrity gained her respect, which grew to love. </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad (25yrs old) and Khadija (40 yrs old) married; she was 15 years older than him. </li></ul><ul><li>Long and happy marriage having at least six children. </li></ul><ul><li>The following 15 years the two lived happily as Muhammad was being prepared by Allah to be His prophet. </li></ul>
  34. 36. Preparation for the Night of Power <ul><li>For 15 years, Muhammad would frequently seek solitude from the chaos of Mecca in the outskirt mountains. </li></ul><ul><li>On Mount Hira, in a cave Muhammad contemplated good and evil, unable to accept the crudeness, superstition and feuding of his time. </li></ul><ul><li>In this time of polytheistic idolatry, certain contemplatives, called hanifs , worshiped Allah exclusively. Muhammad joined their number. </li></ul><ul><li>Through this experience, “Allah’s reality became …increasingly evident and awesome. Fearful and wonderful, real as life, real as death, real as the universe he had [ordained], Allah was far greater than his countrymen supposed.” pg 225, The World’s Religions , by Huston Smith </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad came to know that this Allah was not just a god or the greatest of gods, but was THE God, One and Only. </li></ul>
  35. 37. The Night of Power and Excellence Lailat al Qadr <ul><li>In the cave on Mt. Hira Archangel Gabriel visited Muhammad in the form of a man, saying “Recite” (or ‘Proclaim’). </li></ul><ul><li>Physically overwhelmed three times by the strength of the angel, Muhammad was commanded to ‘Proclaim’. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Proclaim in the name of your Lord who created! Created man from a clot of blood. Proclaim: Your Lord is the Most Generous, Who teaches by the pen; Teaches man what he knew not.” (Qur’an 96:1-3) </li></ul>
  36. 38. The Night of Power and Excellence <ul><li>Had he gone mad? Consoled by wife, Khadija, and she became his first convert. </li></ul><ul><li>“ From that time forth Muhammad’s life was no longer his own. It was given to God and to humanity, preaching with resolve in the face of persecution, insult and outrage for twenty-three years.” </li></ul><ul><li>p226 The World’s Religions , by Huston Smith </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims regard this as the most important event in history, and the Qur'an says that this night is better than a thousand months (97:3), and that on this night the angels descend to earth. </li></ul><ul><li>The traditional date for this day is 27 Ramadan, as the Prophet Muhammad did not mention when the Night of Power would be, although it was suggested it was in the last 10 days of the month. </li></ul><ul><li>Many Muslims will treat the last 10 days of the month of Ramadan as a particularly good time for prayer and reading the Qur'an. </li></ul><ul><li>Night of Power http:// =nKyWMp0leeA </li></ul>
  37. 39. Persecution: Early Years <ul><li>Citizens and leaders of Mecca threatened </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Monotheism threatened polytheistic beliefs (similar threat of Christians in Rome) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polytheism created considerable revenue to Mecca from pilgrimages to its 360 shrines (one for every day of the lunar year). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Muhammad’s moral teachings demanded an end to licentiousness of citizens. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Social content of Muhammad’s teaching challenged an unjust order. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 40. Persecution with slow success p228 The World’s Religions , by Huston Smith <ul><li>Persecution: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Covered Muhammad and his followers with dirt and filth as they prayed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pelted with stones as he preached </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beat him and his followers with sticks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imprisoned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tried to starve them out by refusing to sell to Muhammad and followers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>After three years, less than 40 followers </li></ul><ul><li>“ Slowly but steadily, people of energy, talent, and worth became convinced of the truth of his message” p228 The World’s Religions , by Huston Smith </li></ul><ul><li>By the end of the decade Muhammad had accrued several hundred families as his followers </li></ul>
  39. 41. Migration to Yathrib <ul><li>Meccan nobility became seriously concerned about this ‘revolution’ that threatened their existence. </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad, from a “pretentious, crazed-camel driver” to a leader of a religious and social revolution! </li></ul><ul><li>Recruitment of Muhammad from (city of) Yathrib – 280 miles north of Mecca. </li></ul><ul><li>He migrated to Yathrib, seeking asylum </li></ul>
  40. 42. Yathrib (Medina) <ul><li>Muhammad’s teachings had won a strong hold in Yathrib because of pilgrims to Mecca who had brought his teachings back to Yathrib. </li></ul><ul><li>Nobles of Mecca wanted to stop Muhammad from leaving Mecca, because they wanted to put an end to him. </li></ul><ul><li>He escaped Mecca by hiding in a crevice south of the city for three days. </li></ul><ul><li>The year of this exodus or ‘emigration’ to Yathrib, of Muhammad and the families that believed his teachings, is called Hijra . </li></ul><ul><li>“ Muslims base their system for assigning dates on this event, using the abbreviation A.H. (after Hijra)” p 250, World Religions, A Voyage of Discovery, by Jeffrer Brodd </li></ul><ul><li>On Christian calendar, year 622. </li></ul><ul><li>Yathrib became known as Medinat al-Nabi, the City of the Prophet. Shortened to Medina. </li></ul>
  41. 43. Muhammad the Prophet to Muhammad the Statesman <ul><li>Muhammad proved to be a masterful statesman, administrating the civil needs of the citizens. </li></ul><ul><li>He governed with an ideal blend of humility, honesty, justice and mercy. </li></ul><ul><li>With the remaining 10 years of his life he brought peace to the feuding tribes of Medina. </li></ul><ul><li>He succeeded in awakening in the citizens a spirit of cooperation unknown in the city’s history. </li></ul>God has not sent me to work wonders; He has sent me to preach to you. My Lord; be praised! Am I more than a man sent as an apostle?” From first to last he resisted every impulse to inflate his own image. “I never said that God’s treasures are in my hand, that I knew the hidden things or that I am an angel. I am only a preacher of God’s words, the bringer of God’s message to mankind.” p227 The World’s Religions, by Huston Smith
  42. 44. Battle with Mecca <ul><li>Three times Media and Mecca went to battle. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nobles of Mecca still insistent upon eradicating Muhammad and his followers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First battle (second year of Hijra) Medinese won spectacular victory over a Meccan army much larger than itself – sign from God. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Second battle (following year) Media was badly routed by Meccan army, and Muhammad wounded in battle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Third battle, Meccan army laid seige to Medina in a last desperate attempt to force Muslims to surrender their beliefs. Medians and Muhammad were victorious. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eight years after he left Mecca as a fugitive, his migration to Media (Hijra), he returned as a conqueror. </li></ul></ul>
  43. 45. Islam goes international <ul><li>Two years later, Muhammad died as governor, ruler, prophet to Media, Mecca and virtually all of Arabia. </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad had succeeded in uniting his countrymen as no other Arab had ever done in history. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Before the century closed his followers had conquered Armenia, Persia, Syria, Palestine, Iraq, North Africa, Spain, and had crossed the Pyrenees into France.” p230, The World’s Religions by Huston Smith </li></ul><ul><li>All of the Western world might be Muslim today if it had not been for their defeat by Charles Martel in the Battle of Tours in 733. </li></ul>
  44. 46. Mapping our introduction <ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World Distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Story of Abraham and Sarah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land of Canaan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life of Muhammad </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Qur’an </li></ul><ul><li>Five Pillars of Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Sunnis and Shi‘ites </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic Law ( shari’a ) </li></ul><ul><li>Sufism – mysticism of Islam </li></ul>
  45. 47. Qur’an <ul><li>The basics ~ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4/5 ths the length of the New Testament </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divided into 114 primary units called surahs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A surah could be compared to a chapter of the Bible, but looks more like a psalm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each surah is divided into verses or ayas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Citing the Qur’an: (24:35) is the (sura # or name:aya) = (chapter:verse). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suras are assigned numbers, but are referred to traditionally by names. These sura names come from a rare word in the first few lines of the sura. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sura 1 – Fatiha (opening) , Sura 2 – Cow , … Sura 12 – Joseph </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qur’an means “the reading” or “the recitation”. It is a noun as well as an action. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In the spoken word God is present </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Qur’an was initially promulgated orally – Muhammad would send messengers to recite a new sura to his people. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  46. 48. Character of the Qur’an <ul><li>It is the basic, accurate revelation or incarnation of God in the world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In Christianity this is? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is God’s spoken word in the literal sense. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpretation of Qur’an is strict in most cultures, and sometimes literal . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Qur’an is in the 1 st person – voice of Allah speaking through Angel Gabriel to Muhammad </li></ul><ul><li>The Qur’an is a perfect copy of the a prototype that exists eternally in the highest heaven. This eternal book is referred to as “the mother of the book” (13:39). </li></ul><ul><li>Qur’an acknowledges the presence of other prophets: Noah, Abraham (monotheism), Moses (ethical law), Jesus (Golden Rule), and therefore calls Jews, Christians and Zoroastrians as people of the book. </li></ul>
  47. 49. Putting the Qur’an into writing <ul><li>Arabic, like Hebrew, is a consonantal language, meaning no vowels are used in writing. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Today’s Arabic and Hebrew newspapers are written consonantally, which means context is important. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Original suras were lines of consonant-clusters with no vowels. </li></ul><ul><li>Exact meaning of written text was dependent upon oral tradition. </li></ul><ul><li>This led to slight variations of the Qur’an. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1924, Egyptian scholars created a standardized, printed version of Qur’an. </li></ul><ul><li>To ensure preserving authenticity, consulted the living oral tradition. </li></ul><ul><li>Muslims consider ONLY THE CONSONANTS OF THE QUR’AN TO BE REVEALED TEXT BY ALLAH , the added vowels are not. </li></ul>
  48. 50. Organization of Qur’an <ul><li>Qur’an is not chronological . </li></ul><ul><li>Suras are organized by decreasing length, with few exception (sura 1, 15, 40). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sura 2 is longest, sura 114 is the shortest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Qur’an didn’t exist as a single book in Muhammad’s lifetime, but it is believed he had determined its structure.’ </li></ul><ul><li>Every sura, except 9, begins with the basmala – “in the name of God the Compassionate, the Caring”. </li></ul>
  49. 51. Style of Qur’an <ul><li>Is not to be read from front to back as a book. </li></ul><ul><li>Jewish and Christian scriptures are largely chronological and can be read in this way with some success of understanding their meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>To Westerner the Qur’an may seem boring and repetitive: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thomas Carlyle (1841), a sympathetic scholar of the Qur’an, describes it as such, “a confused jumble, crude, incondite; endless iterations, long-windedness, entanglement; most crude, incondite, insupportable stupidity in short.” </li></ul></ul>
  50. 52. <ul><li>Qur’an’s compellent message lies in its oral recitation and appeals to the imagination, emotions and mind. </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Qur’an makes contact with its audience through sound, visual images,…body gestures and intonations” that played a crucial role in its delivery and compulsion. </li></ul><ul><li>These gestures and vocal clues aren’t preserved in the written text. </li></ul><ul><li>Language is non-linear, but more like a montage or kaleidoscope, in which different elements continually recur but in different arrangements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not prose or poems per se, but a form of rhymed and rhythmic prose </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Language of Qur’an isn’t normal for Muhammad’s day </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare to Shakespeare or King James Bible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>link </li></ul></ul>
  51. 53. Mapping our introduction <ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World Distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Story of Abraham and Sarah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land of Canaan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life of Muhammad </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Qur’an </li></ul><ul><li>Five Pillars of Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Sunnis and Shi‘ites </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic Law ( shari’a ) </li></ul><ul><li>Sufism – mysticism of Islam </li></ul>
  52. 54. Five Pillars of Islam <ul><li>Shahada – Confession of the faith </li></ul><ul><li>Salat - Prayer </li></ul><ul><li>Zakat – Wealth sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Saum – Fasting during Ramadan </li></ul><ul><li>Hajj – the pilgrimage </li></ul>
  53. 55. Shahada Confession of Faith <ul><li>The confession of faith: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ There is no god except God. Muhammad is the messenger of God.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A free and intentional expression of the Shahada officially makes a person (revert) Muslim . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is done with two witnesses and a person to take the hand of the one embracing the way. Then the person repeats the Shahada slowly three times. This is the beginning of the journey of peaceful self-submission to the will of Allah. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslims believe all people were originally Muslim, having submitted to God at the time of Adam’s creation. Did you agree to come into creation? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reciting the Shahada is only one way of witnessing to the faith. A Muslim that dies for the faith is a martyr and called a shahid, a witness. </li></ul>
  54. 56. Salat Prayer <ul><li>Prayer is a very integral part of the way of submission. </li></ul><ul><li>Allah has directed the believer to prostrate in prayer five times a day. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First at early morning just as the light of day begins. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second is just after the sun passes the highest point of the sky. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Third is the afternoon prayer when the shadow becomes long. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fourth is at sunset just after the sun goes below the horizon. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finally, at night when all of the color has left the sky and darkness has settled. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This pattern sets the believer in tune with the Creator of all the cosmos. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ablution or ritual washing of the hands and face is required </li></ul><ul><li>Prostration toward Mecca, towards the Ka’aba </li></ul>
  55. 57. Zakat Helping the Needy <ul><li>2.5% of the taxable wealth (liquid assets and income-producing property). </li></ul><ul><li>Tax taken by command of Allah </li></ul><ul><ul><li>given to the poor or spent on public concerns (education or cultural institutions). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If a believer has a certain level of wealth for a full year they must pay the zakat due on it. (i.e. the approximate market value of 86 grams of gold) </li></ul><ul><li>It is a tool of social balance between rich and poor. </li></ul><ul><li>Zakat is an act of worship and instructs Muslims to practice charity regularly. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For the individual, Zakat: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Purifies and promotes assets; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develops gratitude for Allah's bounty; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brings about a sense of peace and well-being. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For the society, Zakat: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimizes the feeling of envy among those who are less well-to-do; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a religiously-approved method of managing the society's economy and finance; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Makes it possible for part of the wealth of the rich to be distributed among the poor. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  56. 58. Saum Fasting <ul><li>Fasting is prescribed for the month of Ramadan (9 th month of Muslim year). </li></ul><ul><li>Fasting includes abstaining from eating, drinking, and sex from sunrise to sunset. </li></ul><ul><li>After sunset, the fast is traditionally broken with dates and milk, as tradition of the Prophet Muhammad. This is usually followed by prayer and then a larger meal. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a common practice to read the whole Qur’an during this month because it was during the month of Ramadan that the first verses of the Qur’an were revealed. </li></ul><ul><li>Exemptions: infirm, difficult journey, women who are breast-feeding. </li></ul>
  57. 59. Hajj Pilgrimage <ul><li>Pilgrimage to the Ka‘ba in the Grand Mosque in Mecca during the month of Dhul-hijja, which is the 12 th and last month of Muslim calendar. </li></ul><ul><li>At least once in a lifetime, if possible. Now days over 2M people make hajj each year. Non-Muslims are not allowed to visit Mecca or Medina. </li></ul><ul><li>The believer must have all debts taken care of and leave on the way with all worldly ties at ease. Muslims must not go into debt or sacrifice the well being of their family in order to make the hajj. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To go on hajj gives prestige to the individual </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The men wear two plain garments, despite economic status, nationality, race or any other worldly distinction. </li></ul><ul><li>Sins are forgiven of those who make the journey with reverence </li></ul><ul><li>One that dies on the hajj is considered a martyr. </li></ul>
  58. 60. Hajj <ul><li>In 2002- 2,371,000 pilgrims vs 294,000 in 1965 </li></ul><ul><li>~6,226 flights to Jeddah airport and board one of 15,000 busses </li></ul><ul><li>$275 fee for hajj visa, which includes guides, tent housing, local transportation and Zamzam water (water from well revealed to Hagar in the desert). </li></ul><ul><li>43,000 tents w/ ~40 pilgrims in each. </li></ul><ul><li>Each tent has full faculties with bathrooms and cooling devices. </li></ul><ul><li>Over a million goats and sheep were sacrificed ($131.57 each) </li></ul>
  59. 61. Ka‘aba <ul><li>The foundation originally built by the angles. Adam built the first Ka‘ba and later Abraham and his son Ishmael rebuilt it. </li></ul><ul><li>Covered with black cloth that is decorated with embroidered gold verses of the Qur’an – replaced every year. </li></ul><ul><li>Ka‘aba is empty inside and once inside one can pray in any direction. </li></ul><ul><li>Hajj is re-enactment of Muhammad’s final pilgrimage and recall heritage to Abraham. </li></ul><ul><li>Black stone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tradition 1: Fell from heaven and Adam put it in the first Ka‘aba, later Gabriel took stone out of hiding and gave it to Abraham to place in the rebuilt Ka‘aba. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tradition 2: The stone was originally white but turned black by the sins of humanity. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Circle the Ka‘aba seven times during hajj replicating the movement of the angels around the house/throne of God in heaven. Ka‘aba is a replica of God’s house in seventh heaven. </li></ul>
  60. 62. Route of the Hajj <ul><li>Tawaf </li></ul><ul><ul><li>On the first day of the Hajj, the 8th day of Dhul Hijjah {the 12th month}, the pilgrims perform their first Tawaf. This consists of walking anti-clockwise around the Kaaba seven times. Men are encouraged to perform the first three circuits at a hurried pace, followed by four times, more closely, at a leisurely pace. On each circuit the pilgrim is supposed to kiss the Black Stone, but this is not possible because of the large crowds, and so it is acceptable to simply point at the Stone on each circuit. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sa'I </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After Tawaf, the pilgrims perform sa`i , running or walking seven times back and forth between the hills of Safa and Marwah. This is a re-enactment of Hajar's frantic search for water, before the Zamzam Well was revealed to her by an angel sent by God. The circuit used to be in the open air, but is now entirely enclosed by the Masjid al-Haram mosque, and can be accessed via air-conditioned tunnels. Pilgrims are advised to walk the circuit, though two green pillars mark a short section of the path where they are allowed to run, along with an 'express lane' for the disabled. The safety procedures are in place because previous incidents in this ritual have resulted in stampedes which resulted in the deaths of hundreds of people. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As part of this ritual, the pilgrims also drink water from the Zamzam Well, which is made available in coolers throughout the Mosque. The pilgrims then return to their tents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Arafat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The next morning, on the ninth of Dhu al-Hijjah, the pilgrims leave Mina for Mount Arafat. This is considered the highlight of the Hajj, as they stand in contemplative vigil, near a hill from which Muhammad gave his last sermon. Pilgrims must spend the afternoon within a defined area on the plain of Arafat until after sunset. No specific rituals or prayers are required during the stay at Arafat, although many pilgrims spend time praying, talking to God, and thinking about the course of their lives. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Muzdalifah </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As soon as the sun sets, the pilgrims leave Arafat for Muzdalifah, an area between Arafat and Mina, where 49 pebbles are gathered for the next day's ritual of the stoning of the Devil (Shaitan). Many pilgrims spend the night sleeping on the ground at Muzdalifah, before returning to Mina. It is now the 10th of the month, the day of Eid ul-Adha. </li></ul></ul>
  61. 63. <ul><li>Ramy al-Jamarat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At Mina, the pilgrims perform Ramy al-Jamarat , throwing stones to signify their defiance of the Devil. This symbolizes the trials experienced by Abraham, as he wrestled with whether or not to sacrifice his son per God's demand. The Devil challenged him three times, and three times Abraham refused. Each pillar marks the location of one of these refusals. Because of the crowds, in 2004 the pillars were changed to long walls. Pilgrims climb ramps to the multi-leveled Jamarat Bridge, from which they can throw pebbles at the three jamarat. Each pilgrim must hit each pillar at least seven times. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eid ul-Adha </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After the Stoning of the Devil, an animal is sacrificed. This symbolizes God having mercy on Abraham, and replacing his son with a ram, which Abraham then sacrificed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditionally the pilgrim slaughtered the animal himself or oversaw the slaughtering. Today many pilgrims buy a sacrifice voucher in Mecca before the greater Hajj begins; this allows an animal to be slaughtered in their name on the 10th without the pilgrim being physically present. Centralized butcher houses will sacrifice a single sheep for each pilgrim, or a cow can represent the sacrifice of seven people. The meat is then packaged and given to charity, shipped to poor people around the world. At the same time as the sacrifices occur at Mecca, Muslims worldwide perform similar sacrifices, in a three day global festival called Eid ul-Adha . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tawaf az-Ziyarah </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pilgrims circumambulating the Kaaba during the Hajj </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On this or the following day the pilgrims re-visit the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca for a tawaf called the Tawaf az-Ziyarah (or Tawaf al-Ifadah) which is an obligatory part of the Hajj. The night of the 10th is spent back at Mina. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On the afternoon of the 11th, pilgrims must again stone all three jamarat in Mina (seven pebbles per jamarat). The same ritual must be performed on the following day. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pilgrims must leave Mina for Mecca before sunset on the 12th. If they are unable to leave Mina before sunset, they must perform the stoning ritual again on the 13th before returning to Mecca. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tawaf al-Wada </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finally, before leaving Mecca, pilgrims perform a farewell tawaf called the Tawaf al-Wada. </li></ul></ul>
  62. 64. Mapping our study <ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World Distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Story of Abraham and Sarah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land of Canaan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life of Muhammad </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Qur’an </li></ul><ul><li>Five Pillars of Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Sunnis and Shi‘ites </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic Law ( shari’a ) </li></ul><ul><li>Sufism – mysticism of Islam </li></ul>
  63. 65. Divisions within Islam: Sunnism and Shi’ism <ul><li>Islam first diverged after the Prophet Muhammad died in 632 AD </li></ul><ul><li>His followers could not agree: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bloodline successors or leaders most likely to follow the tenets of the faith. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>First successor (caliph) of Muhammad was Abu Bakr, the prophet’s adviser </li></ul><ul><li>The 2 nd and 3 rd caliphs were also chosen from community by community </li></ul>
  64. 66. Shi’ites <ul><li>4 th successor of Muhammad was his relative, Ali </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>he was passed over three times before named caliph. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>assassinated by Sunni group </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ali was favored by the Shi’i group for leadership over the first three caliphs. </li></ul><ul><li>The Shi’ites want Ali’s descendants to lead the Muslim state, not just members of Umma. </li></ul><ul><li>Ali and his successors are called imams </li></ul>
  65. 67. How did the violence start? <ul><li>In 656 AD , Ali’s supporters killed the third caliph. </li></ul><ul><li>Ali’s supporters named him the 4 th caliph. </li></ul><ul><li>Ali was assassinated by the Sunni division. </li></ul><ul><li>Soon after, Ali’s son Husayn is elected first Shia Imam by Shi’ite group. </li></ul><ul><li>The Sunnis killed Ali’s son Husayn by beheading in Battle of Karbala (680AD). </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Karbala was a battle between Shi’ites and Sunnis. </li></ul><ul><li>On one side were supporters and relatives of Muhammad's grandson Husayn ibn Ali – approximately 100 men and women; on the other side was the military of the Umayyad caliph – approximately 4000. </li></ul>
  66. 68. Martyrdom of Husayn <ul><li>Consolidated Shi’ism into distinct form of Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Death of Husayn, grandson of Muhammad, still obersved within Shi’i Islam today. </li></ul><ul><li>Imam of Shi’ism is not a prophet but has true earthly authority and special spiritual insight. </li></ul><ul><li>There have been 12 Imams and the 12 is thought to have been hidden away at a young age. </li></ul><ul><li>The twelth Imam, Muhammad al-Mahdi, will return on the Day of Judgment to restore Islam at the end of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Shi’ite believers in the 12 Imam are called Twelvers and are the largest sect of Shi’ite Islam. </li></ul><ul><li>Reference: World Religions: A Voyage of Discovery, by Brodd, 2003 and </li></ul>
  67. 69. Mapping our introduction <ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World Distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Story of Abraham and Sarah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Land of Canaan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life of Muhammad </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Qur’an </li></ul><ul><li>Five Pillars of Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic Law ( shari’a ) </li></ul><ul><li>Sunnis and Shi‘ites </li></ul><ul><li>Sufism – mysticism of Islam </li></ul>
  68. 70. Islamic Law <ul><li>Qur’an </li></ul><ul><li>Sunna – custom of the Prophet </li></ul><ul><li>Ijma – consensus of the community </li></ul><ul><li>Qiyas – analogy or precedent to guide interpretation of Islamic law </li></ul>
  69. 71. Islamic Law Shari‘a <ul><li>“ [Is] a comprehensive system of divine guidance for Muslims in all areas of private and public life, including organization of the state and relationships between communities and nations.” Muslim-Christian Relations: Past, Present, Future by Ovey N. Mohammed, sj, p11 </li></ul><ul><li>After Muhammad’s immigration to Yathrib/Medina, the Qur’an began to include legislative, or legal, material pertaining to the ordering of life in the new “supra-tribal” religious community – similar to parts of the OT, in which God’s revelation includes legal material. </li></ul><ul><li>10% of Qur’an is legalistic </li></ul>
  70. 72. Islamic Law <ul><li>After Muhammad’s death, Islam spread rapidly and Islamic law was shaped over the following three centuries. </li></ul><ul><li>Islamic Law or shari‘a, is shared by all of the umma (Muslim community). </li></ul>
  71. 73. Shari‘a (sunna, ijma, qiyas) <ul><li>Sunna </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A record of the customs of Muhammad – what he said and did </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes the form of a collections of sayings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>each saying is called a hadith </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The hadith are the vehicle for the sunna (customs of Muhammad) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gospel of Jesus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authority of sunna is from the Qur’an </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Obey God and the Prophet” (Q 33:33; 4:58) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Truly in the messenger of God you have a beautiful model” (Q 33:21) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  72. 74. Shari‘a (sunna, ijma, qiyas) <ul><li>Ijma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consensus of the community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authority from hadith “My community will not agree on error.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ If at any time in the history of Islam the community came to a consensus on a question about which neither the Qur’an nor the sunna made any specific statement, that consensus became part of the shari‘a. ” Muslim-Christian Relations: Past, Present, Future by Ovey N. Mohammed, sj, p11 </li></ul></ul>
  73. 75. Shari‘a (sunna, ijma, qiyas) <ul><li>Qiyas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced to deal with new legal problems and issues. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ [Aim] is to limit the use of personal opinion by suggesting that sound guidance could come only through reasoning by analogy with existing points of law” Muslim-Christian Relations: Past, Present, Future </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>by Ovey N. Mohammed, sj, p12 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to what Western lawyers call precedent </li></ul></ul>
  74. 76. Buraq – the winged steed
  75. 77. The heavenly tour