Infant milk formula


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infant milk formula composition and types

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Infant milk formula

  1. 1. Infant milk formulas Presented by: D. Wissam Zam Syrian Arab Republic E-mail:
  2. 2. Composition The most commonly used infant formulas contain:  Purified cow's milk whey and casein as a protein source.  A blend of vegetable oils as a fat source.  Lactose as a carbohydrate source.  Vitamin-mineral mix.  Other ingredients depending on the manufacturer.
  3. 3. Composition  Proteins: plain cow's milk is unsuited for infants because of its high casein content and low whey content, and untreated cow's milk is not recommended before the age of 12 months. So cow's milk used for formula undergoes processing to be made into infant formula. This includes steps to make protein more easily digestible and alter the whey-to-casein protein balance to one closer to human milk.
  4. 4. Composition  Fat: the partial or total replacement of dairy fat with fats of vegetable or marine origin.  Carbohydrates: in most cow's milk-based formulas, lactose is the main source of carbohydrates present.
  5. 5. Dates Events 1867 A formula containing wheat flour, cow's milk, malt flour, and potassium bicarbonate was developed. 1915 A powder form of infant formula was introduced, containing cow's milk, lactose, oleo oils, and vegetable oils. 1929 Soy formula was introduced. 1935 Protein was added because it was believed cow's milk protein content was lower than human milk protein content. 1959 Iron fortification was introduced because a large amount of iron. 1962 The whey:casein ratio was made similar to human milk because producers were aware that human milk contains a higher ratio of whey protein, and cow's milk contains a higher ratio of casein. Polyunsaturated fatty acid fortification was introduced. Omega 3 and Omega 6 were added because those fatty acids play an important role in infant brain development. Early 2000 Probiotics and prebiotics were added. Lysozyme and Lactoferrin were added. Both have antimicrobial activity. Compared to human milk, cow’s milk has a signifactly lower levels of lysozyme and lactoferrin; therefore, the industry has an increasing interest in adding them into infant formulas.
  6. 6. Types of infant formulas  First stage formula and second stage formula.  Second stage formulas: They are usually 'casein dominant'. Casein is more slowly digested so may be more suitable for older babies. Follow-on formulas can also contain higher levels of iron, protein and other nutrients compared with infant formulas, so they’re not suitable for babies younger than six months.
  7. 7. Types of infant formulas Sometimes switching to a Stage 2 formula can make the baby feel more satisfied, because it is harder to digest, so they stay "full" longer.  If the baby is happy and established on an infant formula, you don’t have to change to follow-on at six months - you can just continue using infant formula right up until 12 months. 
  8. 8. Special types of infant formulas Protein allergic babies Partially hydrolyzed formulas.  Extensively hydrolyzed formulas are considered "hypoallergenic“.  Amino acid based formulas are more expensive, but are reported least likely to cause allergic reactions. 
  9. 9. Special types of infant formulas Lactose allergic babies Lactose-free infant formulas: With the exception of extremely rare cases, all infants are born with the ability to digest lactose, because there is lactose in breast milk. However, lactose intolerance can occur in infancy after acute gastroenteritis, or due to severe intestinal diseases. Lactose-free infant formulas are designed for infants from 0 to 12 months of age with lactose intolerance. They are cow's milk protein-based, but do not contain any lactose. Therefore, those formulas will use other sources of carbohydrates, such as sucrose and glucose, dextrins, and natural and modified starches. 
  10. 10. Thank you for your listening