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Arab World Research and R&D                                                                                        Situati...
Large disparities exist in research capabilities between Arab World & developed nations R&D spending in the developed worl...
Research in the Arab World is facing several challenges starting from its underlying  environment through to demand and co...
The Arab World has also not implemented a number of the international bestpractices in research                        Res...
Multiple global external trends are shaping the future and will have major implicationson research in the Arab World      ...
In summary, research in the region faces multiple opportunities and threats                                               ...
Global competitiveness trends necessitate an integrated research strategy thatcreates an enabling environment for both bas...
The situation analysis revealed a number of takeaways and priorities Focus Areas                              Applied Rese...
•   For Further Information About This Presentation                               ‫للمزيد من المعلومات عن هذا العرض التقدي...
Arab World Research Situation Analysis And Options
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Arab World Research Situation Analysis And Options


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Research in the Arab World is facing several challenges starting from its underlying environment through to demand and consumption.

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Arab World Research Situation Analysis And Options

  1. 1. Arab World Research and R&D Situational Analysis andAbout Us Strategic Options Tahseen Consulting is an advisor on strategic and organizational issues facing governments, social sector institutions, and corporations in the Arab World. You can read more about our capabilities at ▲Public Sector Our views on the important issues and what needs to be doneSocial SectorCorporate ResponsibilityCONFIDENTIAL AND PROPRIETARYAny use of this material without specific permission of Tahseen Consulting is strictly prohibited | 0
  2. 2. Large disparities exist in research capabilities between Arab World & developed nations R&D spending in the developed world as a % of GDP is The Arab worlds research output per capita is 11 times more than the Arab World substantially lower than that of developed countries R&D spending % of GDP Published Research per Capita 3.0% 2.7% 2.5% Circle size shows research Switzerland 2.0% 1.7% publication relative to the Arab 1.5% World in international journals per 1.4% 1.5% million population Korea 1.0% 0.5% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% France 0.1% China 0.0% Americas Europe Asia Oceania Africa Arab Arab Arab Netherlands India States States States Brazil Africa Asia Arab WorldMany of the funds, institutions and standards necessary Additionally, Arab research is not demand driven or for a research community are lacking focused on commercialization Institutional Gap Assessment Research Gaps Funds to bring Commercialization Research Funds Funds research to Senior business leaders have many gaps in their Research Institutions Development and consumers Research Consumers Research (Supply) Commercialization Product Prototype Linkages to bring (Demand) understanding about the Arab World. research to Linkages Linkages consumers Research Corporate funds Corporate R&D Entrepreneurs Consumers IP developers Seed VC, Angels Universities Corporations •Academics and What is it that you 27% 24% Researchers Professional least understand Politics Culture Corporate R&D Industrial Funds Societies •Business National labs Technology Community about the region? transfer agencies Entrepreneurs SME’s 17% •Government Govt. SciTech Business Tech. transfer bodies funds To bridge this lack of infrastructure, •The Public 32% Env. several countries have launched Govt. industry clustering initiatives Society departments Late VC, PE •Press Science foundations Status Missing Weak Existing | 1
  3. 3. Research in the Arab World is facing several challenges starting from its underlying environment through to demand and consumption Research – Key Findings Consumption and Environment, Funding and Institutions Related Beneficiaries Infrastructure (Research Supply) (Research Demand)Research expenditure comparable to other LDCs, The number of research institutions has grown, but Research output is much less than developedbut much less than developed countries quality does not compare to developed countries countries and innovation is lacking due to applied, academic focus of the majority of researchFunding comes primarily from government with little Arab universities, critical providers of research, do Anecdotal evidence suggests there is a researchcontribution from the private sector not have sufficient institutional research resources supply/demand mismatch but little supporting dataResearchers lack funding for collaboration so they There are much fewer social science research Scholars are not getting the research they need topursue international rather than regional linkages centers than S&T research institutions advance knowledge societyComponents of research chain are not fostered The high number of S&T PhD holders may explainconcurrently, including educational systems; Business stakeholders want more information on lack of research in areas other than applied fieldsresearch institutions; information services; funding; culture, the business environment, and politicsprofessional societies; and the public. The brain drain costs the region a huge amount of Government ministries require research to facilitateResearch culture grows out of entrepreneurship talent that could be utilized in research reform and service evaluationwith recognition of achievement and appropriaterewards paired with facilities, time, and resources. Connectivity between the media and research and educational institutions is weakGovernment regulations and financial incentives todevelop R&D are lackingFreedom of thought and intellectual propertyprotection, and the laws to guarantee them, areprimary enabling requirements for quality research. Legend Favorable Satisfactory Unsatisfactory | 2
  4. 4. The Arab World has also not implemented a number of the international bestpractices in research Research in Arab World compared to International Best Practices International Best Practices Current State in the Arab World Most developed countries’ research funding comes from The private sector contributes 3% to R&D and government the private sector; for OECD countries 62% is private sector 89%; indicating a need for increased private sector contribution to investment in R&D R&D Research is demand driven to promote competitiveness and 90% of research is in applied fields; evidence suggests it is knowledge/innovation driven development and not demand driven, too academic, and lacks a focus on commercialization commercialization Components of R&D continuum, incl. educational systems; Many of the funds and institutions for a research community research institutions; funding institutions; professional are lacking; there is no institutional connectivity and weak societies; and the public at large, are fostered concurrently professional bodies Arab Researchers who lack financial support instead increase Most industrial countries provide financing to encourage their level of international collaboration while neglecting researchers to collaborate internationally and regionally regional cooperation Clear policy commitment from national authorities and Regulatory frameworks do not protect intellectual property; wide public respect for knowledge development support a there is a lack of infrastructure to support entrepreneurship research culture and innovation | 3
  5. 5. Multiple global external trends are shaping the future and will have major implicationson research in the Arab World Global External Trends in Research Global Macro Issues Impact National and Regional Research Agendas Governments Must Set Research Priorities • Research costs are high and getting higher • Priorities differ from one country to another • Basic science vs. Applied science • Continuous follow up & evaluation • Research and Education are strongly coupled (especially graduate education) • Benchmarking (International) • Building infrastructure in research is a long term investment • Involving stakeholders: Governments, Industry, Agencies • R&D is a high risk investment Institutions Must Collaborate and Commit Long Term Networks and Financing Are a Common Problem • Collaboration nationally, regionally, internationally • Networking (Database, meetings conferences, etc) • Specialization • Efficient communication • Integration with other economic initiatives • Seed project funding • Long term commitment Nations are Moving Towards Dedicated R&D Programs Outsourcing/Off-shoring of R&D is Growing • Compatibility with national priorities • On-site or near-site technological support for manufacturing • Strong Leadership and distribution centers • Rigorous follow-up and evaluation • Opportunity: local conditions related to manufacturing and • Important outputs: Human resources training & development other operating licenses may contain local content clauses • Science and technology development • Cost savings may accrue from using resident talent Competitiveness Means Centers of Excellence and Clusters Important • Dedicated Brain-Power Centers • Unique competencies • State of the art instrumentation • Strong International collaborations • Commercialization strategies (SME, incubators, etc.) • Human resource development and training | 4
  6. 6. In summary, research in the region faces multiple opportunities and threats Research SWOT Analysis Strengths Weaknesses• Research expenditure is comparable to that of less developed countries • Limited supply of research, especially in areas such as social science but much less than developed countries and business• International collaboration is high due to funding availability • Private sector does little R&D leading to low output and few patents• Availability of scientists and researchers is higher than developing • Much of research is not innovative and is not published internationally countries but less than OECD countries and other R&D leaders such as • 90% of research is in applied fields; however, research is not demand the US and Japan driven; evidence of a research supply/demand mismatch• Governments have procured advanced technology • Limited funding; Limited regional research collaboration • Supply does not meet research consumer demand • Weak government policy making in research and innovation Opportunities Threats• Regional collaboration can be increased with travel grants and more • Developed countries’ research funding comes from the private sector funding • The number of patents by the Arab world is very low• Significant international linkages which can be scaled up with more • Insufficient institutional resources lead to decline in the level of funding graduates, which in turn limits research• Clustering initiatives can fast track development of research • Funds and institutions necessary for research community are lacking infrastructure • Research in universities and associated centers is often too academic• Commercial opportunities exist in the provision of research that sheds light on the Arab business environment, politics, culture, and society • The high number of S&T PhD holders may explain the lack of research in areas other than applied fields • Brain drain removes talent that could be utilized in research/innovation | 5
  7. 7. Global competitiveness trends necessitate an integrated research strategy thatcreates an enabling environment for both basic and applied research Applied Research (Shorter Term Commercial Focus) Basic Research (Long-Term to Advance Knowledge Capital) Higher Research Other Organizations – Private Sector National S&T Education Centers think tanks,Key Audiences Key Audiences Institutions councils etc. R&D Facilities Research Centers / NetworksDefining Characteristics Defining CharacteristicsTypically carried out by the private sector in developed world,  Universities and government laboratories typically carry out since does not includes new knowledge that has commercial objectives with have specific immediate commercial objectives respect to products, processes, or services Unlikely to receive private sector funding due to long-term focusSolves practical problems with commercial focus, thus stresses science and technology to meet specific need  Future oriented, undertaken to acquire new knowledge without any specific Emphasizes projects requiring 10 years or less to develop a application other than the advancement and generation of knowledge product/process Two thirds of global applied R&D is in the ICT, pharmaceutical,  Lays foundation for applied spin-offs that commercialize basic research, and automotive industries increasingly focused on solving problems of global sustainability Strategic Rationale for Involvement in Applied Research Strategic Rationale for Involvement in Basic Research • Very visible • Enriches educational experience • Mechanism for job creation • Indirectly engages key stakeholders to enact change vision • Fuels entrepreneurship • Influences and shapes regional agenda • Builds and solidifies regional competitive advantage • Prioritizes long term and applied research agenda • Increases awareness of Dubai Model while establishing region’s role as an innovation leader on world stage | 6
  8. 8. The situation analysis revealed a number of takeaways and priorities Focus Areas Applied Research Basic Research Key Takeaway: Researchers not commercially oriented Key Takeaway: University research skills weak and focused and universities graduating low quality students primarily in science and technology fields Human Capital & Skills  Focus Area Description: Develop commercial researchers in key  Focus Area Description: Produce researchers in basic research fields science and technology sectors; improve graduates to enable outside S&T; stall brain drain; professional development and research advanced research skills training to institutionalize research culture Key Takeaways: Little collaboration between private Key Takeaway: Researchers lack connectivity to facilitate sector and universities to shape research agenda cooperation Collaboration  Focus Area Description: Networked firms and universities are  Focus Area Description: A robust system of national and international & Connectivity essential to innovation systems and to facilitate entrepreneurship; linkages among practitioners Arabs abroad promote skills transfer and commercial opportunity Key Takeaways: Weak R&D/innovation infrastructure; Key Takeaways: University research centers in target fields Few multinationals have regional R&D centers in region; are few and do not have access to critical resources; Infrastructure Lack of commercialization funding and private funds Funding is low; Professional societies and research centers & Resources too weak to define research agendas  Focus Area Description: All components of the R&D continuum (incl. Funding) need to be fostered; Attract multinationals to establish facilities;  Focus Area Description: Increasing the number of university social Promoting increased private sector R&D funding; Funding science and basic research centers with world class facilities university and industry research collaboration Key Takeaways: Lack of innovation incentives and Key Takeaways: Lack of innovation incentives and recognition of research achievements recognition of research achievements Recognition & Incentives  Focus Area description: Financial incentives to promote private  Focus Area Description: Incentives for cutting edge basic research sector R&D and innovation systems Key Takeaways: Patents are few and commercialization Key Takeaways: Regional coauthorship is rare; little Arab Dissemination system and linkages are weak research is cited internationally due to lack of journals (Publishing /  Focus Area Description: Expanding the volume of patentable  Focus Area Description: Increased coauthorship and expanded Citation / technologies; increased emphasis on commercialization funds and international relationships; Increased publishing in refereed internationalCommercialization) linkages critical to innovation system journals and initiating regional journals | 7
  9. 9. • For Further Information About This Presentation ‫للمزيد من المعلومات عن هذا العرض التقديمي‬ • To get a copy of the full presentation or to ‫للحصول على العرض التقديمي الكامل لهذا العرض التقديمي يرجى‬ discuss the findings, please contact Walid Aradi at ‫االتصال بوليد العرادي على العنوان‬• For Inquiries About Our Services and Requests ‫• لالستفسار عن خدماتنا ولعرض أفكاركم علينا‬ for Proposals ‫لالستفسار عن خدماتنا أو عرض أفكاركم علينا يرجى االتصال بنا عبر‬ To inquire about our services or submit a request for ‫اإلنترنت باستخدام النموذج أدناه أو إرسال بريد إلكتروني إلى‬ proposal, please contact us using the online form or send an e-mail to• For Organizations Interested in Alliances ‫• بالنسبة للمنظمات التي لديها اهتمام بالدخول في اتفاقيات شراكة وفي‬ ‫تحالفات مع شركة تحسين لالستشارات‬ We are interested in opportunities where our technical skills and expertise can be used to ‫إننا مهتمون بالفرص التي يمكن من خاللها استخدام مهاراتنا وخبراتنا‬ complement or diversify those of potential partners to ّ ‫الفنية لتكميل أو لتنويع مهارات وخبرات شركائنا المحتملين بما يمكن‬ pursue specific government funding opportunities, ‫من السعي للحصول على تمويل حكومي أو عقود تجارية. لبدء نقاش‬ commercial contracts, or RFPs. To begin a ‫حول الدخول في تحالف مع شركة تحسين لالستشارات يرجى االتصال‬ discussion about entering into an alliance with ‫بوليد العرادي على العنوان‬ Tahseen Consulting, please contact Walid Aradi at ‫• بالنسبة للعاملين في الصحافة أو في وسائل اإلعالم‬• For Members of the Press or Media ّ ‫لالستفسارات المقدمة من قبل وسائل اإلعالم يرجى االتصال بـ ويـزلي‬ For media inquiries, please contact Wes Schwalje at ‫شـوالييه على العنوان‬