July 15, 2014
Prepared by Jean Providence
• Grammar Translation
• Audio lingual
• Natural Approach
• Total Physical Response (TPR)
• Whole Language
• All methods within the Communicative
Methods of Language learning and
The purpose of this method was to help
student read and appreciate foreign
• Classes are taught in the mother
tongue, with little active use of the
• Vocabulary is taught in the form of list
• Reading of difficult classical test is
Grammar Translation Method
The Direct Method became popular as a
reaction to the Grammar Translation
Method. This method dates back to late
19th –early 20th century.
• Classroom instruction is conducted
exclusively in the target language.
• Only everyday vocabulary and sentences
• Oral communication skills are built up
in a carefully traded progression organized
around question-and-answer exchanges
between teachers and students in small,
• Memorisation of a series of dialogues using repetitive drills
• No grammar explanation. Grammar is taught by inductive
• Vocabulary is strictly limited and learned in context.
• Teacher provides student with a model for imitation .
• There is a much use of tapes, language labs, and visual aids.
• The teacher speaks only the target
language and class time is committed to
providing input for acquisition
• Students must be exposed to a lot of
• Natural approach is not based on
grammar, it is based on communication.
• Students are allowed to use their native
language alongside the target language
as part of the learning process.
• Use of visual aids and gestures are
• The teacher directs and students "act"
in response - "The instructor is the
director of a stage play in which the
students are the actors" (Asher,
• Listening and physical response skills
are emphasized over oral production.
• Students are not required to speak
until they feel naturally ready or
confident enough to do so.
• Grammar and vocabulary are
emphasized over other language areas.
Total Physical Response
Learning proceeds from whole to part.
Learning should take in place in L1
language to build concept and facilitate
the acquisition of the L2 language.
• Learning is a social act.
• Student-centered learning.
• Teacher is a facilitator.
The Cognitive Academic Language Learning
Approach (CALLA) is a five-step systematic
instructional model to teach ELLs how to
use learning strategies for both language
and content. The goal of this five-step
model is to help students become
independent learners, who can evaluate and
reflect on their own learning.
1st Step: Preparation
a) student’s prior knowledge b)
student’s current level of language
Cognitive Academic Learning Language Approach
• 2nd Step: Presentation
a ) demonstration b) modeling c)
• 3rd Step: Practice
a) Collaboration ( working in pairs and
b) Problem solving
c) Inquiry or research.
• 4th Step: Evaluation
• 5th step: Expansion
• The Grammar Translation Method, which
was originated in the late nineteen
century, uses techniques such as:
memorization of grammatical rules and
vocabularies, direct translations, and drills
exercises to teach the target language.
• The Direct Method which began in the
early twentieth century forbids the use of
native language in the class. Grammar
is taught inductively through fill- in the
• The Audio-Lingual Method ( The Army
Method) was first used in 1940’s. The
order of skills learned are listening,
speaking, reading and writing. L2 should
be learned without reference to L1.
• The Natural Approach emerged in late
1970’s. It is based on how children
acquire their first language.
• Total Physical Response (TPR) is a
method that uses physical actions to
• Whole Language was developed in
1980’s. It centers on the idea that