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Project m&e & logframe


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Project m&e & logframe

  1. 1. MONITORING AND EVALUATION5/29/2012 M&E Training (Travellers Beach Hotel) 1
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  3. 3. Learning objectives• To explore methods of data collection, Data Organisation, Data Analysis and Report Writing and and presentation of monitoring and evaluation results.5/29/2012 M&E Training (Travellers Beach Hotel) 3
  4. 4. Remember… The Principles of Project Management5/29/2012 M&E Training (Travellers Beach Hotel) 4
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  33. 33. Project Control Tools5/29/2012 M&E Training (Travellers Beach Hotel) 33
  34. 34. Project Implementation Management• Project Manager must: – Control work in progress – Provide feedback – Negotiate for resources – materials, supplies, services – Resolve differences5/29/2012 M&E Training (Travellers Beach Hotel) 34
  35. 35. Controlling WIP• All project performance dimensions must be controlled to attain planned objectives: – Quality through specifications – Time through a schedule – Cost through a budget• Quality standards are specified during planning stage. There exist general specifications for various types of projects, project designers may choose to adopt one e.g. for construction, for ICT, for health etc.5/29/2012 M&E Training (Travellers Beach Hotel) 35
  36. 36. Control tools• Gantt chart• CPM/PERT diagram• Control point identification chart• Project control charts• Milestone chart• Budget control chart5/29/2012 M&E Training (Travellers Beach Hotel) 36
  37. 37. Control point identification chart• Anticipates what may go wrong and what will be done about it to avoid nasty surprises.Control Element What is likely to go How and when will What will we do wrong? I know? about it?Quality Workmanship might Personal inspection Redo substandard be less than desired of each stage workCost Cost of any sub-unit When purchase Seek alternative may exceed budget agreements are supplies, the made consider alternative materialsTimeliness Time to complete Monitoring progress Improve efficiency, any subunit may along critical path recapture time from exceed schedule other steps, allow overtime if within5/29/2012 M&E Training (Travellers Beach Hotel) budget 37
  38. 38. Milestone chart• Presents a concise summary of a projects status on the basis of key events and their due dates. These events may require approval before proceeding or clearly demarcate relatively independent sets of project activities.• It is more useful during implementation than during planning when more information is required.5/29/2012 M&E Training (Travellers Beach Hotel) 38
  39. 39. Milestone chartMilestone Scheduled Actual completion completionFoundation completed October 5 October 6Framing completed October 10 October 12Exterior finished October 25Electrical wiring completed October 20Heating and air conditioning installed October 25Interior finished November 225/29/2012 M&E Training (Travellers Beach Hotel) 39
  40. 40. Project and Budget control charts• Compares actual to planned performance by computing cost and schedule variances• It is based on WBS work packages (tasks) for which we record progress in time and cost. It is usually done on a spreadsheet or using PM software; these may be integrated with the accounting system in large companies.5/29/2012 M&E Training (Travellers Beach Hotel) 40
  41. 41. Project and Budget control charts COST SCHEDULE Project Budget Actual Variance Planned Actual Variance Item 1 2  Cumulative amounts are obtained and presented in graphical format as a line or bar graph to compare budgeted and actual occurrence.  These analyses form part of Earned Value Analysis (EVA)5/29/2012 M&E Training (Travellers Beach Hotel) 41
  42. 42. Earned Value Analysis (EVA)• A set of analyses that provide key metrics of project performance and provide information for continues budget and scheduled progress monitoring• It is by now recognized as an industry standard. In the US it is required of government projects:5/29/2012 M&E Training (Travellers Beach Hotel) 42
  43. 43. Earned Value Analysis (EVA)• The Office of Management & Budget prescribed that EVA is required on construction projects in Circular A-11, Part 7: "Agencies must use a performance-based acquisition management system, based on ANSI/EIA Standard 748, to measure achievement of the cost, schedule and performance goals."5/29/2012 M&E Training (Travellers Beach Hotel) 43
  44. 44. Traditional Cost Analysis5/29/2012 M&E Training (Travellers Beach Hotel) 44
  45. 45. “Voodoo” project Management5/29/2012 M&E Training (Travellers Beach Hotel) 45
  46. 46. Earned Value Analysis (EVA)• EVA is built upon the WBS budgeted cost and time estimates that serve as a baseline to measure project performance• For each task we obtain: – The Planned Value (PV), (formerly known as the budgeted cost of work scheduled or BCWS)—that portion of the approved cost estimate planned to be spent on the given activity during a given period.5/29/2012 M&E Training (Travellers Beach Hotel) 46
  47. 47. Earned Value Analysis (EVA)• The Actual Cost (AC), (formerly known as the actual cost of work performed or ACWP)—the total of the costs incurred in accomplishing work on the activity in a given period. – This Actual Cost must correspond to whatever was budgeted for the Planned Value and the Earned Value (e.g. all labor, material, equipment, and indirect costs).5/29/2012 M&E Training (Travellers Beach Hotel) 47
  48. 48. Earned Value Analysis (EVA)• The Earned Value (EV), (formerly known as the budget cost of work performed or BCWP)—the value of the work actually completed. Obtaining EV requires estimating the proportion (%) of work completed by a given date. – EV = Budgeted cost x % work completed – In practice some rules of thumb are used when there are very many activities, e.g. the 50-50 rule, each activity is considered 50% complete when its start date is reported and it is 100% complete when the activity finish date is reported5/29/2012 M&E Training (Travellers Beach Hotel) 48
  49. 49. EVA Elements5/29/2012 M&E Training (Travellers Beach Hotel) 49
  50. 50. EVA Performance Indicators• Progress indicators – Cost Variance (CV) = EV - AC – Schedule Variance (SV) = EV – PV• Efficiency indicators reflect the cost and schedule performance of the project.• The most commonly used cost-efficiency indicator is the cost performance index (CPI) – CPI = EV / AC – The sum of all individual EV budgets divided by the sum of all individual ACs is known as the cumulative CPI, and is generally used to forecast the cost to complete a project.5/29/2012 M&E Training (Travellers Beach Hotel) 50
  51. 51. Project Planning Matrix .............. Logical Framework (LogFrame)5/29/2012 M&E Training (Travellers Beach Hotel) 51
  52. 52. Background• The logical framework (logframe) was developed in 1969 by Practical Concepts Incorporation for USAID as a management tool to enhance planning and evaluation of development projects.• It is a planning tool for all stages of the project cycle in a simple and systematic frame work• It allows participatory project planning and evaluation by non-expert stakeholders, making it a popular tool in project management today.5/29/2012 M&E Training (Travellers Beach Hotel) 52
  53. 53. Definition of Terms• The GOAL of a project is a value judgement which satisfies one or more human needs. A programme or sector goal is the broader objective to which a project contributes.• The PURPOSE or Immediate Objective of a project is its primary intention or aim; it is the reason why a project is designed.• The OUTPUTS of a project are the desired results of the transformation process of a system, e.g., patients leaving a hospital cured or not, are the results of a health delivery system.5/29/2012 M&E Training (Travellers Beach Hotel) 53
  54. 54. Definition of Terms• The INPUTS of a project are the people, information, and/or physical items which enter the system to be transformed by a sequence into the outputs of the system, e.g., for an agricultural development project, the inputs may be seeds, money, etc.• The SECTOR is the larger system of which a project is part, e.g., building a dam is a project in the agricultural sector, if the main purpose is irrigation or in the energy sector if the main purpose is the generation of hydro-electric power.5/29/2012 M&E Training (Travellers Beach Hotel) 54
  55. 55. Definition of Terms• OBJECTIVELY VERIFIABLE INDICATORS (OVI) demonstrate that certain desired results have been accomplished.• MEANS OF VERIFICATION are the specific mechanisms by which quantitative indications of the accomplishments of a project may be observed.5/29/2012 M&E Training (Travellers Beach Hotel) 55
  56. 56. Definition of Terms• The LOGIC: The decision-maker uses two types of logic to arrive at explicit statements which serve to help in planning or in evaluating a project in progress: A vertical and horizontal logic. – A VERTICAL LOGIC clarifies why a project is being undertaken. It specifies the programme or sector goal, and project purposes, outputs and inputs. – A HORIZONTAL LOGIC identifies what is to be produced and the evidence that will signal success. It lists objectively verifiable indicators, means of verification, and important assumptions.5/29/2012 M&E Training (Travellers Beach Hotel) 56
  57. 57. Components and Structure Project Title………………. Total Funding……………. Life of Project……………..from……to…… Date prepared……………. NARRATIVE OBJECTIVELY MEANS OF IMPORTANT SUMMARY VERIFIABLE VERIFICATION ASSUMPTIONS INDICATORS Programme or Measures of goal Source of information Assumptions for Sector goal: achievement for goal indicators achieving goal target The broader objective to which the project contributes Project purpose: Measures of purpose Source of information Assumptions for Immediate objective of achievement: for indicators of project achieving purpose the project (Conditions that will objective (objective) indicate purpose has been achieved) Outputs: Desired Magnitude of outputs Source of information Assumptions for results for indicators of providing outputs outputs Inputs: The people, Implementation target: Source of information Assumptions for information, and (Type and quantity) for indicators of inputs providing inputs physical items which enter the system5/29/2012 M&E Training (Travellers Beach Hotel) 57
  58. 58. Developing a Log Frame• Identifying Important Assumptions• Objectively Verifiable indicators• The Means of Verification• Determining the Quantities and the Costs for each Individual Activity5/29/2012 M&E Training (Travellers Beach Hotel) 58
  59. 59. LOG FRAME Example Narrative Summary Objectively Verifiable Means of Critical Assumptions Indicators Verification Goal: -Agricultural - Data collected by Agricultural -Improved agricultural production increased Ministry of extension service yield Agriculture is available Project purpose: - Area covered by - Observation - Appropriate land use - Improved soil and forest policy water conservation - Data collected by - Family planning through afforestation Ministry of Agriculture Outputs: - The degree of soil be - Soil Test - Soil fertility can - Retain soil fertility regenerated quickly degradation decreased - Reduced - Deforestation Inputs: - Labour - 2000 labour/hrs - Demographic - Availability of experts - Nursery sites - 30 sites data - Willingness of - Establishment - (3,000,000 seedlings) community to provide labor force5/29/2012 M&E Training (Travellers Beach Hotel) 59
  60. 60. Using the Log Frame The Log frame provides a high level project perspective and augments rather than replaces other planning tools (CBA, CEA, CPM/PERT etc). It should be integrated in the overall project cycle management for best results. It allows the project team have information to adapt to changing project contexts as captured in the assumptions at four levels. The relationship between objectives and assumptions is:  If the pre-conditions are fulfilled, then the activities can be executed according to plan,  If the planned activities are executed and the assumptions at that level are fulfilled, then the intermediate results will be reached,5/29/2012 M&E Training (Travellers Beach Hotel) 60
  61. 61.  if the intermediate results are reached and the assumptions at that level are realized, then the specific objective will be reached, and  once the specific objective is attained and the assumptions made at that level are realized, then the project will contribute to the overall objectives. The Log Frame thus attempts to “keeps us real”.5/29/2012 M&E Training (Travellers Beach Hotel) 61