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Unit 6 Topic 1 Notes - German Empire and Alliances


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Unit 6 Topic 1 Notes - German Empire and Alliances

  1. 1. Empire and Alliances Chapter 25 Pages 838-843
  2. 2. Topics <ul><li>Imperialism </li></ul><ul><li>German Empire and Alliance System </li></ul><ul><li>Forging the Triple Entente </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Militarism </li></ul>
  3. 3. I. Imperialism <ul><li>European nations had been gaining colonies throughout the 19th century. </li></ul><ul><li>France and Britain had gained most of the colonies around the world and had become major powers. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy needed colonies to be great powers. </li></ul><ul><li>All colonies were claimed by 1913. </li></ul>
  4. 5. II. German Empire and Alliance System <ul><li>The Role of Bismarck </li></ul><ul><li>War in Balkans </li></ul><ul><li>Congress of Berlin </li></ul><ul><li>Alliance with Russia and Austria </li></ul><ul><li>The Triple Alliance </li></ul>
  5. 6. A. The Role of Bismarck <ul><li>P.M. Bismarck wanted to unite all 39 German states </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prussia would lead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Austria would be out </li></ul></ul><ul><li>7 weeks war-Prussia defeats Austria </li></ul><ul><li>Franco-Prussian War </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gains Alsace Lorraine. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humiliates France </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. B. War in the Balkans <ul><li>Bismarck wants to isolate France and protect the “New” Germany </li></ul><ul><li>1873 formed Three Emperors League </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany, Austria and Russia cooperation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conflict in Balkans weakens league </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ottoman Empire in decline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Austria and Russia want the Balkans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treaty of San Stefano 1878- Russia makes strong gains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alarms other powers </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. C. Congress of Berlin: 1878 <ul><li>Bismarck Presides as “honest broker” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bismarck wants to prevent war between Allies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bulgaria reduced in size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia loses some gains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Austria-Hungary gets Bosnia-Herzegovina </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Britain gets Cyprus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Russia unhappy </li></ul><ul><li>Slavs are unhappy (Serbia) </li></ul><ul><li>Three Emperors League Dead </li></ul>
  8. 9. D. Alliance with Russia and Austria <ul><li>1879 Germany and Austria sign Dual Alliance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>France was still a threat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concern over Russia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treaty was secret and renewed until 1918 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bismarck saw treaty as defensive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not concerned with Balkan Peninsula </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Did not want war with Russia </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. E. The Triple Alliance <ul><li>Italy joins alliance in 1882 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Angered at France in Tunisia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saw alliance as defensive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1887-Reinsurance Treaty with Russia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pledged neutrality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Further isolated France </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bismarck successfully isolates France by 1888 </li></ul>
  10. 11. III. Forging the Triple Entente <ul><li>Kaiser William II </li></ul><ul><li>German and British competition </li></ul><ul><li>The Entente Cordial </li></ul><ul><li>Britain and Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Final Alliances </li></ul>
  11. 12. A. Kaiser William II <ul><li>Kaiser William II dismisses Bismarck 1890 </li></ul><ul><li>Refuses to continue Reinsurance Treaty with Russia </li></ul><ul><li>France sees an opportunity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia desperate for capital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France desperate for an ally </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. B. German and British competition <ul><li>German economy rivaled Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Kaiser saw Britain as a rival </li></ul><ul><li>Challenged British interests in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Germany challenged British navy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1900 Germany planned to build 38 battleships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Britain was horrified </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. C. The Entente Cordial:1904 <ul><li>Resolved colonial differences with France </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opened possibility of Anglo-Franco cooperation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Britain also cooperated with Japan against Russia in Pacific. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Did not actively support Japan </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. D. Britain and Russia <ul><li>Britain fears growing German naval power </li></ul><ul><li>Growing German power threatens both Russia and Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Russia and Britain settles disputes over Central Asia by 1907 </li></ul>
  15. 16. E. Final Alliances form. <ul><li>England, France and Russia are the Triple Entente </li></ul><ul><li>Germany and Austria Hungary form the Central powers , with Italy they are known as the Triple Alliance . </li></ul>
  16. 19. IV. Nationalism <ul><li>German Ambitions </li></ul><ul><li>Italian Unification </li></ul><ul><li>The Balkan Peninsula </li></ul>
  17. 20. A. German Ambitions <ul><li>Nationalism is </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the belief that one’s greatest loyalty is to your nation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>each ethnic group will have their own nation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>composed of similar people (Language, Ethnicity and Culture) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>England and France had developed as Nations and formed empires </li></ul><ul><li>Germany was a new nation formed in 1871 </li></ul><ul><li>Saw itself as a new empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deserved respect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deserved power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deserved colonies </li></ul></ul>
  18. 21. B. Italian Unification <ul><li>Italy was divided and largely under foreign control. </li></ul><ul><li>Sardinia, the only Italian controlled province, and France fought Austria. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sardinia gets Northern Italy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France gets Nice and Savoy. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Southern Italy was united with Northern Italy in 1861. </li></ul>
  19. 22. C. The Balkan Peninsula <ul><li>Ottoman empire was receding </li></ul><ul><li>Russia wanted to lead a Slavic empire </li></ul><ul><li>Austria-Hungary had interests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bosnia-Herzegovina </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Serbia wanted its own greater nation </li></ul><ul><li>All of these national interests will clash </li></ul>
  20. 23. Ottoman Empire
  21. 24. V. Militarism <ul><li>It was the belief that military force was a viable option to attain political goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Otto Von Bismarck used his military to unite Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>Many nations romanticized the use of military forces. </li></ul>
  22. 25. Terms <ul><li>Imperialism </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Militarism </li></ul><ul><li>Dual Alliance </li></ul><ul><li>Triple Alliance </li></ul><ul><li>Entente Cordial </li></ul><ul><li>Triple Entente </li></ul><ul><li>Balkan Peninsula </li></ul><ul><li>Serbia </li></ul><ul><li>Bosnia-Herzegovina </li></ul><ul><li>Ottoman Empire </li></ul>
  23. 26. What do we know? <ul><li>What were the sources of instability in Europe? </li></ul><ul><li>How did Bismarck secure stability for Germany? </li></ul><ul><li>How did William II destroy this stability? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe British and French responses to Germany power. </li></ul><ul><li>The importance of nationalism and the Balkan Peninsula. </li></ul>