Topic 4 The Socialist Response


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Topic 4 The Socialist Response

  1. 1. Responses to Capitalism Reformers, Unions, Socialists and Marxism Chapter 7: pages 267-272
  2. 2. Topics <ul><li>The Union and Reformer response </li></ul><ul><li>Utopianism </li></ul><ul><li>Marxism </li></ul>
  3. 3. I. Unions and Reform Movements. <ul><li>Reformers want to address social problems </li></ul><ul><li>The Utopian Socialists </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Owens and Kinder Capitalism </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Fourier and Socialism </li></ul><ul><li>Workers organize Unions </li></ul><ul><li>Reform Laws </li></ul><ul><li>Other Reform Movements. </li></ul>
  4. 4. A. Reformers wanted to address social problems <ul><li>Economic inequality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rich are very rich </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What about the rest??? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems of Poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Urbanization, immigration and crime </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually pollution and the environment </li></ul>
  5. 5. B. The Utopian Socialists <ul><li>Wanted to create ideal or utopian societies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Criticized for being idealistic dreamers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Saint Simonianism: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Count Claude Henri de Saint-Simon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liberal French Aristocrat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modern society should involve rational management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wanted to manage wealth to solve problems, not redistribute </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. C. Robert Owens <ul><li>He was also a textile factory owner </li></ul><ul><li>Admired Locke and wanted to promote positive societies through positive environments </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted to build a Utopian Factory Town </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He provided inexpensive housing for employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He ended child labor and offered free school </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Built a town in Indiana in 1825 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Failed in 3 years </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. D. Charles Fourier <ul><li>Called for greater government regulation and ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Government centralized planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government owned industries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combine Industry and agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals rotate jobs to avoid boredom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socialists hoped this would bring greater economic equality </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. E. Workers Organize Unions. <ul><li>Workers form Unions or associations to achieve common goals. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safer working conditions, better pay. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used Collective bargaining and strikes as tactics. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Early unions were outlawed. </li></ul><ul><li>Skilled vs Unskilled Labor. </li></ul>
  9. 9. F. Reform Laws. <ul><li>Factory Act of 1833 : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Illegal to hire children under 9. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited # of hours older children could work. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1842 Mines Act prevented women and children from working underground. </li></ul><ul><li>Ten Hours Act of 1847 limited work day to 10 hours for woman and children. </li></ul>
  10. 10. G. Other Reform Movements. <ul><li>Abolitionism </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s Rights Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Reformers wanted to use the government to solve social problems. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Problems Still Exist…
  12. 12. II. Utilitarianism. <ul><li>Founded by Jeremy Bentham. </li></ul><ul><li>Argued that ideas, institutions and actions should be judged based on their utility. </li></ul><ul><li>Government should promote the greatest good. </li></ul>
  13. 13. III. Karl Marx <ul><li>Scientific Socialism. </li></ul><ul><li>Dialectical Materialism. </li></ul><ul><li>History as class struggle. </li></ul><ul><li>Stages of history. </li></ul><ul><li>The end of capitalism. </li></ul><ul><li>Impact of Marx. </li></ul>
  14. 14. A. Scientific Socialism. <ul><li>Marx referred to these earlier reformers as Utopian reformers . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They were misguided dreamers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They did not use science to back up their ideas. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Marx used Scientific Socialism , or the idea that scientific principles could be used to study history and society. </li></ul>
  15. 15. B. Hegel’s Dialectic <ul><li>Hegel argued that ideas were the driving force behind society. </li></ul>Thesis (The Idea) Anti Thesis (The opposite of that idea) Clash Synthesis
  16. 16. C. Dialectical Materialism. <ul><li>Marx believed materialism or the distribution of wealth divided people into classes and created conflict. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It was a rejection of Hegel. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>From this Marx argues that all history is the history of class struggle. </li></ul>
  17. 17. D. History as class struggle. <ul><li>Marx believed that the unequal distribution of wealth divided people into classes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Bourgeoisie or the capitalists. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Proletariat or working class. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The capitalist class will always exploit the workers. </li></ul>
  18. 18. E. Stages of History. <ul><li>Human society passed through stages. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primitive Communism (Tribal). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slave labor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feudal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capitalism. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communist state. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each stage contained the seeds of it’s own destruction.( Thesis vs Antithesis ) </li></ul>
  19. 19. F. The Demise of Capitalism. <ul><li>Marx agreed that capitalism created wealth through the profit motive. </li></ul><ul><li>Marx believed that the value of all goods came from the labor put into making it, this is the Labor theory of value . </li></ul><ul><li>Problem in Capitalism, if raw material costs cannot be changed, only labor costs can be reduced to increase profit. </li></ul><ul><li>This forced capitalists to reduce wages to create a greater profit. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Continued… <ul><li>This disparity of wealth is so great that the proletariat will resent the bourgeoisie and revolt. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Workers of the World Unite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is an internationalist movement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This is when the workers of the world would unite,abolish private property and begin social control of natural resources and the means of production. </li></ul><ul><li>Marx called for this in his book “The Communist Manifesto”. </li></ul>
  21. 21. G. Impact of Karl Marx. <ul><li>Who has he influenced? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Russian Revolution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese Revolution. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Much of the third world. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Has communism failed? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maybe only the Soviet version. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does his theories still describe society? </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Percentage of National income received 3.9 4.1 4.1 4.9 Bottom Fifth 9.6 10.2 10.8 12 4 th Fifth 15.9 16.8 17.4 17.6 3 rd Fifth 24 24.8 24.5 23.6 2 nd Fifth 46.6 44.2 43.3 42 Top fifth 1990 1980 1970 1960 Income
  23. 23. Percentage of Total Wealth .0 Bottom fifth .1 Fourth Fifth .4 Third 5 th 4.4 Second Fifth 95.6 Top 20% 78.6 Top 5% 49.9 Top 1% Percentage Held Group
  24. 24. Terms <ul><li>Robert Owens </li></ul><ul><li>Charles Fourier </li></ul><ul><li>Unions </li></ul><ul><li>Skilled vs Unskilled labor </li></ul><ul><li>Factory Act of 1833: </li></ul><ul><li>1842 Mines Act </li></ul><ul><li>Ten Hours Act of 1847 </li></ul><ul><li>Karl Marx </li></ul><ul><li>Utopian reformers </li></ul><ul><li>Bourgeoisie </li></ul><ul><li>Proletariat </li></ul>
  25. 25. What we Know <ul><li>Reformers and unions worked to address the worst side effects of the Industrial Revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>The Left disagreed on how to do this? </li></ul><ul><li>Marxism claimed scientific evidence to justify a social revolution. </li></ul>