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The Living Constitution: Ch 3 Section 2 And 3


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The Living Constitution: Ch 3 Section 2 And 3

  1. 1. The Living Constitution Chapter 3 sec 2 and 3
  2. 2. Topics <ul><li>Basic Information </li></ul><ul><li>Formal methods of change </li></ul><ul><li>Informal methods of change. </li></ul>
  3. 3. I. Basic Information <ul><li>The Preamble </li></ul><ul><li>The Articles </li></ul><ul><li>The Bill of Rights </li></ul>
  4. 4. We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
  5. 5. B. The Articles <ul><li>Divided into 7 articles, each of which is divided into smaller sections. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Article I: Legislative Branch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Article II: Executive Branch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Article III: Judicial Branch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Article IV: Relations Among the States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Article V: Amendments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Article VI: General Provisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Article VII: Ratification </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. C. The Bill of Rights <ul><li>1 st 10 amendments of Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Placed restrictions on power of Federal government </li></ul><ul><li>Protected the Rights of citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Also Protected powers of States. </li></ul>
  7. 7. II. Formal methods of change <ul><li>The Amendment process </li></ul><ul><li>Proposal </li></ul><ul><li>Ratification </li></ul>
  8. 8. A. The Amendment process <ul><li>Allowed for the constitution to adapt to new and unforeseen issues. </li></ul><ul><li>While flexible, it is not an easy system to change. </li></ul><ul><li>Only 27 amendments have been passed. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The First 10 are the Bill of Rights. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. A. Proposal <ul><li>Methods of proposing an amendment. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By congress with a 2/3 vote of both houses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By constitutional convention at the request of 2/3 of the state legislatures. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. B. Ratification <ul><li>Methods of ratification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By constitutional convention in ¾ of the states. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By legislature in ¾ of the states </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. III. Informal methods of Change <ul><li>Basic Legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Executive action </li></ul><ul><li>Court Decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Party Practices </li></ul><ul><li>Custom </li></ul>
  12. 13. A. Basic Legislation <ul><li>The Constitution is written in Broad language’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>permits interpretation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No lists or definitions are used. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress has the power to “regulate commerce” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Congress has passed laws to flesh out the framework work of the constitution. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Court system,Military, Federal Bureaucracy. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Elastic Clause. </li></ul>
  13. 14. The Elastic Clause <ul><li>Allows congress to make “ all laws that are necessary and proper ” to conduct the business of government. </li></ul><ul><li>Hamilton argued that this gave the Federal government Implied powers not specifically mentioned in the Constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>National bank. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Federal Reserve. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labor laws. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Interior etc. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. B. Executive action <ul><li>Presidents have expanded the power of the Executive Branch. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>T. Roosevelt and wildlife preserves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Executive Agreements versus Treaties. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Executive agreements not need senate approval. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treaties do. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Executive signing orders (Bush) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presidential interpretations of the law </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. C. Court Decisions <ul><li>The Power of interpretation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Judicial Review and Marbury vs Madison. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Famous cases. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plessy vs Ferguson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brown vs Board. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roe vs Wade. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. D. Party Practices <ul><li>States conduct elections, but parties run the nominating conventions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caucuses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>primaries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Electoral college is now more of a rubber stamp to political parties. </li></ul>
  17. 18. E. Custom <ul><li>The formation of the cabinet </li></ul><ul><li>The Vice President replacing the President. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actually spelled out in the 25 th amendment. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Senatorial Courtesies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presidential appointees are approved by senate that are acceptable to the state Senator. </li></ul></ul>