Ch 19 Sec 2 Religion

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Ch 19 Sec 2 Religion

  1. 1. Freedom of Religion Chapter 19 Section 2
  2. 2. Topics <ul><li>The Establishment Clause </li></ul><ul><li>Lemon vs. Kurtz, 1971 </li></ul><ul><li>The Free Exercise Clause </li></ul>
  3. 3. The First Amendment <ul><li>Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion , or prohibiting the free exercise thereof ; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances. </li></ul>
  4. 4. I. The Establishment Clause <ul><li>The Establishment Clause </li></ul><ul><li>Establishment and Education </li></ul><ul><li>Release Time </li></ul><ul><li>School Prayer </li></ul><ul><li>Student Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution </li></ul>
  5. 5. A. The Establishment Clause <ul><li>“ Congress shall make no law respecting the establishment of religion….” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Christianity has many interpretations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevents the adoption of a national religion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insures a separation of Church and State </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The U.S. still has a religious history </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predominantly Christian </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has changed with immigration </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. B. Establishment and Education <ul><li>Everson vs. Board of Education,1947 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Issue : Can a state fund busing of students to parochial schools? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes, it was in the interest of the state to protect children. (Student safety in Busing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affirmed that not all forms of state and federal aid to church related schools are outlawed. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. C. Release Time <ul><li>McCollum vs. Board of Education, 1948 . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Issue : Can students be released from public school for religious instruction? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Classrooms could not be used for religious instruction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of Classrooms implied endorsement. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Zorach vs. Clauson,1952 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Release time was allowed if instruction was off campus. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. D. School Prayer. <ul><li>Engele vs. Vitale,1962 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No state endorsed prayers. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abington School District vs. Schemp, 1963 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Required Bible reading and prayer were not allowed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stone vs. Graham, 1980 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No displays of the 10 Commandments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wallace vs. Jaffree, 1985 . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No moment of silence </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. E. Student religious Groups <ul><li>Equal Access act of 1984 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Any school that receives federal funds, must allow student religious groups to meet on campus. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Court has upheld this several times. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Westside community schools vs. Mergen, 1990 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good News Club vs. Milford Central school, 2001. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. F. Evolution <ul><li>Ok to teach evolution as a theory. </li></ul><ul><li>Equal time for Creationism is not. </li></ul>
  11. 11. What does it mean??? <ul><li>It is not unconstitutional to pray in school </li></ul><ul><li>School led prayer implies state endorsement </li></ul><ul><li>No religious action can be endorsed by the school </li></ul><ul><li>You can still study the Bible if it is secular in nature. </li></ul>
  12. 12. II. The Lemon Test <ul><li>Lemon vs. Kurtz 1971 </li></ul><ul><li>The Lemon Test </li></ul><ul><li>Aid to Parochial Schools. </li></ul><ul><li>Seasonal displays </li></ul><ul><li>Chaplains </li></ul>
  13. 13. A. Lemon vs. Kurtz 1971 <ul><li>Pennsylvania law allowed for public payment of parochial schools teacher salaries, books, and supplies. </li></ul><ul><li>Court argued that sponsorship, financial support, and involvement in religious activity violated the establishment clause. </li></ul>
  14. 14. B. The Lemon Test <ul><li>This decision attempted to develop a test to determine violations of the establishment clause. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First : law must have a secular purpose. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second : it must have the effect of neither inhibiting or advancing a religion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Third : it must not foster excessive government entanglement with religion. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. C. Aid to Parochial Schools. <ul><li>All aid to parochial schools should (???) pass the Lemon test. </li></ul><ul><li>Mueller vs. Allen, 1983. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can parents claim a tax deduction for tuition to private schools. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes, it benefits all parents. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Court does allow states to pay for tests, grants for sex education, interpreters. </li></ul>
  16. 16. D. Seasonal Displays. <ul><li>Lynch vs. Donnelly, 1984: can a display of the nativity be placed in city hall? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No, cannot endorse one religion over others. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alleghany vs. ACLU, 1984 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple religious displays from several religions are ok. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. F. Chaplains <ul><li>Legislatures often open a session with a prayer. </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptable for two reasons. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A practice since colonial times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislators are not impressionable children. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. III. The Free Exercise Clause. <ul><li>Free Exercise Clause </li></ul><ul><li>Reynolds vs. United States. 1879. </li></ul><ul><li>Limits on Free Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Free Exercise protected. </li></ul><ul><li>A standard??? </li></ul><ul><li>Issue of Flag salute. </li></ul>
  19. 19. A. Free Exercise Clause <ul><li>The Free Exercise clause allows us to believe and worship as we wish. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But what about about religious action ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In general the court supports an absolute right to belief. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The issue of Practice is different. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. B. Reynolds vs. United States. 1879. <ul><li>Reynolds vs. United States, 1879 . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Could a Mormon be Polygamous? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Believe it, yes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice, no. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Congress has power to punish violations of social duties or subversive good order. </li></ul>
  21. 21. C. Limits on Free Exercise <ul><li>Practice is allowed as long as health safety and morals of general public are protected. </li></ul><ul><li>Jacobson vs. Massachusetts. 1905 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State laws requiring vaccination were upheld </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bunn vs. North Carolina, 1949. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forbid use of poisonous snakes in religious rites. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lukumi Babalu Aye vs. City of Hialeah, 1993. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>City ordinance against animal sacrifice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Court ruled against ordnance </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. D. Free Exercise protected. <ul><li>Wisconsin vs. Yoder. 1972 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amish were not required to attend public schools after 8 th grade. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ministers can hold public office. </li></ul>
  23. 23. E. Does a standard exist? <ul><li>Court wants to protect “ those beliefs rooted in religion”. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What does that mean????? </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Issue of Flag salute. <ul><li>Minnersville School district vs. Gobitis, 1940. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>School district has mandatory flag salute. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gobitis believed this was a violation of his religion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commandment against idolatry. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Court upheld flag salute as promoting patriotism. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Continued <ul><li>West Virginia B of E vs. Burnette, 1943. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Another compulsory flag salute case. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Court reversed decision. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Terms <ul><li>Establishment Clause </li></ul><ul><li>Free Exercise Clause </li></ul><ul><li>Parochial </li></ul><ul><li>The Lemon Test </li></ul><ul><li>Everson vs. Board of Education,1947 </li></ul><ul><li>McCollum vs. Board of Education, 1948 . </li></ul><ul><li>Zorach vs. Clauson,1952 </li></ul><ul><li>Equal Access act of 1984 </li></ul><ul><li>Lemon vs. Kurtz 1971 </li></ul><ul><li>Reynolds vs. United States. 1879 </li></ul><ul><li>Jacobson vs. Massachusetts. 1905 </li></ul><ul><li>Wisconsin vs. Yoder. 1972 </li></ul>
  27. 27. In summary <ul><li>Explain the establishment and free exercise clause. </li></ul><ul><li>How have establishment cases involved schools? </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the lemon test. </li></ul><ul><li>How has free exercise been limited? </li></ul><ul><li>How has free exercise been protected? </li></ul>

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