Biomechanics Of Temporomandbular Joint

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Biomechanics Of Temporomandbular Joint

  1. 1. TOPIC BIOMECHANICS OFTEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT
  2. 2. PURPOSETo Give Important InformationAbout How Temporomandibular Joint Works And How ToAppreciate It In Clinical Practice
  3. 3. Biomechanics OfTemporomandibular Joint Part I Introduction to Temporomandibular Joint
  4. 4. Biomechanics of Temporomandibular Joint Part 1 : Introduction to Temporomandibuular Joint What is Temporomandibular joint?
  5. 5. What is Temporomandibular Joint? The Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) Is The Joint Of The Jaw www.wikipedia.com
  6. 6. What is Temporomandibular Joint?The name is derived from the two bones which form the Joint : The temporal bone and the Mandible Temporal Bone Mandible www.wikipedia.com
  7. 7. What is Temporomandibular Joint? There are two TMJs, one on each side, working in unison. www.wikipedia.com
  8. 8. Biomechanics of Temporomandibular Joint Part 1 : Introduction to Temporomandibuular Joint Differences between Temporomandibular Joint & other joints in the body
  9. 9. Differences between TMJ & Other Joints in the Body1.TMJ has an articular disc which compeletely dividesthe joint spaces into upper and lower jointcompartements.Two Joints are connected Superior Joint Cavity Articular Disc Inferior Joint Cavity TMJ Famona.tripod.com
  10. 10. Differences between TMJ & Other Joints in the Body2.TMJ is a ginglymoarthrodial joint• Hinge Action (Rotation)• Slide Action (translation) Famona.tripod.com
  11. 11. Differences between TMJ & Other Joints in the Body3. Relationship of teeth affects therelationship of the articulating components. Famona.tripod.com
  12. 12. Differences between TMJ & Other Joints in the Body4. The mandible is the only bone in the bodyhinged on both ends that is not capable ofindependent movement at one end. Famona.tripod.com
  13. 13. Biomechanics OfTemporomandibular Joint Part 2 Introduction to the Biomechanics of TMJ
  14. 14. Biomechanics of Temporomandibular JointPart 2 : Introduction to the Biomechanics of TMJ Definition Of Biomechanics
  15. 15. ? Biomechanics is the study of thestructure and function of biological systems www.wikipedia.com
  16. 16. Biomechanics of Temporomandibular JointPart 2 : Introduction to the Biomechanics of TMJ Biomechanics of TMJ
  17. 17. ? Biomechanics of Temporomandibular Joint is a complex combination activity Both the left and right joints mustfunction together in the coordination of jaw movement Okeson, 2008
  18. 18. ? FossaArticular disc Condyle Okeson, 2008
  19. 19. Biomechanics OfTemporomandibular Joint Part 3 The Joint System
  20. 20. BIOMECHANICS OF THETEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT Part 3 : The Joint System One Joint System
  21. 21. One Joint System Tissues that surrounds the inferior synovial cavityArticular disc Condyle Inferior synovial cavity Okeson, 2008
  22. 22. One Joint SystemRotation is the only physiologic movementthat can occur between the surfacesRotation in the TMJ usually occurs onlyduring the opening the mouth 20 – 25 mm Okeson, 2008
  23. 23. The condyle is notsliding out of the fossa so, only one joint system is involved = Rotation Movement Okeson, 2008
  24. 24. BIOMECHANICS OF THETEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT Part 3 : The Joint System Second Joint System
  25. 25. Second Joint SystemFree sliding movement of the disc between the surface in the superior cavity, referred to as translation. Superior Fossasynovial cavity Articular disc Okeson, 2008
  26. 26. Translation occurs when the mouth opening is more than 25 mm. Okeson, 2008
  27. 27. The condyle slides out ofthe fossa to the articular eminence so, not only one joint system is involved = Translation Movement Okeson, 2008
  28. 28. Biomechanics OfTemporomandibular Joint Part 4 Articular Disc
  29. 29. BIOMECHANICS OF THETEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT Part 4 : Articular Disc ? Function Importance
  30. 30. BIOMECHANICS OF THETEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT Part 4 : Articular Disc ?
  31. 31. ?The articular disc is a fibrous extension of the capsule in between the two bones of the joint. www.wikipedia.com
  32. 32. BIOMECHANICS OF THETEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT Part 4 : Articular Disc Function
  33. 33. Function1. Acts as a cushion to absorb stress2. Isolate synovial fluid Okeson, 2008
  34. 34. Function3. Divide a joint cavity • Upper & Lower compartmentsSuperior Joint CavityInferior Joint Cavity Okeson, 2008
  35. 35. Function4. Determinant of joint movement Rotation Translation Okeson, 2008
  36. 36. BIOMECHANICS OF THETEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT Part 4 : Articular Disc Importance
  37. 37. The ImportanceThe spasm in the masticatory muscles is adirect cause of pressure on the articulardisc inside TMJIf the disc slips out of place or is displaced, itcan prevent the proper movement of thecondyle and cause dysfunction. Okeson, 2008
  38. 38. Biomechanics OfTemporomandibular Joint Part 5 Stability Of The Joint
  39. 39. BIOMECHANICS OF THETEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINTPart 5 : Stability of the Joint Anatomic structures Constant activity of the muscle The ligaments Interarticular Pressure
  40. 40. BIOMECHANICS OF THETEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINTPart 5 : Stability of the Joint Anatomic structures
  41. 41. Anatomic Structures Every joint in the human body has anatomicstructures which impart stability during function. These structures are : 1. The osseous conformation of the articulating ends of the bones of the joints 2.Muscle which activate joint and stabilize the joint Okeson, 2008
  42. 42. Anatomic Structures Every joint in the human body has anatomicstructures which impart stability during function. These structures are : 3. Ligaments which help stabilize the joint by limiting movement 4.Capsule and disc which form a part of a joint Okeson, 2008
  43. 43. BIOMECHANICS OF THETEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINTPart 5 : Stability of the Joint Constant activity of the muscle
  44. 44. Constant Activity of the muscles Stability is maintained by constant activity of the muscles that pull accross the joint Elevator muscles • Masseter • Temporalis • Medial pterygoid Okeson, 2008
  45. 45. Constant Activity of the musclesIn the resting state, these muscles are ina mild state of contraction called tonus. Okeson, 2008
  46. 46. BIOMECHANICS OF THETEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINTPart 5 : Stability of the Joint The ligaments
  47. 47. The LigamentsStabilize the joint by limiting movement Ligaments do not stretch but it could be elongated Elongation of Ligaments could compromise normal joint function Okeson, 2008
  48. 48. BIOMECHANICS OF THETEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINTPart 5 : Stability of the Joint Interarticular Pressure
  49. 49. Interarticular PressureThe pressure between the articular surfaces of the eminence and the condyle The Absence of Interarticular pressure will cause the separation of articular surfaces and the joint will technically dislocate Okeson, 2008
  50. 50. Biomechanics OfTemporomandibular Joint Part 6 Normal Fuctional movement of Condyle and disc
  51. 51. BIOMECHANICS OF THE TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINTPart 7 : Normal Functional movement of the condyle and disc Supporting Structures Opening Closing
  52. 52. BIOMECHANICS OF THE TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINTPart 7 : Normal Functional movement of the condyle and disc Supporting Structures
  53. 53. Supporting Structures FossaArticular disc Condyle Superior Lateral Retrodiscal Pterygoid Lamina Inferior Lateral Pterygoid Okeson, 2008
  54. 54. BIOMECHANICS OF THE TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINTPart 7 : Normal Functional movement of the condyle and disc Opening
  55. 55. OPENING During Opening, Superior Lateral Pterygoid is not contracting Inferior lateral Superior pterygoid isretrodiscal contracting – lamina Pulls the head ofstretches & condyle forwardRotates the discposteriorly Okeson, 2008
  56. 56. BIOMECHANICS OF THE TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINTPart 7 : Part 7 : Normal Functional movement of the condyle and disc Closing
  57. 57. CLOSINGOpposes the force of retrodiscal lamina Superior lateral pterygoid pulls the disc anteriorly Okeson, 2008
  58. 58. Conclusion :As a clinician, please be familiar with the structures and function of the temporomandibular joint.

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