Life Structures and Functions G# 1 Scientific Method Reflecting on knowledge is the application of(S.RS.M.1)scientific knowledge to new and different situations.Reflecting on knowledge requires careful analysis ofevidence that guides decision-making and theapplication of science throughout history and withinsociety.GLCE #1: Demonstrate scientific concepts through various (S.RS.07.15)illustrations, performances, models, exhibits, and activities.
Learning Goals…student “I can…” statementsG#1 I can read a flow chart, and use it to answer questions I can explain the steps of the scientific method in the correct order I can explain what steps in the scientific method you follow when your hypothesis has been supported I can explain what steps in the scientific method you follow when your hypothesis has been refuted I can explain the difference between a scientific law and a scientific theory. I can explain the similarities between a scientific law and a scientific theory. I can explain the importance of conducting a fair test in an investigation
G#1 Vocabulary:1) Scientific Method - Procedures used to solve problems and answer questions.2) Hypothesis - Prediction that can be tested.3) Control – Parts of the experiment kept the same in order to compare results.4) Independent Variable / Manipulated Variable- The one change that you make in the experiment.5) Dependent Variable / Responding Variable- The data or evidence that you are collecting, what you are recording.6) Scientific Theory – Tested and agreed upon, explains several ideas and can be tweaked.7) Scientific Law – Tested and agreed upon, explains one idea and simple to state.8) Fair Test - Performing an investigation a minimum of 3 times to make sure that the outcome is reliable.9) Refute – Data did NOT support the hypothesis.
SCIENTIFIC METHOD What to think about when designing an EXPERIMENT… testWhat is it that you want to _______??? Onceyou have identified a problem break it down to stepsa simple ______ or procedures ____________.In order to determine an answer you need to comparisonmake a ___________.
SCIENTIFIC METHODWill my grade be higher by studying 10 minutes aday or 1 hour once a week? 100 90 80 70 60 Study 10 min. per 50 day 40 Study 1 hr. per 30 week 20 10 0 Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4
SCIENTIFIC METHOD Will the plant grow taller with white light or green light? Does eating a pop tart or an egg for breakfast help me focus better at school?You Try It! ____________________________________________________
SCIENTIFIC METHODWhen making a comparison only one factorchangedmay be _________ between the two groups.For example, the egg or the pop tart would bethe ONLY change made in your investigation. sameEverything else must be kept the _______ inorder to compare your results.
SCIENTIFIC ControlsControls________ are parts of the experiment that arekept the same in order to compare results of aninvestigation. Controls help to insure you aregetting more reliable data. The more controls _______you have the more reliable your results!Ultimately, you need to be able to identify thefactor that made the difference.
SCIENTIFIC METHODYou Try It!CONTROLS for Egg vs. pop tart investigation mightinclude:Eaten at the same timeNo other food or drink eaten Focus checked at the same time each day Same participants
What you TestWhat you are planning to compare ends up being thechangeONE _________ you make in your investigation. It is Manipulated variable Independentknown as your ____________ ________ A.K.A variable Variable_______________ _________ or just simply the_________.--not to confuse you or anything Remember MI Variable
Recording the Evidence While performing your experiment you need to data/evidencecollect __________________ in an organized table. Responding variableThis data is also known as the ______________________ Dependent variableA.K.A. the ____________ _________.Just remember DR Data
Analyzing the DataYou use this data to create graph a ______. Graphs analyzemake it easier to _______ your results by patterns connectionslooking for ________ or ___________. Your supportanalysis will help you determine whether to_______ or ______ your hypothesis.refute
Place a check in the column that matches the correct term.Vocab Terms What you change Data you collect Variable +Manipulated Variable +Responding Variable +Dependent Variable +Independent Variable +
Steps of the Scientific Method…State the Scientific Problem or Question —This _____________ must be stated in aproblem/questionmanner which allows it to be _____. testedYou Try It!BAD Example: Is the sky beautiful?Why? The answer would be an opinion andnot testable.
Steps of the Scientific Method…GOOD Example: Did you write two things that you could compare against each other?Why? Would you be able to test the problem or question? If you said, “Yes” than it is a good one!
Steps of the Scientific Method…Gather Information — Requires thescientist/investigator to use their previous_________ and other information related knowledgeto their problem or question to design anappropriate _________ or ___________. experiment investigation
Gathering information…You Try It! What kind of informationmight a pest control specialist want beforeswitching from her old pesticide “PrettyGood Stuff” to the newest pesticide on themarket, “New and Improved Stuff”?Are there any other tests done on the productand what were their results? Does it harm theenvironment? What claims does the makermake?
Steps of the Scientific Method… Form a Hypothesis — Use the informationgathered to make an ________ _________ educated predictionof an outcome to your experiment orinvestigation.A hypothesis is a sentence stating theoutcome you expect to see in your results.Example: Based on previous studies Tidewith Bleach will remove grass stains betterthan Stains Be Gone.
Writing a hypothesis… You Try It! Write a hypothesis using thepest control specialist example.____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Based on the research, New and ImprovedStuff will kill off more pests than Pretty GoodStuff.
Steps of the Scientific Method… Perform an Experiment — Follow the steps you designed to test your __________, make hypothesis ___________, and collect ___________ in observations evidence the data table. Control all factors in the experiment except for your __________________________________. Manipulated or Independent variable Example: Grass Stain Removal Trials Stain Remover #1 #2 #3 #4Stains B Gone Stain Removed Stain StainTide w/Bleach Removed Removed Removed Removed
Steps of the Scientific Method… (________) — Organize yourAnalyze Data evidencedata into _______ or ________. This allows graphs chartsyou to see any _________or ____________ patterns connectionsNo visible patterns or connections would alsobe important information for the scientistwhen drawing conclusions.
Steps of the Scientific Method…Draw Conclusions — Make a statementbased on the data you collected to support_________or _______ (____ _______) refute not supportyour hypothesis. ________ the hypothesis Restateand include whether data the _____ or notsupported or refuted it.Conclusions should begin with one of the followingprompts: According to the data…1) ___________________________________________________ Based on the evidence…2) ___________________________________________________
Drawing (writing ) a Conclusion…You Try It! Write a conclusion based onthe grass stain removal experiment.____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Based on the evidence, New and ImprovedStuff did NOT kill off more pests than the PrettyGood Stuff. Therefore, my original hypothesiswas refuted.
Supported Hypothesis…The Final Steps — If the Hypothesis wasSUPPORTED based on your evidence you would repeat_______ your experiment at least ___ times in 3fair test have a ________. This increases theorder to reliability_________ of your results. Increasing the trialsnumber of ________ will increase reliability.
Refuted hypothesis…The Final Steps — If the Hypothesis was NOTSUPPORTED based on your evidence you would usethe ______ information gathered in your NEWexperiment to Form a _______ Hypothesis and NEWconduct a ______ investigation. NEW
The Scientific Method State the problem/question Gather Information Form a Hypothesis Perform an ExperimentUse theinformation gained Repeat SAMEto form a NEW Analyze Data experiment at least TWOHypothesis. more times. Draw a Conclusion Refuted Supported Hypothesis Hypothesis
Hypotheses, Scientific Theories, Scientific LawsThese three terms are often confused with eachother. You should be able to identify thesimilarities and differences between the three.
HypothesesA HYPOTHESIS is an _________ prediction that educatedcantested be ______. This prediction is based onresearch collected about a topic question. Ahypothesis can be supported (proven correct) orrefuted (proven incorrect) based on the datacollected in an investigation or experiment.
HypothesisExample - Using Murphy’s Oil Soap to remove gumfrom hair works better than peanut butter.You are comparing Murphy’s Oil Soap to peanutbutter, a common remedy to gum in hair.
HypothesesOnce a hypothesis has been _________ and supportedagreed upon by the _________ community it MAY scientificbecome either a Scientific _______ or a TheoryScientific ______. Keep in mind, some hypothesis Lawnever make it to the testing stage!
Scientific Theories and LawsA Scientific Theory and Scientific Law have thefollowing characteristics in common:SIMILARITIES - Scientific Theories and Scientific Laws BOTH begin with _______ and _________ tested supported hypothesis BOTH involve _________ topics scientific BOTH are accepted by _______ MANY scientists/researchers over time.
Scientific Theories and LawsEven though the ideas behind BOTH a ScientificTheory and Law began with supported _________, hypothesiseach has characteristics that make themdifferent from each other.
Differences between Scientific Theories and Scientific Laws Proven and agreed upon Hypothesis can become… Theory Law
Differences between Scientific Theories and Scientific Laws Theory May have ________ parts to the several theory Used to explain _____ ideas and many observations Can be “________” as new tweaked information is foundEx.- Continental _____ Theory __________ Drift The BIG ______ Theory ___ Bang
Scientific TheoriesEx. – Plate Tectonics Theory (the earth is covered in plates that move) - Cell Theory (all living things are made from cells) - Theory of Evolution (inherited traits change over time) - String Theory (inside electrons and quarks are moving vibrating ‘strings’) - Big Bang Theory (the universe expanded from an extremely dense and hot state and continues to expand today) - Atomic Theory (matter is composed of atoms) - Theory of Biogenesis (life comes from life)
Differences between Scientific Theories and Scientific Laws Law _______ statements Simple States ______ big idea or action ONE Can be a _______ formula Ex.- Law ofGravity _______ Newton’s _________ Laws of Motion F=ma (Newton’s 2nd Law)
Scientific LawsEx. – Law of Reflection (Angle of incoming light equals angle of outgoing light) – Newton’s three laws of motion (Law of Inertia, F=ma, For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction Fab = -Fba) - Newton’s law of universal gravitation (mathematically describes the gravitational attraction between 2 bodies with mass) Fg = G m1m2/r2 - Law of conservation of matter (matter cannot be created or destroyed) - Law of conservation of energy (energy cannot be created or destroyed) - Kepler’s laws of planetary motion (the orbit of every planet is an ellipse with the sun at a focus, law of equal area, planets distant from the sun have longer orbital periods than close planets) - E = mc2 (Energy = mass x speed of light2)
Let’s review… Hypothesi Theory Law sIs True + +Has Been Proven Many Times + +Has Been Proven By Many Different Scientists + +A Simple Statement of Truth +Scientists Are Still “Tweaking” Parts +Hypothesis Is Always Supported + +Can be proven to be incorrect + +Can be a formula +Explains numerous facts and observations +More certain than hypotheses, but less certainthan laws +
Cell Theory The cell theory is a widely accepted explanation of the relationship between cells and living things. The cell theory states: All living things are composed of cells. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things. Cells arise from pre-existing cells. The cell theory holds true for all living things, no matter how big or small, or how simple or complex. Since according to research, cells are common to all living things, they can provide information about all life. And because all cells come from other cells, scientists can study cells to learn about growth, reproduction, and all other functions that living things perform. By learning about cells and how they function, you can learn about all types of living things.