#10. Pan Africanism<br />Pan-Africanism became a broad-based mass movement in Africa <br />Nkrumah dominated this period in the history of Pan-Africanism dreaming that a Pan African union could be established to unite all of the new countries of the continent in a broader community. <br />The Cold War shaped the struggle for African Unity and Pan Africanism began with African intellectuals during the first half of the twentieth century.<br />
#9 Pakistan and The Indo-Pakistan War <br />This war began due to Pakistan’s belief that the defeat of India by China in 1962 meant that the Indian military would be unable to defend against a hasty military campaign in Kashmir. Also, because the Pakistani government was becoming increasingly alarmed by Indian efforts to integrate Kashmir within India. <br />On August 5, Pakistani soldiers crossed the Line of Control. Indian forces, discovering this , crossed the cease fire line on August 15. <br />By Sept 22 both sides had agreed to a UN mandated cease-fire ending the war that had by that point reached a stalemate. <br />Overall, the war was militarily unsettled; each side held prisoners and some territory belonging to the other. <br />The U.S., instead of aiding Pakistan under the terms of the Agreement of Cooperation, took neutrality and cut off military supplies.(They believed it to be largely Pakistan’s fault)<br />
#8 Fidel Castro<br />Fidel Castro was born August 13, 1926 in Cuba<br />Castro participated in a number of urban riots including the April riot in 1948. <br />He led guerrilla forces and radically active peasants in a fight against Batista’s rapidly decaying army. Castro then came into power and in July of 1959, he took complete political control of the island nation<br />Due to Castro’s totalitarian regime there was a strained relationship with him and the U.S. He did however find a new ally with Russia.<br /> Castro trading weapons with his new ally led to the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962.<br />Cuba’s economy, however, failed to grow beyond its dependency on sugar cane and depended heavily on favorable trade with the Soviets. Therefore, when the Soviet Union collapsed, Castro had to counter the loss of economic assistance by allowing more economic freedoms. <br />
#7 The Cuban missile Crisis and JFK<br />In 1959 the left wing revolutionary Fidel Castro overthrew the Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista and created a totalitarian government and allied with USSR. <br />After the “Bay of Pigs” failed the soviet union decided to place nuclear missiles in Cuba.<br />When the U.S. blocked the transportation of missiles to Cuba, Khrushchev agreed to turn back the fleet if Kennedy would not invade China.<br />
#6 Korean War<br />The Korean War brought the beginnings of the Cold War into East Asia.<br />On the eve of Japanese surrender in August 1945, the Soviet Union U.S. divided Korea into two separate occupational zones at the 38th parallel.<br />They originally planned on holding elections, but two separate governments developed in Korea: A communist one in the north, and a anti-communist government in the south.<br />On June 25, 1950 with the stamp of approval from Stalin, North Korean troops invaded the south. President Truman immediately jumped in to support south Korea.<br />In November, Chinese “volunteer” intervened in force on the side of north Korea, much to the dismay of America. <br />Astatic Defense line was eventually redrawn near the original dividing line at the 38th parallel. <br />The Korean War was most unfortunate for China. The invasion only hardened the relationship between China and the major capitalist western powers.<br />
#5 Chinese Communism<br />While Chaing Kai-Shek struggled with Japanese aggression and problems with national development, the communists were building their strength in northern China. <br />By the end of WWII 20-30 million Chinese citizens were living under the administration of the communists. <br />Millions of peasants were attracted to communism by promises of land and social justice. The middle class Chinese, more resentful to communism, were alienated by Chaing’s brutal suppression of all disagreements. <br />Communist power grew rapidly throughout China, but the Truman administration reacted to it with anxiety. In December 1945, President Truman sent General Marshall to China in a last effort to have a peaceful settlement, China resisted US efforts.<br />
#4 The Vietnam War<br />In the Vietnam War — which lasted from the 1954 until 1975 — the United States and the southern-based Republic of Vietnam (RVN) opposed the southern-based revolutionary movement known as the Viet Cong and its sponsor, the Communist Democratic Republic of Vietnam (the DRV, or North Vietnam). The war was the second of two major conflicts that spread throughout Indochina, with Vietnam as its focal point (see Vietnam). The First Indochina War was a struggle between Vietnamese nationalists and the French colonial regime aided by the United States. <br />In the second war, the United States replaced France as the major contender against northern-based Communists and southern insurgents. Communist victory in 1975 had profound ramifications for the United States; it was not only a setback to the containment of communism in Asia but a shock to American self-confidence.<br />
#3 The Red Scare<br /><ul><li>The Red Scare was known as the threat of Communism spreading across the globe.
The origins of the first Red scare lay in the Russian Revolution and the dreadful experiences of World War I.
Congress responded by putting new protections in the Immigration Act of 1918. Also, the Justice Department acted in November 1919 and January 1920 by launching massive raids. Over ten thousand were jailed and interrogated with little regard for their right to due process.
World War II produced new worries about fascism, Nazism, and Communism.
There was also, a large display of Red Scare tactics: the Communist witch-hunts of Senator Joseph R. McCarthy, who brought unfounded accusations of Communist penetration
Today, the legacy of the Red scares to U.S. law can be measured in several ways: a greater interest in civil liberties, a decline of interrogating private citizens, and a 1990 reform of immigration law that removed anarchism and Communism as grounds for deportation.</li></li></ul><li>#2 The fall of The Berlin Wall<br />The Berlin Wall was constructed in 1961 to provide a physical barrier between East and West Berlin. The city had been divided into a Soviet occupational zone and a joint U.S., France, and Great Britain occupational zone following World War II.<br />The wall was 103 miles long, 12 foot- high Berlin Wall, and completely surrounded the Western part of the city. <br />For more than 28 years the wall was a major symbol of both the Cold War and the oppressive Soviet regime<br />However, it became obsolete in 1989 when Hungary opened its borders to East Germans. <br />In a fraught last attempt to restore solidity, Egon Krenz decided to allow passage through the Berlin Wall.<br /> With the wall purposeless West and East German worked together to tear down the wall and together form the Federal Republic of Germany in 1990.<br />The fall of the Berlin Wall marked the end of communism in Germany, and was a symbol for the end of communism throughout Europe.<br />
#1 Joseph Stalin<br />Stalin became the leader of Russia in 1929. Once leader he quickly realized Russia would need to modernize in order to keep up with the West. <br />Stalin knew that Russia needed a strong army. Only one marshal out of five was left alive and the Red Army was basically leaderless. <br />Despite the Germans reaching the outskirts of Moscow, Stalin did not leave his capital and played his part in defending his country against the Wehrmacht. During the war, Stalin met the other 'Big Two' –Winston Churchill and F.D.R. at the confrences of Tehran, Yalta and Potsdam where the tensions of the Cold War had begun.<br />Stalin was enraged when the atomic bomb was used on Hiroshima. The immense power of 'Little Boy' and 'Fat Man' set a new bar in the Arms Race that Stalin's Russia had been winning regarding weaponry.<br />After the end of the war, Stalin's position in Russia had been elevated by his leadership of the nation in its time of need. He maintained an iron grip on Russia until his death in March 1953<br />
#1 Nikita Khrushev<br />During World War II he gained favor with Stalin and in 1953, at Stalin's death, Over the next five years Khrushchev beat out his political rivals and became Premier in 1958. <br />As Premier, Khrushchev tried to raise the Soviet standard of living and to greatly expand his country's space program. Khrushchev also greatly changed Soviet foreign policy. He wanted to avoid war with the Western nations and, at the same time, increase economic competition between Communist and non-Communist countries. The policy of peaceful co-existence caused bitter disputes between the Soviet Union and China. <br />In the spring of 1962, Khrushchev conceived of the idea of placing nuclear missiles in Cuba to restore the balance of power in the Cold War. He got the American missiles removed from Italy and Turkey and a public pledge that the U.S. would not invade Cuba. <br />The agreement, however, displeased many high Communist party officials. They looked at it as a loss for the Soviet Union. In 1964, two years after the Cuban Missile Crisis, Khrushchev was removed from power. <br />
#1 Leonid Brezhnev<br />In 1957 he became a member of the presidium of the central committee. Following Nikita Khrushchev’s fall from power in 1964, which Brezhnev helped to bring about, he was named first secretary of the Communist party.<br />Although he shared power with Alexei Kosygin, Brezhnev emerged as the chief figure in Soviet politics. In 1968, in support of the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia, he vocalized the “Brezhnev doctrine,” asserting that the USSR could intervene in the domestic affairs of any Soviet bloc nation if Communist rule were threatened. <br />While maintaining a tight rein in Eastern Europe, he favored closer relations with the Western powers.In1977 he assumed the presidency of the USSR, thereby becoming head of state and head of the party.<br />During the late 1970s and early 1980s, cold war tensions returned with an acceleration in the arms race, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, and the continued intransigence toward political and economic reform within the Soviet bloc. Under Mikhail Gorbachev, Brezhnev’s regime was criticized for its corruption and failed economic policies.<br />
#1 Mikhail Gorbachev<br />After slowly making his way up to more prestigious roles he was finally appointed First Secretary of the Stavropol territory and began a series of food production programs. These programs demonstrated his shinning performance as a leader in the Communist Party. In this position, Gorbachev governed 2.4 million people. <br />In 1989, he was elected as the Executive President of the Soviet Union. He initiated Glasnost, a program which enabled the people to have more rights once more. Glasnost, or “openness,” eventually encouraged openness with other nations in the Cold War. Gorbachev’s legendary quote, “I detest lies,” sums up the purpose and honesty of the Russians for Glasnost. The period of Glasnost eventually ended the Cold War, which was embodied by the tearing down of the Berlin Wall.<br />Gorbachev’s second famous program was Perestroika. Known as the “dismantling” of Soviet Communism, this program cured economic, social, and political problems. Perestroika’s main goal was to make the Soviet Union more westernized economically. Glasnost, Perestroika, and the ending of the Cold War all contributed to the downfall of communism. In 1991 Gorbachev was overthrown by Boris Yeltsin and was forced to step down from the presidency. <br />