AP English Language & Composition—What you must know to survive and succeed!What is rhetoric? A few scholarly mindsdefine it this way.Plato: [Rhetoric] is the "art of enchanting thesoul." (The art of winning the soulby discourse.)Aristotle: Rhetoric is "the faculty ofdiscovering in any particular caseall of the available means ofpersuasion."Andrea Lunsford: "Rhetoric is the art,practice, and study of humancommunication."In this class, we focus on the rhetoricalanalysis of a variety of texts—nonfiction andfiction, print and nonprint--from the 16th to the21st centuries. We will synthesize our ownarguments on a variety of subjects. We willdevelop advanced reading, writing, andrhetorical strategies that will help you now, incollege, and beyond.May’s AP test is importantIt keeps us honest, but it is ONE snapshot ofONE morning of this class. Overall classperformance is a far better indicator of yourdiligence, dedication, and insight.The test itself is three hours and 15minutes.- One hour for 52-54 multiple choicequestions on 4-5 passages – Countsas 45% of the final score- 15 minutes to read synthesis essaysources and plan essay- Two hours for three essay questions,includes rhetorical analysis andargument – Counts as 55% of thefinal scoreMultiple Choice QuestionsRemember Plan time carefully. You have onehour for about 54 questions or about1 question a minute. Survey the whole multiple choicesection. Start with a passage thatseems easiest to you. You will probably need to read andthen reread each passage. One readcan skim; the second should scour. Survey all of the questions for eachpassage. Answer the ones that seemeasiest first. If you’re having troubles getting intoa passage, read the questions first toget your bearings. If you can’t eliminate two answers,skip it. Make sure the number of thequestion matches the number on theanswer sheet. Take a second andcheck each number as you go along.Five basic types of questions1. Words and/or phrases in context:Using the indicated portion of the text, whatdoes the word or phrase mean?Skill - definition2. Main Idea: Read the text. Which answerbest summarizes or defines the text?Skill - reading comprehension, makinginferences3. Terms: What does it mean? Reference:vocabulary within the text, rhetoricalstrategies, and literary devices.Skill - definitionThese first three types of questions areeasiest. You should expect to get at least70 - 80% of these questions correct.4. Function: Why is a word used or whatphrases are juxtaposed against each other?Skills - Determining authors purposeReading comprehension5. Organization: Why is this paragraphhere?Skills - Determining authors purposeReading comprehensionUnderstanding authors purposeThe wrong answer choices follow apattern - Wrong answer choices “reward”a surface reading and have less depth.Remember if part of the answer choice iswrong, it’s all wrong.Mnemonics for analyzing textsSOAPStone: used to analyze texts Subject: What is the topic of the text? Occasion: Why is the speech beingdelivered or passage written? Is it aspecial event? Audience: With whom is the writer orspeaker communicating? How do youknow? Which words tell you? Purpose: What is the audiencesupposed to do? What lesson shouldthey learn? How is the audiencesupposed to feel at the end? Speaker: (or author) Is the speaker areliable person to discuss this topic?What qualifications does he or shepossess? Tone: What is the tone or attitude of thespeaker or author towards the subject?SMELL: used analyze advertising orother persuasive texts. Sender-receiver relationship: Who isthe target audience? Why is the senderusing this language and/or theseimages? Message: Summarize the statementsmade. Effect: What is the desired effect?What does the author want the reader todo? Logic: What type of reasoning is atwork? Consider images as well aswords. How does its presence orabsence affect the message? Language: How does the language ofthe text affect the meaning? How does itmake the text more effective?Remember to consider images as wellas words.DIDLS - used when consideringdescriptive passages. Diction: Which words does the authoruse that are unusual or effective? Images: What specific images does thewrite enable you to envision clearly? Details: Which details -- visual,auditory, etc. -- does the writer developto help develop his main idea? Language: What do you notice aboutthe way the author puts the sentencestogether? Is it simple? complicated? Isthe author writing for people who know alot or a little about the topic already? Syntax: Does the length of the sentenceaffect the topic? Does it affect the wayyou react?Rhetorical Precis- used to practiceprecise description of the argument andcontext an author presents in a text. Sentence 1: Name of author, the typeand title of the work, a rhetoricallyaccurate verb (see list) that describeswhat the author is doing in the text, anda THAT clause in which you state themajor assertion (thesis statement) of theauthor’s text.
AP English Language & Composition—What you must know to survive and succeed! Sentence 2: An explanation of how theauthor develops and/or supports thethesis (for instance, comparing andcontrasting, narrating, illustrating,defining, using sarcasm, relatingpersonal experience, using examples,etc.). Your explanation is usuallypresented in the same chronologicalorder that the items of support arepresented in the work. Sentence 3: A statement of the author’sapparent purpose, followed by an INORDER TO phrase in which you explainwhat the author wants the audience todo or feel as a result of reading thework. Sentence 4: A description of theintended audience and/or therelationship the author establishes withthe audience.Writing in AP Language Keep in mind that your primary goal isclarity: the precise communication ofyour ideas. Remember your audience and yourpurpose. What do you want youraudience to think, do, or believe afterreading your essay? Is your audiencepositive, negative, neutral, ordisinterested? What kinds of evidenceand reasoning would most effectivelyaccomplish this goal? Use apt, sophisticated diction.o Avoid pedestrian words andphrases such as “got”, “a lot”,“really”, “okay”; avoid non-wordssuch as “reoccur” (the correct wordis “recur”).o Avoid cliches - "You cant judge abook by its cover," "A picturesworth a thousand words," etc. Toomany students use them, and theyset the readers teeth on edge.o Avoid contractions, abbreviations,and slang. This is a formaloccasion.o Make sure every pronoun you usehas a clear antecedent. Thatincludes the ubiquitous “it.”o Limit the “be” verbs: There is, It is,and so ono Use an active voice. See the listfor some stronger verbs.Verbs to Use in AP WritingInstead of using weaker verbs like shows,uses, or utilizes, use stronger verbs like:Asserts hints at ignitesDetails highlights changesalludes to constrains invokesImplies explores exemplifiesClarifies alters conveysPortrays manipulates repudiatesInspires conjures up comparesdescribes produces masterssuggests evokes createsconnotes elicits refutesReveals juxtaposes documentsdelineates construes enunciatesShifts solidifies maintainsspecifies differentiates demonstratesevokes transcends stirsNotes emphasizes dispelsDepicts explains twistsTackles enhances elucidates Maintain present tense when analyzingtexts. SENTENCE STRUCTURE: You varyyour sentence structure and allsentences are punctuated correctly.Beware of comma splices. CONVENTIONS OF FORMALWRITING: third person only, nocontractions GRAMMAR: Be aware of parallelstructure, subject-verb and pronounagreement, and dangling or misplacedmodifiers. Try not to end a sentencewith a preposition. Remember that correct grammar, verbtense, and sentence structure mustalways be maintained, even whenquoting. Show respect for the authors.o Dont say they are stupid or do notknow what they are talking about.Chances are it is not Virginia Woolfwho does not know what shestalking about.o Dont refer to the authors by theirfirst names. In the intro, refer to theauthor by both names, thenhenceforth use the last name.Handling quotations: Try imbedding the quote in your ownsentence. Make sure the quote never standsalone; always include significance. If you use a long quote, indent all linesof the quote and separate it from therest of your paper with spaces. All quotes are not created equal.Choose carefully which words you wishto quote. Do NOT use a quote as a topicsentence. Topic sentences are part ofYOUR structure and should be yourunique thoughts and wording. Remember that a mere quote doesntshow anything, prove anything, or makeanything obvious or evident. YOU, asthe writer, have that job. Be sure that you use absolutely correctMLA format when citing quotations. Ifyour sentence ends with a quotation, besure to put the ending quotation marksbefore the parenthetical citation and theperiod after the parenthetical citation:The boy’s condition causes him to walkwith a “weird shuffling gait”(19). Students often think the words statesand quotes are interchangeable. Theyrenot. Charles Dickens states, "It was thebest of times..." not quotes. To quote isto repeat what someone else said. Its okay to use an ellipsis in a quote aslong as the quote still makes sense.Insertion of Quotes as SupportWeak StrongWhen Jerry says, "Youhave everything, andnow you want thisbench. Are these thethings men fight for?" itshows that he is tryingto intimidate Peter bymaking fun of hishonor.Attacking Peters senseof honor, Jerry ordershim off the bench andtauntingly asks if amere park bench "arethe things men fightfor" in Peters smallworld.When Peter finallysays, "Get up andfight," Jerry inquires,"Like a man?" Thisshows that Jerry isattacking Peters senseof manliness.Jerry, now desperate tofulfill his suicidalmission, resorts toattacks on Petersmanliness, provokinghim into fighting "like aman."In responding to Jerryscomments abouthaving a male child,Peter says "Its amatter of genetics, notmanhood, youmonster." It is obviousthat Peter is angry atJerrys insinuations.Although Peter knowsthat the gender of hischildren is "a matter ofgenetics, notmanhood," henevertheless lashes outat Jerrys insults,leaving the reader todoubt Peters sense ofsecurity.
AP English Language & Composition—What you must know to survive and succeed!Timed EssaysPreparation (15 minutes) Take the time to read the questioncarefully– underlining (and numbering)the most important parts. Take the time to read the promptTWICE. Work the text—use all theclues you see to get specifics about theauthor, the audience, the purpose, andthe rhetorical strategies the author usesto achieve that purpose. Plan the essay to address each part ofthe question.Draft Essay (20 minutes)WOW (Introductory Paragraph) Dontwaste time on a long or fancy intro. Throwaway the bread and get to the meat. With no time for a general introduction,your first paragraph clearly sets theangle of your analysis. Make sure your THESIS statement (andwhole first paragraph) is a direct andcomplete response to the prompt. Keepin mind that a fact or summary cannotbe a thesis. Do not repeat the prompt,but it is often helpful to use key words.STUFF (Body Paragraphs) The topic sentence of each bodyparagraph is a CLAIM (not a fact orsummary statement) which clearlysupports the argument of your thesis. Each claim is well-SUPPORTed withplenty of concrete evidence. (you do notneed to waste time copying largesections of the text—use key words inquotation marks) Remember not toleave DRT hanging—it needs to besecured with prose to the rest of theparagraph. INTERPRETATIONS clearly explainhow the evidence supports your claim. The tie of every claim to the thesis isclear: Either it is clearly stated, or theinference is obvious.OOH! (Conclusion) Your concluding paragraph returns tothe thesis idea but uses different wordsand extends the idea. (In effect, showthe reader that you have proved yourthesis, but not in a boring or redundantmanner.) If at all possible, finish with a fresh,brilliant insight that ties all of your ideastogether and at the same time flowslogically from your argument.Review Essay (5 minutes) TRANSITIONS: To link paragraphs youuse effective transitions to enhance theoverall flow, coherence, and sense ofyour essay. Review the prompt to make sure youhave addressed the entire question. Check mechanics: diction, syntax,grammar, spelling, and punctuation.Three general kinds of timedessays in AP Language1. Analysis Essays Rhetorical purpose: to convince thereader to think, do, or believe X; alsopersonal, expository, andargumentative Rhetorical modes: narration,description, cause and effect,process analysis, comparison,example, classification, argument(though all communication is argument) Rhetorical strategies – these are thebroad categories--remember to getspecifico Ethos – establish credibility ofspeakero Pathos – address needs of theaudienceo Logos – use one or more rhetoricalmodes to address purpose Style/Rhetoric/Language: Diction,Detail, Syntax, Imagery, and ToneAdvice: Stick to an analysis of the essay.Dont wander off into your personalexperiences.Avoid the words "paints a picture in thereaders mind." Too many students use it,and it doesnt say anything. Identify andexplain the effect or tone the author iscreating. Notice I said, “and explain” -identifying isnt enough.Dont define terms. The readers areexperienced AP teachers and Englishprofessors. We dont need to be told a simileis a comparison using like or as.SHOWING, NOT TELLINGTelling ShowingPepperingprose withLatin andGreek laundrylists of termsDemonstratingunderstanding of the effectsof those strategies“The writerappeals topathos”"the author appeals to theemotions of the audiencewhen he...""the author makes theaudience afraid of theconsequences, and sosways their opinion whenshe..."“The writeruses logos”"the writer uses a carefully-reasoned cause-and-effectargument that showsunequivocally that X leadsto Y""the writer uses plenty ofexamples to support herpoint that..." or "the writerreaches a logicalconclusion that..."“The writeruses ethos”"the writer establishes hisauthority by... ""the writer makes herselfsympathetic to theaudience by...""the writer clearly has agood reputation because..."PHRASES BANK TO DESCRIBE THERHETORICAL PURPOSES/FUNCTIONS: Anticipate objections raised by the ideaspresented in X Expresses a causal relationshipbetween X and Y Introduce a series of generalizations Makes an appeal to authority Present a thesis that will be challengedin paragraph B Presents a misconception that theauthor will correct Provide evidence to contrast with that inX Provide support for a thesis Provides a specific example for thepreceding generalization Restates the thesis
AP English Language & Composition—What you must know to survive and succeed!STRUCTURE/DEVELOPMENT An exaggeration followed by qualifyingstatements Chronological examination of a topic Claim followed by supporting details Explanation of an issue leading to anexamination of the same issue Generalization followed by othergeneralizations Historical example followed bycontemporary examples Movement from particular to general Presentation of two conflicting ideasfollowed by a resolutionTONEAcerbic and Cynical Lyrical nostalgiaHarsh and strident UncertainCautious ambivalence Feigned innocenceInformal andAnalyticalDisbelievingContemplative andConciliatoryPoignant remorseIrate but carefullyJudiciousRelievedEnthusiastic andOptimisticReverent andRespectfulSerious but faintlycondescendingObjectiveSelf-deprecatinghumorScornful andUnsympatheticSuperficial andCapriciousExasperatedATTITUDEAwe Profound admirationFeigned intimacy Reasoned objectivityReasoned objectivity DisapprovalQualified enthusiasm Idolatrous devotionSuspicion Indifference2. Argument EssaysIf given a passage to analyze, use themodified Graff Model to help you planyour essay.1. (author) ____ makes the generalargument that ____.2. More specifically, X argues that ____.3. In this passage, X suggests that ____.4. In conclusion, X believes that ____.5. I agree/disagree with X, because ____.6. More specifically, I believe that ____.7. For example, ____.8. Although X might object that ____. Imaintain that ____.9. Therefore, I conclude that ____.If given a topic that doesn’t involve ananalysis of the author’s argument, usethis model instead.1. Write the thesis sentence as an"Although" sentence, putting theopposition in the dependent clause andyour position in the independent clause.2. Using a concessionary transition wordlike "Certainly," or "Sure," make the firstbody paragraphs a good presentation ofthe OPPOSITION. Give the opposingarguments full and fair presentation.3. Then, using the most powerful turningword, "However," begin the presentationof your argument.4. Continue with more paragraphs, usingadd-on transitions like "Moreover," "Inaddition," "Not only that,""Furthermore," making the case solid foryour position.5. Use the most powerful concluding word,"Therefore," and end with a memorable,succinct conclusion.Advice: In either case, generate 6-10examples that support your position. Pick thebest examples (best means that theexamples really fit the argument AND thatyou know enough about them to use themwell), not just the first ones to pop into yourhead.It doesnt matter if you defend, challenge, orqualify as long as you do it well.Think of the argument prompt as aspringboard for creating your own argument.You dont need to discuss Susan Sontag,and, for heavens sake, dont try to analyzetheir argument. Your purpose here is topersuade the reader that your argument issound and reasonable.The reader wants "specific evidence" - twoimportant words, often overlooked. Thecourtroom does not want the hypothetical orthe theoretical. Use your own experience,incidents you know about, or what youhave read about (or, in Sontags case, thepictures you have seen).If you give me 3 examples of specificevidence, make sure they illustrate 3different points, not 3 examples to illustratethe same point.3. Synthesis EssaysReading and Preparation (15 minutes) –before you start the writing.1. Take the time to read the question –underlining the most important parts.Write a quick answer to the questionbased on what you already know aboutthe subject.2. Take the time to read the sourcesTWICE. Work the text—use all theclues you see to get specifics about theauthor, the audience, the purpose, andthe likely biases. This means readingthe introductory information carefullyas well.3. Select 6-10 examples that support yourposition. Use at least three of thesources—identify the sources as(Source A) or the information in theparentheses. Pick the best examples(best means that the examples really fitthe argument AND that you knowenough about them to use them well),not just the first ones to pop into yourhead.4. Remember that your argument iscentral. The sources support thisargument. Do NOT merely summarizethe sources.5. Plan your argument: thesis, claims,reasoning. See Argument section for asuggested outline.Other kinds of writing in APEnglish LanguageCSI Checklist Your CLAIM is an opinion--an arguableor debatable idea. It is not a fact or adetail or a summary statement. If youhappen to say your claim out loud andeveryone in the class agrees with you,then chances are you have not written aclaim. Choose evidence from the text,including details and quotations,thatclearly SUPPORT your claim. Always be sure to Transition into, and/orLead in to the Quote (TLQ). Make sure
AP English Language & Composition—What you must know to survive and succeed!you have informed your reader of thespeaker and context before you quote. Every quotation is seamlessly insertedas part of one of your sentences. Donot put a quotation as a separatesentence. Cite every quotation parentheticallyusing MLA format. Example: Opheliawill “the effect of this good lesson keep”(1.3.45). After every quotation you INTERPRET:What does it mean? Exactly how doesthe evidence support your claim? You conclude with a final sentence ofinterpretation, tying up your claim, andending with a fresh insight.Essay Checklist—Process WritingThe big difference between a timed essayand one that goes through multiple stepsand revisions (hence, process) is theWOW (Introductory Paragraph), theparenthetical citations, and the chance topolish and perfect your prose andexamples. Grab the reader’s attention andintroduce the topic. Narrow the focus. The method of development may or maynot be clearly stated/listed as part ofyour thesis statement, but the directionof the argument is evident to the reader.(If you list the main points of the claimsto follow, you must discuss those claimsin the same order you list them in thethesis statement.) The last sentence of your first paragraphis your THESIS statement. It is clearand precise, presenting the angle ofyour argument. Your thesis statement isan arguable idea. A fact or summarycannot be a thesis.Rhetorical Terms – A Glossaryad hominem fallacy--(Latin for "to the man")a fallacy of logic in which a personscharacter or motive is attacked instead ofthat persons argument.ad populum fallacy--(Latin for "to the crowd")a fallacy of logic in which the widespreadoccurrence of something is assumed tomake it true or right; e.g. "The Escort is themost widely sold car in the world;therefore, it must be the best."allegory--a story in which the people, places,and things represent general concepts ormoral qualities.allusion--a brief reference to a person, place,event, or passage in a work of literature orthe Bible assumed to be sufficiently wellknown to be recognized by the reader;e.g. "I am Lazarus, come from the dead."T. S. Eliotanalogy--a comparison between two things inwhich the more complex is explained interms of the more simple; e.g. comparinga year-long profile of the stock index to aroller-coaster ride.anecdote--a short entertaining account ofsome happening, frequently personal orbiographical.anticlimax--a sudden drop from the dignifiedor important in thought or expression tothe commonplace or trivial, often forhumorous effect.appeal to authority--citation of informationfrom people recognized for their specialknowledge of a subject for the purpose ofstrengthening a speaker or writersarguments.argumentation--exploration of a problem byinvestigating all sides of it; persuasionthrough reason.begging the question--a fallacy of logicalargument that assumes as true the verything that one is trying to prove; e.g. 1.The Bible is the infallible word of God. 2.The Bible says that God exists. Therefore,3. God exists.cause and effect--examination of the causesand/or effects of a situation orphenomenon; e.g. Essay topics such as"How did the incumbent mayor lose theelection?" or "What causes obesity?" arewell suited to cause and effect exposition.chronological ordering--arrangement in theorder in which things occur; may movefrom past to present or in reversechronological order, from present to past.classification as a means of ordering--arrangement of objects according to class;e.g. media classified as print, television,and radio.colloquial expression--words and phrasesused in everyday speech but avoided informal writing; e.g. Jack was bummed outabout his chemistry grade instead of Jackwas upset about his chemistry grade.damning with faint praise--intentional use ofa positive statement that has a negativeimplication; e.g. "Your new hairdo isso...interesting.deduction (deductive reasoning)--a form ofreasoning that begins with ageneralization, then applies thegeneralization to a specific case or cases;opposite to induction. (see syllogism)digression--a temporary departure from themain subject in speaking or writing.ellipsis--1. In grammar, the omission of aword or words necessary for completeconstruction but understood in context.E.g. "If (it is) possible, (you) come early."2. The sign (...) that something has beenleft out of a quotation. "To be or not...thatis the question."euphemism--the use of a word or phrase thatis less direct, but that is also lessdistasteful or less offensive than another;e.g."he is at rest" is a euphemism for "heis dead."expository writing--writing that explains oranalyzes.false dilemma--a fallacy of logical argumentwhich is committed when too few of theavailable alternatives are considered, andall but one are assessed and deemedimpossible or unacceptable; e.g. A fatherspeaking to his son says, "Are you goingto go to college and make something ofyourself, or are you going to end up beingan unemployable bum like me?" Thedilemma is the sons supposed choicelimitation: either he goes to college or hewill be a bum. The dilemma is false,because the alternative of not going tocollege but still being employable has notbeen considered.hyperbole--an extravagant exaggeration offact, used either for serious or comiceffect; e.g. "Your beauty, that did hauntme in my sleep/ To undertake the death ofall the world,/So I might live one hour inyour sweet bosom." Shakespeare,Richard IIIimagery--lively descriptions which impress theimages of things upon the mind; figures ofspeech.induction (inductive reasoning)--a form ofreasoning which works from a body of fact
AP English Language & Composition—What you must know to survive and succeed!AudiencePathosAppeals toAudience’sIdentitySelf-InterestEmotionsMessageLogosLogicAppeals to meritand reasonablenessof claims andsupportSpeakerEthosAppeals to establishSpeaker’sCredibility andAuthority in theeyes of the audienceto the formulation of a generalization;opposite to deduction; frequently used asthe principal form of reasoning in scienceand history.inverted syntax--reversing the normal wordorder of a sentence; e.g. "Whose woodsthese are I think I know." Robert Frostirony--a method of humorous or sarcasticexpression in which the intendedmeaning of the words is the opposite oftheir usual meaning; e.g. saying that acold, windy, rainy day is "lovely."litotes--in rhetoric, a figure in which anaffirmative is expressed by a negation ofthe contrary. A "citizen of no mean city" is,therefore, "a citizen of an important orfamous city."metaphor--a figure of speech in which onething is compared to another by beingspoken of as though it were that thing; e.g."...a sea of troubles." William Bradfordnon sequitur--a statement that does notfollow logically from what preceded it.order of importance--a method of organizinga paper according to the relativesignificance of the subtopics.oxymoron--a figure of speech in whichcontradictory terms or ideas arecombined; e.g. "thunderous silence."parable--a short story from which a lessonmay be drawn; Christ used the parable toteach his followers moral truths. Theparable of the Sower and the GoodSamaritan are examples of his parables.parallel syntactic structures--using the samepart of speech or syntactic structure in (1)each element of a series, (2) before andafter coordinating conjunctions (and, but,yet, or, for, nor), and (3) after each of apair of correlative conjunctions (notonly...but also, neither...nor, both...and,etc.). Below are examples for definitions(1) and (3):(1) Over the hill, through the woods, and tograndmothers house we go.(3) That vegetable is both rich in vitaminsand low in calories.paradox--a statement which seems self-contradictory, but which may be true infact. "Success is counted sweetest / Bythose who neer succeed..." EmilyDickinsonparody--a literary composition which imitatesthe characteristic style of a serious work orwriter and uses its features to treat trivial,nonsensical material in an attempt athumor or satire.pedantry--a display of narrow-minded andtrivial scholarship or arbitrary adherence torules and forms.personification--a figure of speech in whichan inanimate object or abstract concept isendowed with human attributes; e.g. thehand of fate.periodic sentence structure--a sentencewritten so that the full meaning cannot beunderstood until the end; e.g. Across thestream, beyond the clearing, from behinda fallen tree, the lion emerged.persuasion--taking a single position for thepurpose of getting others to accept thatposition; may appeal to emotion or reason.point of view--the way in which something isviewed or considered by a writer orspeaker; in fiction, it is the relationshipassumed between the teller of a story andthe characters in it, usually demonstratedby the authors use of either first or thirdperson.post hoc fallacy--(from the Latin: post hoc,ergo propter hoc meaning "after this,therefore because of this.") This fallacy oflogic occurs when the writer assume thatan incident that precedes another is thecause of the second incident. Forexample: "Governor X began his first termin January. Three months later, the statesuffered severe economic depression.Therefore, Governor X cause the statesdepression." The chronological order ofevents does not establish a cause-effectrelationship.rhetoric--the art ofusing wordseffectively in writingor speaking so as toinfluence orpersuade.rhetorical question--aquestion asked forrhetorical effect toemphasize a point,no answer beingexpected; e.g."Robert, is this anyway to speak toyour mother?"satire--a literary work inwhich vices,abuses, absurdities,etc. are held up toridicule andcontempt; use ofridicule, sarcasm, irony, etc. to exposevices, abuses, etc.simile--a figure of speech involving acomparison using like or as; e.g. "O mylove is like a red, red rose." Robert Burnsspatial ordering--organization of informationusing spatial cues such as top to bottom,left to right, etc.syllogism--a form of reasoning in which twostatements or premises are made and alogical conclusion is drawn from them; aform of deductive reasoning. Example:Major Premise: J and G Constructionbuilds unsafe buildings.Minor Premise: J and G Construction builtthe Tower Hotel.Conclusion: The Tower Hotel is an unsafebuilding. (see deduction)symbol--something that stands for anotherthing; frequently an object used torepresent an abstraction, e.g. the dove is asymbol of peace.syntax--in grammar, the arrangement ofwords as elements in a sentence to showtheir relationship.tone--a way of wording or expressing thingsthat expresses an attitude; the tone maybe angry, matter-of-fact, pedantic, orironic.understatement--deliberately representingsomething as much less than it really is.Jonathan Swift wrote, "Last week I saw awoman flayed, and you will hardly believehow much it altered her appearance."