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Ecology review


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Ecology review

  1. 1. ECOLOGY Review
  2. 2. ECOLOGY TERMS  Ecology is the study how organisms live and interact in the environment  An ecosystem is a group of organisms and their environment  Environment is everything that surrounds the organisms  A habitat is the place where organisms live
  3. 3. ECOSYSTEMS  Living things in an ecosystem are either producers, consumers or decomposers  Living things in an ecosystem depend on each other for energy  Producers usually get their energy from the sun  Producers make their own food  Plants are examples of producers
  4. 4. ECOSYSTEMS, continued  Consumers usually get their energy from the producers or other consumers  Consumers usually eat the producers or other consumers  A cow would be a primary consumer because it eats producers  A snake would be a higher consumer because it eats other consumers like mice
  5. 5. CONSUMERS 3  types Herbivores – eat plants only  Like  Carnivores – mainly eat meat  Like  a deer a shark Omnivores – eat both plants and meat  Like us
  6. 6. CONSUMERS, continued  Consumers    can be primary (they eat producers) Secondary (if they eat the primary consumer) Tertiary (if they eat the secondary consumer)
  7. 7. FOOD CHAIN  Energy flows from producers to consumers in a food chain  Here is an example of a food chain The energy from the sun give the tree what it needs to grow and makes its food. The giraffe eats the leaves which gives it energy. The lion will eat the giraffe which will give it energy. Which one is the primary consumer?
  8. 8. FOOD WEB * Food webs show how energy is distributed in an entire ecosystem. * Think back to the previous food chain. Lions don’t just eat giraffes. * So a food web show all of the possibilities in the ecosystem. Image taken from
  9. 9. SYMBIOSIS  Organisms interact with one another in their ecosystem besides just “eating” one another  Symbiosis is the close relationship between organisms that live together
  10. 10. TYPES OF SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIPS  Mutualism – both organisms benefit from the relationship  Commensalism – one benefits from the relationship, but the other is neither harmed nor does it benefit  Parasitism – one benefits while the other is harmed
  11. 11. MUTUALSIM   Both benefit – it’s a “MUTUAL” relationship Example: Otters and kelp (brown seaweed)    The otters twist up in the kelp to anchorage them for an easy ride and to sleep in the water. This gives the otter stability in the water. The otters eat the sea urchins that try to feed on the kelp. This gives the kelp protection. Both benefit!!! Image taken from .
  12. 12. COMMENSALISM  One benefits, the other is neither harmed nor does it benefit  Example: Cows and cattle egret (bird)     The bird lives with the cows As the cows move around its movement stirs up insects from the ground The egret eats the insects The egret benefits with food but nothing is gained or lost in regards to the cow! Image taken from .
  13. 13. PARASITISM  One benefits while the other is harmed  Example: Tick and any other organism    For example, with a dog, the tick attaches to the dog and drinks its blood. The tick benefits because it is getting food But the dog is being harmed Image taken from .