WHAT IS REFERENCING?
• The practice of acknowledging in your own writing the
intellectual work of others; work that has been
presented in some way into the public domain.
• The basic principle of referencing is to support and
identify the evidence you use in your assignments.
You direct readers of your work to the source of
evidence. This can be done by presenting (or ‘citing’)
the name of the source in the main text of your work.
The full source is given later in a reference or
bibliography list at the end of the assignment.
REFERENCE LIST VS BIBLIOGRAPHY
• A reference list contains only those sources you actually referred
to in your assignment. So, for each resource on your list, there
will be some citation in your assignment. Your marker will check
these off as he/she reads through your work.
• A bibliography is a list of all the sources you looked at. This
list, also attached to the back of your assignment, contains all
those books, articles, website, and so on, you cite in your
assignment but also those ones you consulted but didn't actually
cite in your assignment.
• At Covie, assignments should indicate whether a bibliography or
reference list is required. If in doubt, check with the teacher.
WHY IS REFERENCING IMPORTANT?
• Your assignments are meant to draw on the work of others and
correct referencing is expected. Understanding the reasons for
referencing and acquiring the skills to correctly reference your
writing are vital for success in your written assignments at
school, university, TAFE and even work!
• There are several reasons for referencing:
• To show THAT you have read
• To show WHAT you have read
• To enable the reader to locate the sources mentioned in your
• To acknowledge your sources and avoid plagiarism
WHAT SHOULD BE REFERENCED?
• journal articles
• the internet
• newspapers and magazines
• films and documentaries
• DVDs and CD-ROMs
• brochures and pamphlets
• television and radio programs
• podcasts and YouTube.
You are required to acknowledge not only words and ideas, but also facts and
figures, sounds and images that you have obtained from all sources
• tables and graphs, laboratory data, statistics, diagrams, designs and
plans, images, logos, photographs, music
• Plagiarism is a serious offence and can damage your
reputation. You can be expelled from University and fail
assessments at Covie if you commit plagiarism.
• Regardless of the reasons for plagiarism
(pressure, deadlines, lack of time, laziness
etc.), plagiarism is both lying and theft. It is a breach of
honour and ethics. How would you feel if someone
stole your work and took credit for it? You probably
wouldn't like it. So don't do it…
• As a Christian you should never plagiarise.
• So be smart.
• Cite your sources.
HOW TO FIND SOURCES FOR YOUR REFERENCING
• There is no point having a reference list if you have
nothing but Wikipedia to put down! Wikipedia could
go on a bibliography but not on a reference list as
you need to be careful in citing it as a credible
source – there are much more reliable sources you
• A reference list should contain a mixture of
reputable websites, books, journal
articles, images, films etc that are educationally
relevant to the topic.
• Guided Inquiry is a process that will help develop
your research and information literacy skills.
• It is fairly new in Australia but is proving to be a
very effective model for students to use both in the
classroom and at home.
• There are 7 stages in Guided Inquiry:
• Initiation – Selection – Exploration – Formulation
– Collection – Presentation – Assessment
Is this site suitable for my purpose?
Is the content wide enough to suit my purpose?
Is the content specific enough to suit my purpose?
Is the language used suitable for my reading level?
Can I engage in activities on this site?
Will this site motivate me?
Is the visual material important for me?
Does this site allow for differentiation?
Will this site extend my learning?
Is it clear who the author or organisation is?
Can this author or organisation be trusted?
Can the author or organisation be contacted?
Has this site been recently updated?
Is the site up to date?
Is the site reasonably free of bias?
Is the site not trying to mislead the user?
Does the site link to other reliable sites?
Does the web page load in a reasonable time?
Is it easy to navigate around this site?
Is there a good balance of text on the page?
Are all the graphics, photos, videos, tables necessary?
Do all the links work?
Is it easy to find relevant information?
OVERALL EVALUATION OF WEBSITE
DO NOT USE
HANDS ON PRACTICE!
• Referencing an essay about a particular
Martin Luther King Jr
* QUESTION = What is the most important
legacy that Martin Luther King Jr left behind?
• What would be your approach to finding
information about this person so you can answer
just Google it!
Wikipedia the first point of call!
probably the first couple of sites on Google
………is that all there is to it?
TIP 1: USE LIBRARIES - WHAT DO LIBRARIES HAVE
THAT GOOGLE DOESN’T HAVE?
• There are parts of the Internet that search engines simply
can't see. The search engine's robotic "crawlers" either
miss or are locked out of these areas on the Internet.
Behind the barriers lie treasure troves of quality
information. Collectively this information is called the
Invisible Web or Deep Web.
• Google, Yahoo and Bing only access the top 20% of the
information available on the web. The remainder is either
hidden but freely available with the right search tools, or it’s
locked behind password-protected websites – found on
TIP 1: SEARCH THE LIBRARY
1. Library Catalogue – OPAC, Reading Lists, Pathfinders
2. Worldbook online – via Edumate
* Login = covie Password = school
* Put shortcut on computer
3. Weblinks = directory of educational websites –
accessed via Edumate
TIP 2: SEARCH OTHER LIBRARIES
1. Local libraries
- Warringah Library Service http://www.wls.nsw.gov.au/
- Pittwater Library http://www.pittwater.nsw.gov.au/library
- Kuring-gai Library
2. State Library of NSW http://www.sl.nsw.gov.au/
3. TROVE (National Library of Australia)
TIP 3: SEARCH THE INTERNET
• Meta-search engines & other search engines
TIP 4:USING GOOGLE EFFECTIVELY
• Refine your search by using Google Advanced
• Refine by domain eg .edu, .org, .gov,
• Refine by file type eg. pdf, PPT
• These will reduce your results considerably
• Try using Google Scholar and Google Books and see what
CHRISTIANS AND THE INTERNET
• Recognise and rejoice – in the goodness of God and the
technologies he has blessed us with.
• Discern and resist –the distortions and disobedience as
we begin to idolise technology as a saviour-substitute.
• Confront and renew - confront web 2.0 and its distortions
of the true messiah and do this with redemptive courage.
Chris Parker NICE