SIM - Mc leod ch01

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SIM - Mc leod ch01

  1. 1. © 2007 by Prentice Hall Management Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 1 Management Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell
  2. 2. © 2007 by Prentice Hall Management Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 2 Chapter 1 Introduction to Information Systems
  3. 3. © 2007 by Prentice Hall Management Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 3 Learning Objectives ► Understand how computer hardware has evolved to its present level of sophistication ► Know the basics of computer and communications architectures. ► Understand the distinction between physical and virtual systems. ► Describe how business applications have evolved from an initial emphasis on accounting data to the current emphasis on information for problem solving.
  4. 4. © 2007 by Prentice Hall Management Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 4 Learning Objectives (Cont’d) ► Understand what enterprise resource planning systems are and the reasons for their popularity. ► Know how to tailor information systems to managers based on where they are located in the organizational structure and what they do. ► Understand the relationship between problem solving and decision making and know the basic problem-solving steps. ► Know what innovations to expect in information technology.
  5. 5. © 2007 by Prentice Hall Management Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 5 History of Information Systems ►Evolution in computer hardware  Mainframe  Multitasking ►Smaller computers  Minicomputers  Microcomputers  Personal computers (PC)
  6. 6. © 2007 by Prentice Hall Management Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 6 Intro to Computer Architecture ►Moore’s Law – computer power doubles every year for a given cost. ►Hardware – processor, keyboard, monitor, mouse, printer, etc. ►Software – application, operating, etc. ►Used to support managerial decision making.
  7. 7. © 2007 by Prentice Hall Management Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 7 Computer Architecture (Cont’d) ►Modem – hardware device that modulates the digital signals from a computer into analog signals (telephone system), and vice versa. ►Direct communication standards  Between computers is much faster. ►Wireless networks
  8. 8. © 2007 by Prentice Hall Management Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 8 Figure 1.5 Communications Architecture
  9. 9. © 2007 by Prentice Hall Management Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 9 Evolution in Computer Applications ► Information systems are virtual systems that enable management to control the operations of the physical system of the firm. ► Physical system – tangible resources such as materials, personnel, machines, and money. ► Virtual system – information resources that are used to represent the physical system.
  10. 10. © 2007 by Prentice Hall Management Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 10 Figure 1.6 The Physical System of the Firm
  11. 11. © 2007 by Prentice Hall Management Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 11 Computer Applications (Cont’d) ►Open system is a firm’s physical system that interacts with its environment by means of physical resource flows. ►Closed system is one that does not communicate with its environment.
  12. 12. © 2007 by Prentice Hall Management Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 12 Transaction Processing Systems ►Data – facts and figures that are generally unusable due to their large volume and unrefined nature. ►Information – processed data that is meaningful; tells users something. ►Transaction Processing System (TPS) processes data that reflects the activities of the firm.
  13. 13. © 2007 by Prentice Hall Management Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 13 Figure 1.7 A Model of a Transaction Processing System
  14. 14. © 2007 by Prentice Hall Management Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 14 Management Information Systems ►Management Information System (MIS) is a computer-based system that makes information available to users with similar needs. ►Report-writing software – produces both periodic and special reports. ►Mathematical models – produces information as a simulation of the firm’s operations.
  15. 15. © 2007 by Prentice Hall Management Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 15 Figure 1.8 A MIS Model
  16. 16. © 2007 by Prentice Hall Management Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 16 MIS (Cont’d) ►Information provided by MIS describes the firm or one of its major systems.  What has happened in the past.  What is happening now.  What is likely to happen in the future. ►Interorganizational information system (IOS) – is formed when a firm interacts with others, such as suppliers.
  17. 17. © 2007 by Prentice Hall Management Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 17 Virtual Office Systems ►Office automation – use of electronics to facilitate communication. ►Personal productivity systems – use technology to self-manage clerical tasks such as calendars, address books, etc. ►Virtual office – performing office activities independent of a particular physical location.
  18. 18. © 2007 by Prentice Hall Management Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 18 Decision Support Systems ►Decision Support System (DSS) – assists management in solving a problem. ►Groupware – group-oriented software. ►Group decision support system (GDSS) combines groupware and the DSS. ►Artificial intelligence (AI) – the science of providing computers with human intellegence.
  19. 19. © 2007 by Prentice Hall Management Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 19 Figure 1.9 A DSS Model
  20. 20. © 2007 by Prentice Hall Management Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 20 Enterprise Resource Planning Systems ►Enterprise Resource Planning System (ERP) is a computer-based system that enables the management of all of the firm’s resources on an organization-wide basis.  Y2K complaint  SAP – ERP Provider
  21. 21. © 2007 by Prentice Hall Management Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 21 Information System Users ►First users were clerical users on TPSs. ►MISs added problem-solvers as users. ►Managerial Levels  Strategic planning level  Management control level  Operational control level
  22. 22. © 2007 by Prentice Hall Management Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 22 Figure 1.10 Management Levels
  23. 23. © 2007 by Prentice Hall Management Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 23 Figure 1.11 Managers in Business Areas
  24. 24. © 2007 by Prentice Hall Management Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 24 Figure 1.12 Management Functions
  25. 25. © 2007 by Prentice Hall Management Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 25 Table 1.2 Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles
  26. 26. © 2007 by Prentice Hall Management Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 26 Problem Solving & Decision Making ►Problem – a condition or event that is harmful or potentially harmful to a firm or that is beneficial or potentially beneficial. ►Solution – outcome of the problem-solving activity. ►Decision – a particular selected course of action.
  27. 27. © 2007 by Prentice Hall Management Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 27 Four Problem-Solving Phases ►Intelligence activity. Search the environment for conditions calling for a solution. ►Design activity. Invent, develop, and analyze possible courses of action. ►Choice activity. Select a particular course of action from those available. ►Review activity. Assess past choices.
  28. 28. © 2007 by Prentice Hall Management Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 28 Figure 1.13 Information Supports Each Problem-solving Phase
  29. 29. © 2007 by Prentice Hall Management Information Systems, 10/e Raymond McLeod and George Schell 29 The Future of Information Technology ►Reduced cost & increased power of both computers and communications. ►Computers & communications are converging, i.e. cell phones with browsers. ►Future computing will be low cost, small in size, mobile, and connected.

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