Chapter 3 - Communication BY: GALOS, WELLA O., CUEVAS, CYRA DC., MANALOP, & ROSEMARIE L.
S u b j e c t : H R M 2 P r o f e s s o r : D r . A b e l i t o T . Q u i w a
Cuevas, Cyra DC.
Galos, Wella O.
Manalop, Rosemarie L.
1 | P a g e
II. Types of Communication
III. Factors that Affect the Quality of
IV. Barriers to Communication
V. Transactional Analysis
VI. Assertive Communication
VII. Filipino Values and Communication
2 | P a g e
1. To be able to discuss the definition of communication;
2. To be able to identify and explain the types of communication;
3. To be able to understand the factors that affect the quality of communication;
4. To be able to know the barriers to communication;
5. To be able to understand the essence of transactional analysis;
6. To be able to discuss the assertive communication; and
7. To be able to know the Filipino values and communication.
3 | P a g e
A very significant dimension in behavior dynamics is
communication, as it impacts on the self from outside
stimuli and as it impacts on others from the individual. It is a
basic component in one’s relationship with others. It is at
the center of all human existence. It links us to others
physically, emotionally and intellectually. Inadequate,
warped, twisted or overdosed communication is one of the
causes of conflict between and among persons, groups and organizations. People
behave in accordance with the nuances they hold of themselves and others, with the
way these are communicated to others, with the perceptions others hold of them and
with the manner these are communicated to them.
Communication is the lifeblood of any organization. Communicating ideas and
information makes action and coordination possible. Likewise, communication plays a
major role in modifying behavior, effecting changes and achieving goals.
4 | P a g e
The impairment of communication due to certain barriers only causes confusion
and misunderstanding. Managers and workers spend a large part of their time
communicating. Yet, often the importance of the communication process itself is taken
This chapter deals with the artifacts and processes of communication as applied
to behavior mainly in the work setting.
Definition and Process
Communication is a process which aims to
transfer and implement the meaning of symbols
from one person, group or organization to another.
Its ultimate goal is the sharing of meaning.
Andersen considers it as “a dynamic process in
which man consciously or unconsciously affects the
cognition of another through materials or agencies used in symbolic ways. Figure 3.1
presents the main elements of the communication process.
5 | P a g e
The sender is the communicator who can be any person, group or organization.
The sender encodes the message into appropriate symbols for transmission. The
qualities and characteristics of the sender are usually reflected in the message that is
sent. His role, authority, educational level, personal and mental qualities, social
background, and orientation are usually read in the context of the message.
The receiver likewise can be an individual, group or organization. He decodes
the symbols to understand the message. The recipient of the message is likewise
characterized by his role, authority, educational level and personal, social, educational
qualities as reflected partly as the reason for his being sent the message in the first
place. On the other hand, these characteristics affect the way he reacts to the message.
Figure 3.1 MAIN ELEMENTS OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS
6 | P a g e
The more congruent the qualities and characteristics of sender and receiver, the
more likely the communication is taken and understood at the same level and depth.
Put in another way, the more consistent the perceptions and expectations of sender and
receiver are with each other the more likely the message is accepted.
The message is communicated through symbols that are sent through a medium
such as a memo or a phone call. The symbols can take various forms such as verbal
and non-verbal, oral and written, textual and visual. The elements to consider in non-
verbal communication include general appearance, kinesics (facial and body
movements) proxemics (gaze, physical orientation, social distance) and para language
(Voice, pitch, range, tone). The message goes through pathways which are channels
along which its passage may either be facilitated or impeded. The pathways “connect”
the sender and receiver. The best channel is that in which most of the real senses
(Sight, sound, smell, touch, taste) rather than just one, are engaged to receive the
message. The reaction by the recipient which may be expressed either in silence or
actual response directed to the sender is the feedback. Feedback supplies the final link
to complete the communication loop. It is the means by which the sender can modify
subsequent messages to fit the receiver’s responses.
7 | P a g e
The communication in the form of mimeographed memo by the president of a big
firm to the rank and file is illustrated in figure 3.2
FIGURE 3.2 COMMUNICATION LOOP FROM TOP MANAGEMENT TO RANK AND FILE
The pathways take various layers from the vice-president to the section head.
The feedback if any may also go through various layers from the section head back to
the president. It may stop and end at any one level. Or, the feedback may take the form
of rumors passing through informal channels toward the president.
8 | P a g e
In short, “communication is conveying thoughts and feelings to others, and
receiving them from others“, as expressed by Dean and Bryson. In business world
communication is needed to establish and disseminate goals for an organization
develop plans for their achievement, organize resources in the mist efficient and
effective manner, recruit and select members who will compose the organization, direct
and motivate people, and control performance of each plans and reaching out to the
external world. Figure 3.3 illustrates this concept.
FIGURE 3.3 COMMUNICATION IN THE MANAGEMENT PROCESS
9 | P a g e
TYPES OF COMMUNICATION
Communication can be classified according to some variables.
1. Number if people involved
a) Intrapersonal communication
This occurs when the sender and
the receiver of the message is one and the
same person, as in someone talking to
himself. This could involve self-
rationalizing, daydreaming or conscience
examination. This is usually done quietly.
b) Interpersonal communication
This requires two people interacting
with each other. The supervisor and
the employee talking to each other for
instance can illustrate this type.
10 | P a g e
c) Group communication
The process involves several people. A meeting
of the supervisor and the employees in hid unit
would be a good illustration.
d) Mass communication
This takes place with an indefinite
number of people which some would term
as a faceless audience. The use of
television, radio, newspaper, magazines
and billboards falls under this category.
As more people are involved the variables increase and control become harder.
Feedback becomes slow more indirect and thus more unreliable. What is lost in the
personal intimacy is compensated by the speed and scope of the communication
experience. In the meantime, technological progress in telecommunications continues.
11 | P a g e
With electronic information processing networks, audio-visual messages can be
transmitted in “real-time” from station to station. Electronic feedback on the other hand
can be fast and direct as receivers want it to be.
2. Level of source
The message flows from top
to bottom, from higher to lower
authority. This is best exemplified in
a work setting where leadership is
autocratic and the workers’ group is
shy, timid or afraid. Examples of
communication messages include
organizational policies and
practices, reasons for performing certain activities, instructions on how to perform
one’s task/job. The main motivation for this type of communication ... is to guide and
direct the behavior of those individuals at the lower organization levels.
12 | P a g e
This is the very opposite of
the illustration. The group below
feels free to initiate and suggest
new programs and projects which
are welcomed by management.
Illustrations of upward
communication are: feelings of
employees about their jobs, about the organization or about their immediate
supervisors, prospects for promotion, complaints, suggestions, clarification of roles and
functions. As brought out by Mitchell and Larson its main aim … is to provide higher
organizational levels with information about what is going on down below.
Managers and workers are supposed to spend a large part of their time in vertical
communication both downward and upward. often however workers are trained to be
subservient and mechanical and are deemed to be unthinking and unquestioning.
Grievances and opinions are not to create an “imaged peace and contentment in the
air. In short they do not spend a great deal in communicating with each other or they
do not communicate at all in some extreme cases.
13 | P a g e
As a result, union strikes, harassment, factory shutdowns, among others, are resorted
to in many cases. This phenomenon is prevalent in third world countries like the
Through training and education, the workers are slowly enlightened on their
rights. Hence, they become more assertive and this is reflected in the protest among
the constituencies who invoke the concept of people empowerment.
is communication across rather
than along the formal chain of
communicate with others who are
on the same level. The middle
managers are group together to
discuss common problems. The following activities utilize horizontal communication:
coordination of work assignments, sharing information and plans, joint problem solving,
conciliation, negotiation, settlement of differences, development of interpersonal
relations. Therefore, its main motivation is “task-oriented.”
14 | P a g e
Communication starts at any point
or level; moves on to another point or
level, moves back and forth in either
formal or informal progression or
The direction of information
flow takes this type of
communication in inter-unit
exchanges or in co-orientation
activities. Again, communication
flows across the chain of
15 | P a g e
FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE QUALITY OF COMMUNICATION
It is best to view communication in
terms of a configuration of interacting
elements. Communication should be
designed so that the various elements
complement rather than negate each other.
While the ultimate goal of
communication is to share meanings, it is also
to share them in order to arrive at the
outcome for which communication is intended.
Communication is intended to elicit action towards the achievement of certain goals.
The sender must clarify the goals if action is to be possible at all. In organizations which
use the management by objectives (MBO) approach, the objectives are jointly set by
both supervisor and subordinate instead of merely being handed down from top to
bottom. MBO serves to ensure that the objectives are clear to both the organization and
16 | P a g e
Sender - the person of
the sender—his qualities,
characteristics, status, role---
affects communication flow. A
highly autocratic university
president, for instance, would
most likely be misunderstood by
an autonomous academic staff; whereas a lax foreman may cause confusion among
factory workers who have been used to being given detailed specific procedures, rules
and regulations to follow. A demanding boss may turn off a secretary, while an
absentee landlord drives his tenants to either steal or underutilize the available
17 | P a g e
Receiver - by the same token,
the person or the recipient---his
qualities, characteristics, status,
role, or emotional state---is a
factor in the success or failure of
communication. A worker who is
mourning over the sudden death
of his wife and is straight laced with having to take care of five growing children may be
caught unaware of the instructions given by the supervisor. A pretty but dumb secretary
can be pain in the neck of a highly energized, aggressive and intelligent boss. In fact, to
understand each other truly, difference in mental ability between the two should not be
very high in IQ points as communication progresses from the individual to the
interpersonal level in the office setting. Not to be overlooked is a person’s ability to
listen. Without this ability, communication breaks down immediately.
18 | P a g e
Share experience - Experience
common to participants helps enhance
communication process as illustrated in Figure
3.4. The greater the area of shared
experience, the greater the likelihood that
communication would succeed, i.e., the
message is understood, accepted and used.
Effective communication depends much
on the meanings perceived each of the sharers of the communication. The same
message, for instance, may be interpreted differently by two or more receivers, or, that
the meaning being conveyed by the communicator may not be understood by the
communicator. Shared experience, however, provides a frame of reference that is
common to both sender and receiver. The common frame of reference, in turn,
facilitates the delivery and interpretation of the message. Thus, an engineer is better
able to communicate technical matters to another engineer that to a non-engineer. The
more effective sharing of meaning between the engineers derives mostly from their
similar education and professional experience.
19 | P a g e
AREA OF SHARED EXPERIENCE
Symbol - Communication is largely symbolic. It is
achieved through the use of symbols---both verbal
(words) and non-verbal (pictures, actions or
inactions). In verbal communication, the content,
phraseology, and format of the message are very
important factors. Together, these define the
context where the communication can be understood.
20 | P a g e
Verbal communication (written and
oral) should be formulated with much
care. Is the content pertinent and relevant
to the issue at hand or to the issue at
hand or to the objectives of the
organization and those of its
constituents? Is it in good grammar,
simple and easy to understand? Is it clean with right paging, intention, paragraphing and
in the right type and size paper?
Non-verbal communication occurs
very frequently and can be very
expressive like stop and go traffic lights,
the way one walks or talks, one’s clothes,
house, and food. In fact, anything about a
person is saying much of him.
21 | P a g e
Usually, verbal and non-verbal communications go hand-in-hand. In a speech,
for instance, the speaker would be well-advised to act in such a way that his gestures
and body movements reinforce rather than cancel the meaning of the words he is
saying. Imagine how quickly a credibility gap can build up between the speaker and his
audience, if, for example, the speaker would suddenly laugh in the midst of a truly and
Or, when a manager exhorts his constituents in meetings and through the
organization newsletter to improve productivity so that merit increases can be given but
years pass by and no incentives are actually given as promised.
Faulty encoding may result because of the use of ambiguous symbols and faulty
decoding may be due to wrong meaning attached to words.
Medium - The message can take
various forms; a typed letter, a
bulletin board notice, a lecture, a
demonstration, a projected
transparency, a radio broadcast, a
televised a program, a telephone
call, a drawing, a painting, a song, ringing of a bell, ad infinitum.
22 | P a g e
The medium used depends on the content, objectives, scope of the message;
the sender’s choice, resources, skill; the size of the group to which the message is to be
sent and the time available to formulate the message. Communication is greatly
improved if a mix of different media is used. Hence, a teacher is best understood by his
students if he uses a suitable combination of audio-visual aids, the blackboard, plant
tour, role play, and a case to supplement his lecture-discussion in the classroom.
Contemporary managers have
studied and are gradually adopting
various electronic devices to improve
communication. These are
minicomputers, electronic mail
system, electronic typewriters, cellular telephone, and beepers among others.
The rank and file employees believe that communication is important but they
find it difficult to express themselves to the higher echelons. Hence, they elect leaders
from among themselves to represent them (as in unions) in articulating their needs and
23 | P a g e
Pathways - The passages through which
the message travels can either be clear or clogged
up with physical or psychological disturbances. A
clean, clear passage devoid of noise and
breakdowns makes for fast communication and
thus more and better transactions. This can be
achieved through excellent technological breakthrough like in telephone and telegraph
installations. One of the “pet peeves” among business executives, especially those from
foreign lands, is our poor communication system, a cause for relatively slower and fever
Too many levels and divisional segmentation in an organizational hierarchy can
stall the communication process. Eventually, these constitute red tape and bureaucracy
not only in the government but also in the private sector. For instance, there are more
layers in Philippine banks than in their counterparts in the United States.
Units and sections grow in number, a reflection of the heads or chiefs wanting to
establish some small “dynasties”. Clogs in the communication system would most likely
occur in these groups or cliques at different levels. This leads to less participation and
involvement among rank and file.
24 | P a g e
Wrong or poor attitudes among workers may cause them to misunderstand each
other or their superiors. Psychological/emotional problems caused by envy, professional
jealousy, wrong sense of values, power struggle, insecurity, prejudices instability,
immaturity and lack of commitment may prod them to hide information or deter its flow.
Graft and corruption are some evil effects of lack of transparency in transactions.
Strained management-labor relations are more psychologically caused than physically-
induced phenomenon. Psychologically caused communication problems are more
difficult to resolve than those that are physically based. Inattention due to poor
motivation is more difficult to handle than a broken typewriter.
Information Overload - due to fast
technological processes of accumulating and
transmitting information thru the radio, television,
satellite network, telecommunications, newspapers,
etc., many of our “managers are drowning in a flood
of numbers, data, information, and indices, and their failure to cope effectively with such
information overload will have serious and even disastrous consequences not only for
their organizations but for our entire economy.”
25 | P a g e
Thus, Wallace and Szilagzi, Jr. caution managers not to be bogged down by excessive
details furnished to them by their staff but to concentrate on long-run strategic planning
based on concise, relevant and meaningful summaries.
Feedback - how do we know if
communication has been successful?
When do we say that our communication
The reaction by the recipient to the
communication is, by and large, the main
criterion that determines its success or failure. When the message is received and taken
in the very same context and purpose that it is sent, communication is considered good
and successful. Berne has explained this extensive in his book, “I’m Okay, You’re
Okay.” To the extent that perception and understanding of the message by both sender
and receiver do not take and follow the same vein due to certain factors, communication
can become warped and twisted. This could start some trained relations between the
two. Chung and Megginson put it this way: “Effective interpersonal communication is
achieved only when the sender obtains the intended response(s) from the receiver.”
26 | P a g e
Since communication is the sharing of symbols, success in communication is
achieved through the effective sharing of meaning between source and recipient.
The sender should monitor the reaction of the recipient which sometimes may
just stop at any level or point of the organizational hierarchy without reaching him. In
very big organizations, the computer has been a very helpful and quick tool in the
information system. The inputting and retrieval of information is highly systematic and
organized. Information itself is considered an expensive and valuable resource of the
Overall, quality, rather than quantity, is the key to effective communication. When
utilized properly at the right time and in the right place by the right people,
communication facilitates the organization’s management functions such as planning,
organizing, decision-making, staffing, leadership, directing, coordination and control. It
is to be noted that while effective communication is a very important factor that
determines the life and length of existence of an organization, it is not the only one.
There are several factors that should not be downplayed, such as marketing strategies,
pricing decisions, rate of demand of the product, population statistics and dynamics,
administrative and managerial policies, human resources management, production
technology, among others.
27 | P a g e
BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION
Anything that can impede the flow of
communication in any form and at any point is a
barrier to communication. Manifestation of
problems or temporary breakdowns may include
some difficulties on what to say, how to sat it, when to say it, whom to say it to, and
where to say it—these five dimensions.
Communication may fail due to certain reasons. Its flow is impeded in various
ways which are outlined and discussed below.
1. Physical Barriers - This includes impediments
in relation to distance, timing, efficiency of
modes used like telephone, telegraph, or post
office amenities. Companies that have branches
all over the country need to set up regional
offices whose vice- presidents oversee the
operations. While time is related to distance, timeliness is another factor to consider
particularly in decision making.
28 | P a g e
Decisions that are off tangent in their formulation and dissemination vis-à-vis time may
cause the loss of tremendous sums of money and other resources. Inefficient
telephone, telegraph or post office systems also result in delays in the transmittal of
important messages which could be critical to the decision making and/ or
implementation of decisions. Over a microphone that is not working well, some funny
anecdotes have been told.
2. Social Barriers - differences between
sender and receiver in certain factors like age,
financial status, educational and family
backgrounds, intellectual ability, religion, health
status may deter the flow or the understanding of
messages that are sent. Young parents can
communicate more easily with their adolescent
children than the latter’s grandparents. The rich may not fully understand the plight
of the poor and vice-versa. Those with very high I.Q’s and academic background
may succeed better than those otherwise in communicating with highly schooled and
educated individuals. The gaps between and among individuals and groups need to
be lessened for congruence of concepts, ideas, facts and information.
29 | P a g e
3. Psychological Barriers - the effective
mode is the most difficult area to tackle
in communication. Envy, jealousy,
unpleasant feelings, and emotions
caused by insecurity and conflict
should be given outlets for expression
and those in charge should know how to manage these outbursts.
30 | P a g e
An analysis of the verbal transaction
between two persons is a very interesting process
called Transactional Analysis. Transactional
Analysis, commonly known as TA to its adherents,
is a model for explaining why and how:
People think like they do
People act like they do
People interact/communicate with others
TA was developed by Canadian-born US
psychiatrist Eric Berne during the late 1950s.
In the 1950's Eric Berne began to develop
his theories of Transactional Analysis. He said that
verbal communication, particularly face to face, is
at the centre of human social relationships and
31 | P a g e
Early Transactional Analysis Theory and Model
His starting-point was that when two people
encounter each other, one of them will speak to the
other. This he called the Transaction Stimulus.
The reaction from the other person he called
the Transaction Response.
The person sending the Stimulus is called the
The person who responds is called the Respondent.
Transactional Analysis became the method of examining the transaction wherein:
'I do something to you, and you do something back'. It can help improve interpersonal
communication based on a study of ego states of the persons communicating with each
Three Alter Ego States
Ego states are sets of thoughts, feelings, behaviors, gestures, etc., that
characterize the predominant condition of the person at the moment of communication.
This state, when occurring repeatedly, folds into a pattern which may
characterize a person.
32 | P a g e
Berne said that each person is made up of three alter ego states:
These terms have different definitions than in normal language.
The three ego states are not necessarily related to the chronological age of a
person. An adolescent may display a parent ego state of being judgmental, critical,
moralistic, directive. By the same token, a fifty year old man who shows impulsiveness,
stubbornness, rebellion, manipulative behavior may be said to take on a child ego state.
Whatever the chronological age is of the person, if he reflects logical and rational
behavior, he is considered an “adult”
This is our ingrained voice of
authority, absorbed conditioning,
learning and attitudes from when we
were young. We were conditioned
by our real parents, teachers, older
people, next door neighbours, aunts
and uncles, Father Christmas and
Jack Frost. Our Parent is made up of
33 | P a g e
a huge number of hidden and overt recorded playbacks. Typically embodied by phrases
and attitudes starting with 'how to', 'under no circumstances', 'always' and 'never forget',
'don't lie, cheat, steal', etc, etc. Our parent is formed by external events and influences
upon us as we grow through early childhood. We can change it, but this is easier said
Our 'Adult' is our ability to think and determine action for ourselves, based on
received data. The adult in us begins to form at around ten months old, and is the
means by which we keep our Parent and Child under control. If we are to change our
Parent or Child we must do so through our adult.
Our internal reaction and feelings to external events form the 'Child'. This is the
seeing, hearing, feeling, and emotional body of data within each of us. When anger or
despair dominates reason, the Child is in control. Like our Parent we can change it, but
it is no easier.
In other words:
Parent is our 'Taught' concept of life
Adult is our 'Thought' concept of life
Child is our 'Felt' concept of life
34 | P a g e
McAfee and Champagne Three (3) Response
McAfee and Champagne also discuss
three response patterns when a person sends
a message: complementary, crossed or
ulterior. The three types of response patterns
are described, thus:
“A transaction is complementary when a
message sent to one ego state gets the
predicted or expected response from the other
individual. A crossed transaction occurs when a
message addressed to one ego state gets an
unexpected response from another ego state.
Finally, an ulterior transaction involves hidden
meaning. In this situation, one message is on
social level and one
is on the hidden,
35 | P a g e
Three modes of
behavior are displayed
when communicating with
Reece and Brandt
explain that passive behavior is displayed by a person who “fails to express his
thoughts and feelings and does not stand up for the rights being violated.”
Aggressive behavior is “expressing your thoughts and feelings and
defending your rights in a way that is usually inappropriate and often violates the
rights of others.”
Assertive behavior is “standing up for your rights and expressing your
thoughts and feelings in a direct appropriate way that does not violate the rights
36 | P a g e
Assertive Communication Formula
There are four parts to effective assertive communication - Here is the formula:
when I feel because . I need .
bothers you about
the behavior or
the family expects me to do this every year," "When it is assumed I will do it," etc.
Part 2: "I feel" Start by expressing how you feel about the behavior. Stick to one
of the five or six basic emotions. Examples: "I feel... overwhelmed, angry, hurt," etc.
Part 3: "Because" How does the behavior affect you? Examples: "I feel
pressured to do something I really can't do this year," and "It makes me feel taken
Part 4: "I need" This is the tough part for people like Mary who feel guilty simply
letting others (especially family members) know what their needs are. "I need" has
nothing to do with being selfish.
37 | P a g e
The behavior description should be clear, specific and direct instead of being
hazy, general and implicit. Below are examples of correct and incorrect behavior
Correct Behavior Description Incorrect Behavior Description
1. When you sleep on your job. When you break company policies.
2. When you keep interrupting your
classmates when they are talking.
When you are impolite and discourteous
to your classmates.
3. When you wake me up with your
noise upon entering the bedroom.
When you do not respect others who are
Bolton stresses that “When a person violates your space, the behavior to be
altered must be described very accurately and objectively. Otherwise, the other
person may not clearly understand what behavior you find offensive.”
Being assertive is being frank, candid and sincere without being abrasive. It aims
to make the other person know how one feels about certain individuals, issues, rules
and policies, so that a better understanding of these is arrived at. It is laying one’s cards
on the table and looking at phenomena objectively, explaining and discussing them with
the end in view of having a better perspective and arriving at rational conclusions and
actions. This should affect better relationship with others instead of just smothering
one’s individuality and identity or transgressing others’ rights. Either of the two,
smothering or transgressing, may result in unhealthy relationship with others. The real
“me” is not truly divulged and identified. Thus, misunderstanding, confusion and strained
38 | P a g e
Training to Become Assertive
Training to become assertive is
becoming more popular as the need is felt to
help people overcome their hesitancy in
expressing their true feelings, sentiments,
opinions, ideas and values. They are given
assistance in articulating themselves in
appropriate ways and to ask for what they want or need.
Dubrin enumerates the three goals of assertiveness training:
knowing how one feels;
saying what one wants; and
getting what one wants
Many women need to overcome passivity particularly in cultures where the
traditional roles of men are considered 'supreme" or "superior" to those of women. In the
work setting the latter just "wait for rewards or promotions to come their way. Many have
suffered in silence when they discovered someone else, doing the same work, was
receiving more pay. They may have put up with sexual harassment on the job or seen
less well-qualified people promoted over them. On the other hand, many men must
learn to be less demanding and domineering and more considerate of the needs and
feelings of co-workers or subordinates. They can change their aggressive behavior into
39 | P a g e
By being assertive, one gives others the opportunity to .change since they are
told how their behavior affects him. His rights as a person are defined and he shows
respect for other people's right to know where they stand with him. He must determine
which rights are important to defend when they are violated.
In a culture where virtues like Smooth Interpersonal Relationship (SIR), and
palakasan (giving priority to power) are paramount, like in the Philippines, becoming
assertive is a very difficult process to effect. The use of euphemisms and powerplay is
an evident reflection of skirting around one’s true feelings and thoughts. Thus, true
understanding of each other becomes difficult to achieve. The need for assertiveness
training in such cultures is paramount to affect better relationships, which, in turn, is a
factor in job satisfaction and productivity.
Keen Observation and Reflective Listening Skills
The criterion to use in determining
whether communication is successful or not
is the way it is received by its recipient. Two
ways of achieving this are through
perspective observation and keen
listening skills on the part of both the
sender and receiver.
40 | P a g e
Before a message is sent, its sender must have a very comprehensive and
adequate knowledge of the situation concerned and of the needs of the organization
and constituents. The message is made and sent out on this knowledge, which is a
reflection of the extent of observation and listening to the sender may have engaged in.
By the same token, the recipient should, upon receiving the message, take on the
posture of a keen observer and reflective listener. Looking around him, he may be
asking the questions: What conditions exist in my space that prompted the sender to
give me this message? What is the meaning of this message? What are its
implications? What will I do as a reply to this message?
As Megginson, an Industrial Psychologist for Effective Counseling points out,
“The first rule for a counselor is to keep his mouth shut; the second is to keep his
ears open; the third is to keep his eyes open,…” the fourth rule as given by Walters
is to keep his perception and intuition alert to ‘sense’ what is really bothering the
subordinate. The counselor does not only listen to what the counselee says but must
also listen for what he does not say.
Listening skills should not just be active; they should also be reflective especially
on very important matters or decisions to be made.
41 | P a g e
FILIPINO VALUES AND COMMUNICATION
Certain artifacts are prized and cherished most by Filipinos like economic
security, the family, group, education, and spiritual life. Of these, the desire to be part of
a group stands out and it affects the communication process significantly. The
predisposition to listen to others or be listened to can be either improved or hampered
depending on whether or not the message or means of communicating is in accord with
certain deeply held values.
The need to belong to a group is stronger than the need to assert one's individual
identity. This is reflected in behavior that shows pakikisama (togetherness), Smooth
Interpersonal Relationship (SIR), tayo-tayo (us and we-ness), and bayanihan (unity and
cooperation). Nepotism in the work setting is practiced in the name of paternalism, tayo-
tayo, bayanihan, palakaran, palakasan. Using a go-between in the communication
process facilitates the transaction for a positive feed-back. A "no" reply given indirectly
by the communicatee through the go-between may help save the face of the
communicator and is not as hurting as a direct "no”.
42 | P a g e
We are more groupistic than individualistic. Knowing this, business firms utilize
our strong value of pakikisama to sell products. An example is a television
advertisement with the theme, "Iba ang may pinagsamahan......"
In order not to hurt any person or group and be left alienated, the typical Filipino
uses smooth interpersonal relations techniques like euphemisms. It is usually difficult, if
not impossible, for others to surmise us. Often, we are criticized for not saying what we
mean; and for not meaning what we say. Although this characteristic makes us
"mysterious" in our relationship with others, foreigners find it hard to relate to us.
However, we consider the American's brutal frankness in anachronism to our
communication style. This difference in style may cause some strained relationship
between us and foreign groups.
As pointed out by Cesar M. Mercado, professional managers and supervisors,
both local and foreign, are often perplexed by the Filipino worker's "strange"
communication behaviors. "For instance, he tries to smile even if he is mad at his boss.
He discloses his complaints to a friend instead of settling it with his superior. He does
not say no even if he knows he could not deliver his task on time. He resigns without
even notifying his office! For the Filipino worker, these strange behaviors carry positive
meaning and significance. His smile instead of being mad at his boss may keep him his
job which he needs to support his family. These strange behaviors, therefore, are a
shield to protect him.
43 | P a g e
Being groupistic can facilitate team work. It has been observed that Filipino
students perform better in group case analysis and presentation than their Western
counterparts. For the sake of pakikisama, the former acquiesce to group think and thus
make group work less laborious and frustrating. On the other hand, each student from
the Western world holds sacred his individual right to assert himself. Thus, the analysis
of a case for a class activity may end up with as many different problems as there are
students involved in the activity. This example would show that Filipino values alleged to
be bad have their good aspects, too.
44 | P a g e
Communication is a very important element in our relationship with others. It may
facilitate or impede smooth transactions and processes with individuals, groups and
organizations. It aims to convey and implement symbols of various kinds, verbal and
non-verbal and its ultimate objective is to share meanings. Since it is the lifeblood of any
organization, it behooves every number of it, from top to bottom levels, to foster
The main elements of the communication process consist of the sender or
source, symbol or message, the receiver or audience, its pathways and feedback. If any
of these is deficient or misunderstood, communication is affected.
The process of communication can take any of the following routes: downward,
upward, horizontal, circular, cross-channel/diagonal. The manner by which messages or
symbols are transmitted can take various forms at three levels (top management,
middle management and rank and file) through both formal and informal channels.
The most effective communication results when congruence exists between
meanings of symbols as perceived by both sender and receiver. Shared experiences
are a very important ingredient in successful communication. Barriers to communication
can originate anywhere from sender so receiver. Usually, it would take plenty of hard
work, must and patience on their part to remove or to overcome such barriers.
45 | P a g e
One of the most difficult impediments is culture incongruence, particularly on
values, between management and labor or between foreign groups and Filipino
nationals to multinational corporations. Seminars and workshops utilizing unstructured
methodologies on coping with cultural differences help in alleviating this communication
46 | P a g e
Hard Copy: 30% x =
PPT: 25% x =
CD: 10% x =
Cuevas, Cyra DC. - 35% x =
Galos, Wella O. - 35% x =
Manalop, Rosemarie L. - 35% x =
HARD COPY –
PRESENTATION SKILLS –