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Chapter 3 - Communication BY: GALOS, WELLA O., CUEVAS, CYRA DC., MANALOP, & ROSEMARIE L.

Chapter 3 - Communication
Professor: Dr. Abelito T. Quiwa

Pasig Catholic College

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Chapter 3 - Communication BY: GALOS, WELLA O., CUEVAS, CYRA DC., MANALOP, & ROSEMARIE L.

  1. 1. S u b j e c t : H R M 2 P r o f e s s o r : D r . A b e l i t o T . Q u i w a TEAM MEMBERS Cuevas, Cyra DC. Galos, Wella O. Manalop, Rosemarie L.
  2. 2. 1 | P a g e OUTLINE I. Communication II. Types of Communication III. Factors that Affect the Quality of Communication IV. Barriers to Communication V. Transactional Analysis VI. Assertive Communication VII. Filipino Values and Communication
  3. 3. 2 | P a g e LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. To be able to discuss the definition of communication; 2. To be able to identify and explain the types of communication; 3. To be able to understand the factors that affect the quality of communication; 4. To be able to know the barriers to communication; 5. To be able to understand the essence of transactional analysis; 6. To be able to discuss the assertive communication; and 7. To be able to know the Filipino values and communication.
  4. 4. 3 | P a g e COMMUNICATION A very significant dimension in behavior dynamics is communication, as it impacts on the self from outside stimuli and as it impacts on others from the individual. It is a basic component in one’s relationship with others. It is at the center of all human existence. It links us to others physically, emotionally and intellectually. Inadequate, warped, twisted or overdosed communication is one of the causes of conflict between and among persons, groups and organizations. People behave in accordance with the nuances they hold of themselves and others, with the way these are communicated to others, with the perceptions others hold of them and with the manner these are communicated to them. Communication is the lifeblood of any organization. Communicating ideas and information makes action and coordination possible. Likewise, communication plays a major role in modifying behavior, effecting changes and achieving goals.
  5. 5. 4 | P a g e The impairment of communication due to certain barriers only causes confusion and misunderstanding. Managers and workers spend a large part of their time communicating. Yet, often the importance of the communication process itself is taken for granted. This chapter deals with the artifacts and processes of communication as applied to behavior mainly in the work setting. Definition and Process Communication is a process which aims to transfer and implement the meaning of symbols from one person, group or organization to another. Its ultimate goal is the sharing of meaning. Andersen considers it as “a dynamic process in which man consciously or unconsciously affects the cognition of another through materials or agencies used in symbolic ways. Figure 3.1 presents the main elements of the communication process.
  6. 6. 5 | P a g e The sender is the communicator who can be any person, group or organization. The sender encodes the message into appropriate symbols for transmission. The qualities and characteristics of the sender are usually reflected in the message that is sent. His role, authority, educational level, personal and mental qualities, social background, and orientation are usually read in the context of the message. The receiver likewise can be an individual, group or organization. He decodes the symbols to understand the message. The recipient of the message is likewise characterized by his role, authority, educational level and personal, social, educational qualities as reflected partly as the reason for his being sent the message in the first place. On the other hand, these characteristics affect the way he reacts to the message. Figure 3.1 MAIN ELEMENTS OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS
  7. 7. 6 | P a g e The more congruent the qualities and characteristics of sender and receiver, the more likely the communication is taken and understood at the same level and depth. Put in another way, the more consistent the perceptions and expectations of sender and receiver are with each other the more likely the message is accepted. The message is communicated through symbols that are sent through a medium such as a memo or a phone call. The symbols can take various forms such as verbal and non-verbal, oral and written, textual and visual. The elements to consider in non- verbal communication include general appearance, kinesics (facial and body movements) proxemics (gaze, physical orientation, social distance) and para language (Voice, pitch, range, tone). The message goes through pathways which are channels along which its passage may either be facilitated or impeded. The pathways “connect” the sender and receiver. The best channel is that in which most of the real senses (Sight, sound, smell, touch, taste) rather than just one, are engaged to receive the message. The reaction by the recipient which may be expressed either in silence or actual response directed to the sender is the feedback. Feedback supplies the final link to complete the communication loop. It is the means by which the sender can modify subsequent messages to fit the receiver’s responses.
  8. 8. 7 | P a g e The communication in the form of mimeographed memo by the president of a big firm to the rank and file is illustrated in figure 3.2 FIGURE 3.2 COMMUNICATION LOOP FROM TOP MANAGEMENT TO RANK AND FILE The pathways take various layers from the vice-president to the section head. The feedback if any may also go through various layers from the section head back to the president. It may stop and end at any one level. Or, the feedback may take the form of rumors passing through informal channels toward the president.
  9. 9. 8 | P a g e In short, “communication is conveying thoughts and feelings to others, and receiving them from others“, as expressed by Dean and Bryson. In business world communication is needed to establish and disseminate goals for an organization develop plans for their achievement, organize resources in the mist efficient and effective manner, recruit and select members who will compose the organization, direct and motivate people, and control performance of each plans and reaching out to the external world. Figure 3.3 illustrates this concept. FIGURE 3.3 COMMUNICATION IN THE MANAGEMENT PROCESS
  10. 10. 9 | P a g e TYPES OF COMMUNICATION Communication can be classified according to some variables. 1. Number if people involved a) Intrapersonal communication This occurs when the sender and the receiver of the message is one and the same person, as in someone talking to himself. This could involve self- rationalizing, daydreaming or conscience examination. This is usually done quietly. b) Interpersonal communication This requires two people interacting with each other. The supervisor and the employee talking to each other for instance can illustrate this type.
  11. 11. 10 | P a g e c) Group communication The process involves several people. A meeting of the supervisor and the employees in hid unit would be a good illustration. d) Mass communication This takes place with an indefinite number of people which some would term as a faceless audience. The use of television, radio, newspaper, magazines and billboards falls under this category. As more people are involved the variables increase and control become harder. Feedback becomes slow more indirect and thus more unreliable. What is lost in the personal intimacy is compensated by the speed and scope of the communication experience. In the meantime, technological progress in telecommunications continues.
  12. 12. 11 | P a g e With electronic information processing networks, audio-visual messages can be transmitted in “real-time” from station to station. Electronic feedback on the other hand can be fast and direct as receivers want it to be. 2. Level of source a) Downward The message flows from top to bottom, from higher to lower authority. This is best exemplified in a work setting where leadership is autocratic and the workers’ group is shy, timid or afraid. Examples of communication messages include organizational policies and practices, reasons for performing certain activities, instructions on how to perform one’s task/job. The main motivation for this type of communication ... is to guide and direct the behavior of those individuals at the lower organization levels.
  13. 13. 12 | P a g e b) Upward This is the very opposite of the illustration. The group below feels free to initiate and suggest new programs and projects which are welcomed by management. Illustrations of upward communication are: feelings of employees about their jobs, about the organization or about their immediate supervisors, prospects for promotion, complaints, suggestions, clarification of roles and functions. As brought out by Mitchell and Larson its main aim … is to provide higher organizational levels with information about what is going on down below. Managers and workers are supposed to spend a large part of their time in vertical communication both downward and upward. often however workers are trained to be subservient and mechanical and are deemed to be unthinking and unquestioning. Grievances and opinions are not to create an “imaged peace and contentment in the air. In short they do not spend a great deal in communicating with each other or they do not communicate at all in some extreme cases.
  14. 14. 13 | P a g e As a result, union strikes, harassment, factory shutdowns, among others, are resorted to in many cases. This phenomenon is prevalent in third world countries like the Philippines. Through training and education, the workers are slowly enlightened on their rights. Hence, they become more assertive and this is reflected in the protest among the constituencies who invoke the concept of people empowerment. c) Horizontal Horizontal communication is communication across rather than along the formal chain of command. Individuals communicate with others who are on the same level. The middle managers are group together to discuss common problems. The following activities utilize horizontal communication: coordination of work assignments, sharing information and plans, joint problem solving, conciliation, negotiation, settlement of differences, development of interpersonal relations. Therefore, its main motivation is “task-oriented.”
  15. 15. 14 | P a g e d). Circular Communication starts at any point or level; moves on to another point or level, moves back and forth in either formal or informal progression or retrogression. e). Cross-channel/Diagonal Communication The direction of information flow takes this type of communication in inter-unit exchanges or in co-orientation activities. Again, communication flows across the chain of command.
  16. 16. 15 | P a g e FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE QUALITY OF COMMUNICATION It is best to view communication in terms of a configuration of interacting elements. Communication should be designed so that the various elements complement rather than negate each other. Goal Clarity While the ultimate goal of communication is to share meanings, it is also to share them in order to arrive at the outcome for which communication is intended. Communication is intended to elicit action towards the achievement of certain goals. The sender must clarify the goals if action is to be possible at all. In organizations which use the management by objectives (MBO) approach, the objectives are jointly set by both supervisor and subordinate instead of merely being handed down from top to bottom. MBO serves to ensure that the objectives are clear to both the organization and the individual.
  17. 17. 16 | P a g e Sender - the person of the sender—his qualities, characteristics, status, role--- affects communication flow. A highly autocratic university president, for instance, would most likely be misunderstood by an autonomous academic staff; whereas a lax foreman may cause confusion among factory workers who have been used to being given detailed specific procedures, rules and regulations to follow. A demanding boss may turn off a secretary, while an absentee landlord drives his tenants to either steal or underutilize the available resources.
  18. 18. 17 | P a g e Receiver - by the same token, the person or the recipient---his qualities, characteristics, status, role, or emotional state---is a factor in the success or failure of communication. A worker who is mourning over the sudden death of his wife and is straight laced with having to take care of five growing children may be caught unaware of the instructions given by the supervisor. A pretty but dumb secretary can be pain in the neck of a highly energized, aggressive and intelligent boss. In fact, to understand each other truly, difference in mental ability between the two should not be very high in IQ points as communication progresses from the individual to the interpersonal level in the office setting. Not to be overlooked is a person’s ability to listen. Without this ability, communication breaks down immediately.
  19. 19. 18 | P a g e Share experience - Experience common to participants helps enhance communication process as illustrated in Figure 3.4. The greater the area of shared experience, the greater the likelihood that communication would succeed, i.e., the message is understood, accepted and used. Effective communication depends much on the meanings perceived each of the sharers of the communication. The same message, for instance, may be interpreted differently by two or more receivers, or, that the meaning being conveyed by the communicator may not be understood by the communicator. Shared experience, however, provides a frame of reference that is common to both sender and receiver. The common frame of reference, in turn, facilitates the delivery and interpretation of the message. Thus, an engineer is better able to communicate technical matters to another engineer that to a non-engineer. The more effective sharing of meaning between the engineers derives mostly from their similar education and professional experience.
  20. 20. 19 | P a g e Figure 3.4 AREA OF SHARED EXPERIENCE Symbol - Communication is largely symbolic. It is achieved through the use of symbols---both verbal (words) and non-verbal (pictures, actions or inactions). In verbal communication, the content, phraseology, and format of the message are very important factors. Together, these define the context where the communication can be understood.
  21. 21. 20 | P a g e Verbal Communication Verbal communication (written and oral) should be formulated with much care. Is the content pertinent and relevant to the issue at hand or to the issue at hand or to the objectives of the organization and those of its constituents? Is it in good grammar, simple and easy to understand? Is it clean with right paging, intention, paragraphing and in the right type and size paper? Non-verbal Communication Non-verbal communication occurs very frequently and can be very expressive like stop and go traffic lights, the way one walks or talks, one’s clothes, house, and food. In fact, anything about a person is saying much of him.
  22. 22. 21 | P a g e Usually, verbal and non-verbal communications go hand-in-hand. In a speech, for instance, the speaker would be well-advised to act in such a way that his gestures and body movements reinforce rather than cancel the meaning of the words he is saying. Imagine how quickly a credibility gap can build up between the speaker and his audience, if, for example, the speaker would suddenly laugh in the midst of a truly and story. Or, when a manager exhorts his constituents in meetings and through the organization newsletter to improve productivity so that merit increases can be given but years pass by and no incentives are actually given as promised. Faulty encoding may result because of the use of ambiguous symbols and faulty decoding may be due to wrong meaning attached to words. Medium - The message can take various forms; a typed letter, a bulletin board notice, a lecture, a demonstration, a projected transparency, a radio broadcast, a televised a program, a telephone call, a drawing, a painting, a song, ringing of a bell, ad infinitum.
  23. 23. 22 | P a g e The medium used depends on the content, objectives, scope of the message; the sender’s choice, resources, skill; the size of the group to which the message is to be sent and the time available to formulate the message. Communication is greatly improved if a mix of different media is used. Hence, a teacher is best understood by his students if he uses a suitable combination of audio-visual aids, the blackboard, plant tour, role play, and a case to supplement his lecture-discussion in the classroom. Contemporary managers have studied and are gradually adopting various electronic devices to improve communication. These are mainframes, computers, minicomputers, electronic mail system, electronic typewriters, cellular telephone, and beepers among others. The rank and file employees believe that communication is important but they find it difficult to express themselves to the higher echelons. Hence, they elect leaders from among themselves to represent them (as in unions) in articulating their needs and problems.
  24. 24. 23 | P a g e Pathways - The passages through which the message travels can either be clear or clogged up with physical or psychological disturbances. A clean, clear passage devoid of noise and breakdowns makes for fast communication and thus more and better transactions. This can be achieved through excellent technological breakthrough like in telephone and telegraph installations. One of the “pet peeves” among business executives, especially those from foreign lands, is our poor communication system, a cause for relatively slower and fever transactions. Too many levels and divisional segmentation in an organizational hierarchy can stall the communication process. Eventually, these constitute red tape and bureaucracy not only in the government but also in the private sector. For instance, there are more layers in Philippine banks than in their counterparts in the United States. Units and sections grow in number, a reflection of the heads or chiefs wanting to establish some small “dynasties”. Clogs in the communication system would most likely occur in these groups or cliques at different levels. This leads to less participation and involvement among rank and file.
  25. 25. 24 | P a g e Wrong or poor attitudes among workers may cause them to misunderstand each other or their superiors. Psychological/emotional problems caused by envy, professional jealousy, wrong sense of values, power struggle, insecurity, prejudices instability, immaturity and lack of commitment may prod them to hide information or deter its flow. Graft and corruption are some evil effects of lack of transparency in transactions. Strained management-labor relations are more psychologically caused than physically- induced phenomenon. Psychologically caused communication problems are more difficult to resolve than those that are physically based. Inattention due to poor motivation is more difficult to handle than a broken typewriter. Information Overload - due to fast technological processes of accumulating and transmitting information thru the radio, television, satellite network, telecommunications, newspapers, etc., many of our “managers are drowning in a flood of numbers, data, information, and indices, and their failure to cope effectively with such information overload will have serious and even disastrous consequences not only for their organizations but for our entire economy.”
  26. 26. 25 | P a g e Thus, Wallace and Szilagzi, Jr. caution managers not to be bogged down by excessive details furnished to them by their staff but to concentrate on long-run strategic planning based on concise, relevant and meaningful summaries. Feedback - how do we know if communication has been successful? When do we say that our communication is good? The reaction by the recipient to the communication is, by and large, the main criterion that determines its success or failure. When the message is received and taken in the very same context and purpose that it is sent, communication is considered good and successful. Berne has explained this extensive in his book, “I’m Okay, You’re Okay.” To the extent that perception and understanding of the message by both sender and receiver do not take and follow the same vein due to certain factors, communication can become warped and twisted. This could start some trained relations between the two. Chung and Megginson put it this way: “Effective interpersonal communication is achieved only when the sender obtains the intended response(s) from the receiver.”
  27. 27. 26 | P a g e Since communication is the sharing of symbols, success in communication is achieved through the effective sharing of meaning between source and recipient. The sender should monitor the reaction of the recipient which sometimes may just stop at any level or point of the organizational hierarchy without reaching him. In very big organizations, the computer has been a very helpful and quick tool in the information system. The inputting and retrieval of information is highly systematic and organized. Information itself is considered an expensive and valuable resource of the organization. Overall, quality, rather than quantity, is the key to effective communication. When utilized properly at the right time and in the right place by the right people, communication facilitates the organization’s management functions such as planning, organizing, decision-making, staffing, leadership, directing, coordination and control. It is to be noted that while effective communication is a very important factor that determines the life and length of existence of an organization, it is not the only one. There are several factors that should not be downplayed, such as marketing strategies, pricing decisions, rate of demand of the product, population statistics and dynamics, administrative and managerial policies, human resources management, production technology, among others.
  28. 28. 27 | P a g e BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION Anything that can impede the flow of communication in any form and at any point is a barrier to communication. Manifestation of problems or temporary breakdowns may include some difficulties on what to say, how to sat it, when to say it, whom to say it to, and where to say it—these five dimensions. Communication may fail due to certain reasons. Its flow is impeded in various ways which are outlined and discussed below. 1. Physical Barriers - This includes impediments in relation to distance, timing, efficiency of modes used like telephone, telegraph, or post office amenities. Companies that have branches all over the country need to set up regional offices whose vice- presidents oversee the operations. While time is related to distance, timeliness is another factor to consider particularly in decision making.
  29. 29. 28 | P a g e Decisions that are off tangent in their formulation and dissemination vis-à-vis time may cause the loss of tremendous sums of money and other resources. Inefficient telephone, telegraph or post office systems also result in delays in the transmittal of important messages which could be critical to the decision making and/ or implementation of decisions. Over a microphone that is not working well, some funny anecdotes have been told. 2. Social Barriers - differences between sender and receiver in certain factors like age, financial status, educational and family backgrounds, intellectual ability, religion, health status may deter the flow or the understanding of messages that are sent. Young parents can communicate more easily with their adolescent children than the latter’s grandparents. The rich may not fully understand the plight of the poor and vice-versa. Those with very high I.Q’s and academic background may succeed better than those otherwise in communicating with highly schooled and educated individuals. The gaps between and among individuals and groups need to be lessened for congruence of concepts, ideas, facts and information.
  30. 30. 29 | P a g e jhoo 3. Psychological Barriers - the effective mode is the most difficult area to tackle in communication. Envy, jealousy, unpleasant feelings, and emotions caused by insecurity and conflict should be given outlets for expression and those in charge should know how to manage these outbursts.
  31. 31. 30 | P a g e TRANSACTIONAL ANALYSIS An analysis of the verbal transaction between two persons is a very interesting process called Transactional Analysis. Transactional Analysis, commonly known as TA to its adherents, is a model for explaining why and how:  People think like they do  People act like they do  People interact/communicate with others TA was developed by Canadian-born US psychiatrist Eric Berne during the late 1950s. In the 1950's Eric Berne began to develop his theories of Transactional Analysis. He said that verbal communication, particularly face to face, is at the centre of human social relationships and psychoanalysis.
  32. 32. 31 | P a g e Early Transactional Analysis Theory and Model His starting-point was that when two people encounter each other, one of them will speak to the other. This he called the Transaction Stimulus. The reaction from the other person he called the Transaction Response. The person sending the Stimulus is called the Agent. The person who responds is called the Respondent. Transactional Analysis became the method of examining the transaction wherein: 'I do something to you, and you do something back'. It can help improve interpersonal communication based on a study of ego states of the persons communicating with each other. Three Alter Ego States Ego states are sets of thoughts, feelings, behaviors, gestures, etc., that characterize the predominant condition of the person at the moment of communication. This state, when occurring repeatedly, folds into a pattern which may characterize a person.
  33. 33. 32 | P a g e Berne said that each person is made up of three alter ego states:  Parent  Adult  Child These terms have different definitions than in normal language. The three ego states are not necessarily related to the chronological age of a person. An adolescent may display a parent ego state of being judgmental, critical, moralistic, directive. By the same token, a fifty year old man who shows impulsiveness, stubbornness, rebellion, manipulative behavior may be said to take on a child ego state. Whatever the chronological age is of the person, if he reflects logical and rational behavior, he is considered an “adult” Parent This is our ingrained voice of authority, absorbed conditioning, learning and attitudes from when we were young. We were conditioned by our real parents, teachers, older people, next door neighbours, aunts and uncles, Father Christmas and Jack Frost. Our Parent is made up of
  34. 34. 33 | P a g e a huge number of hidden and overt recorded playbacks. Typically embodied by phrases and attitudes starting with 'how to', 'under no circumstances', 'always' and 'never forget', 'don't lie, cheat, steal', etc, etc. Our parent is formed by external events and influences upon us as we grow through early childhood. We can change it, but this is easier said than done. Adult Our 'Adult' is our ability to think and determine action for ourselves, based on received data. The adult in us begins to form at around ten months old, and is the means by which we keep our Parent and Child under control. If we are to change our Parent or Child we must do so through our adult. Child Our internal reaction and feelings to external events form the 'Child'. This is the seeing, hearing, feeling, and emotional body of data within each of us. When anger or despair dominates reason, the Child is in control. Like our Parent we can change it, but it is no easier. In other words:  Parent is our 'Taught' concept of life  Adult is our 'Thought' concept of life  Child is our 'Felt' concept of life
  35. 35. 34 | P a g e McAfee and Champagne Three (3) Response Patterns McAfee and Champagne also discuss three response patterns when a person sends a message: complementary, crossed or ulterior. The three types of response patterns are described, thus: “A transaction is complementary when a message sent to one ego state gets the predicted or expected response from the other individual. A crossed transaction occurs when a message addressed to one ego state gets an unexpected response from another ego state. Finally, an ulterior transaction involves hidden meaning. In this situation, one message is on the observable, social level and one is on the hidden, psychological level.”
  36. 36. 35 | P a g e ASSERTIVE COMMUNICATION Three modes of behavior are displayed when communicating with others: passiveness, aggressiveness and assertiveness. Reece and Brandt explain that passive behavior is displayed by a person who “fails to express his thoughts and feelings and does not stand up for the rights being violated.” Aggressive behavior is “expressing your thoughts and feelings and defending your rights in a way that is usually inappropriate and often violates the rights of others.” Assertive behavior is “standing up for your rights and expressing your thoughts and feelings in a direct appropriate way that does not violate the rights of others.”
  37. 37. 36 | P a g e Assertive Communication Formula There are four parts to effective assertive communication - Here is the formula: when I feel because . I need . Part 1: "When" What specifically bothers you about the behavior or situation? Examples: "When the family expects me to do this every year," "When it is assumed I will do it," etc. Part 2: "I feel" Start by expressing how you feel about the behavior. Stick to one of the five or six basic emotions. Examples: "I feel... overwhelmed, angry, hurt," etc. Part 3: "Because" How does the behavior affect you? Examples: "I feel pressured to do something I really can't do this year," and "It makes me feel taken advantage of." Part 4: "I need" This is the tough part for people like Mary who feel guilty simply letting others (especially family members) know what their needs are. "I need" has nothing to do with being selfish.
  38. 38. 37 | P a g e The behavior description should be clear, specific and direct instead of being hazy, general and implicit. Below are examples of correct and incorrect behavior descriptions. Correct Behavior Description Incorrect Behavior Description 1. When you sleep on your job. When you break company policies. 2. When you keep interrupting your classmates when they are talking. When you are impolite and discourteous to your classmates. 3. When you wake me up with your noise upon entering the bedroom. When you do not respect others who are already asleep. Bolton stresses that “When a person violates your space, the behavior to be altered must be described very accurately and objectively. Otherwise, the other person may not clearly understand what behavior you find offensive.” Being assertive is being frank, candid and sincere without being abrasive. It aims to make the other person know how one feels about certain individuals, issues, rules and policies, so that a better understanding of these is arrived at. It is laying one’s cards on the table and looking at phenomena objectively, explaining and discussing them with the end in view of having a better perspective and arriving at rational conclusions and actions. This should affect better relationship with others instead of just smothering one’s individuality and identity or transgressing others’ rights. Either of the two, smothering or transgressing, may result in unhealthy relationship with others. The real “me” is not truly divulged and identified. Thus, misunderstanding, confusion and strained relations result.
  39. 39. 38 | P a g e Training to Become Assertive Training to become assertive is becoming more popular as the need is felt to help people overcome their hesitancy in expressing their true feelings, sentiments, opinions, ideas and values. They are given assistance in articulating themselves in appropriate ways and to ask for what they want or need. Dubrin enumerates the three goals of assertiveness training:  knowing how one feels;  saying what one wants; and  getting what one wants Many women need to overcome passivity particularly in cultures where the traditional roles of men are considered 'supreme" or "superior" to those of women. In the work setting the latter just "wait for rewards or promotions to come their way. Many have suffered in silence when they discovered someone else, doing the same work, was receiving more pay. They may have put up with sexual harassment on the job or seen less well-qualified people promoted over them. On the other hand, many men must learn to be less demanding and domineering and more considerate of the needs and feelings of co-workers or subordinates. They can change their aggressive behavior into assertive behavior.''
  40. 40. 39 | P a g e By being assertive, one gives others the opportunity to .change since they are told how their behavior affects him. His rights as a person are defined and he shows respect for other people's right to know where they stand with him. He must determine which rights are important to defend when they are violated. In a culture where virtues like Smooth Interpersonal Relationship (SIR), and palakasan (giving priority to power) are paramount, like in the Philippines, becoming assertive is a very difficult process to effect. The use of euphemisms and powerplay is an evident reflection of skirting around one’s true feelings and thoughts. Thus, true understanding of each other becomes difficult to achieve. The need for assertiveness training in such cultures is paramount to affect better relationships, which, in turn, is a factor in job satisfaction and productivity. Keen Observation and Reflective Listening Skills The criterion to use in determining whether communication is successful or not is the way it is received by its recipient. Two ways of achieving this are through perspective observation and keen listening skills on the part of both the sender and receiver.
  41. 41. 40 | P a g e Before a message is sent, its sender must have a very comprehensive and adequate knowledge of the situation concerned and of the needs of the organization and constituents. The message is made and sent out on this knowledge, which is a reflection of the extent of observation and listening to the sender may have engaged in. By the same token, the recipient should, upon receiving the message, take on the posture of a keen observer and reflective listener. Looking around him, he may be asking the questions: What conditions exist in my space that prompted the sender to give me this message? What is the meaning of this message? What are its implications? What will I do as a reply to this message? As Megginson, an Industrial Psychologist for Effective Counseling points out, “The first rule for a counselor is to keep his mouth shut; the second is to keep his ears open; the third is to keep his eyes open,…” the fourth rule as given by Walters is to keep his perception and intuition alert to ‘sense’ what is really bothering the subordinate. The counselor does not only listen to what the counselee says but must also listen for what he does not say. Listening skills should not just be active; they should also be reflective especially on very important matters or decisions to be made.
  42. 42. 41 | P a g e FILIPINO VALUES AND COMMUNICATION Certain artifacts are prized and cherished most by Filipinos like economic security, the family, group, education, and spiritual life. Of these, the desire to be part of a group stands out and it affects the communication process significantly. The predisposition to listen to others or be listened to can be either improved or hampered depending on whether or not the message or means of communicating is in accord with certain deeply held values. The need to belong to a group is stronger than the need to assert one's individual identity. This is reflected in behavior that shows pakikisama (togetherness), Smooth Interpersonal Relationship (SIR), tayo-tayo (us and we-ness), and bayanihan (unity and cooperation). Nepotism in the work setting is practiced in the name of paternalism, tayo- tayo, bayanihan, palakaran, palakasan. Using a go-between in the communication process facilitates the transaction for a positive feed-back. A "no" reply given indirectly by the communicatee through the go-between may help save the face of the communicator and is not as hurting as a direct "no”.
  43. 43. 42 | P a g e We are more groupistic than individualistic. Knowing this, business firms utilize our strong value of pakikisama to sell products. An example is a television advertisement with the theme, "Iba ang may pinagsamahan......" In order not to hurt any person or group and be left alienated, the typical Filipino uses smooth interpersonal relations techniques like euphemisms. It is usually difficult, if not impossible, for others to surmise us. Often, we are criticized for not saying what we mean; and for not meaning what we say. Although this characteristic makes us "mysterious" in our relationship with others, foreigners find it hard to relate to us. However, we consider the American's brutal frankness in anachronism to our communication style. This difference in style may cause some strained relationship between us and foreign groups. As pointed out by Cesar M. Mercado, professional managers and supervisors, both local and foreign, are often perplexed by the Filipino worker's "strange" communication behaviors. "For instance, he tries to smile even if he is mad at his boss. He discloses his complaints to a friend instead of settling it with his superior. He does not say no even if he knows he could not deliver his task on time. He resigns without even notifying his office! For the Filipino worker, these strange behaviors carry positive meaning and significance. His smile instead of being mad at his boss may keep him his job which he needs to support his family. These strange behaviors, therefore, are a shield to protect him.
  44. 44. 43 | P a g e Being groupistic can facilitate team work. It has been observed that Filipino students perform better in group case analysis and presentation than their Western counterparts. For the sake of pakikisama, the former acquiesce to group think and thus make group work less laborious and frustrating. On the other hand, each student from the Western world holds sacred his individual right to assert himself. Thus, the analysis of a case for a class activity may end up with as many different problems as there are students involved in the activity. This example would show that Filipino values alleged to be bad have their good aspects, too.
  45. 45. 44 | P a g e SUMMARY Communication is a very important element in our relationship with others. It may facilitate or impede smooth transactions and processes with individuals, groups and organizations. It aims to convey and implement symbols of various kinds, verbal and non-verbal and its ultimate objective is to share meanings. Since it is the lifeblood of any organization, it behooves every number of it, from top to bottom levels, to foster effective communication. The main elements of the communication process consist of the sender or source, symbol or message, the receiver or audience, its pathways and feedback. If any of these is deficient or misunderstood, communication is affected. The process of communication can take any of the following routes: downward, upward, horizontal, circular, cross-channel/diagonal. The manner by which messages or symbols are transmitted can take various forms at three levels (top management, middle management and rank and file) through both formal and informal channels. The most effective communication results when congruence exists between meanings of symbols as perceived by both sender and receiver. Shared experiences are a very important ingredient in successful communication. Barriers to communication can originate anywhere from sender so receiver. Usually, it would take plenty of hard work, must and patience on their part to remove or to overcome such barriers.
  46. 46. 45 | P a g e SUMMARY (Continuation) One of the most difficult impediments is culture incongruence, particularly on values, between management and labor or between foreign groups and Filipino nationals to multinational corporations. Seminars and workshops utilizing unstructured methodologies on coping with cultural differences help in alleviating this communication problem.
  47. 47. 46 | P a g e Hard Copy: 30% x = PPT: 25% x = CD: 10% x = Presentation Skills: Cuevas, Cyra DC. - 35% x = Galos, Wella O. - 35% x = Manalop, Rosemarie L. - 35% x = COMMENTS HARD COPY – PPT – CD – PRESENTATION SKILLS –