The basicproblem There is a strong connection between poverty and health, as a consequence to the fact, that the latter is strongly determined by the prior. The individual’s social status has a major impact in this issue due to the diverse life conditions of the social groups.
Several statistics about SDH there is a 36-year gap between the life expectancy between the richest and the poorest countries there are countries where every fifth child dies before reaching the age of 5, while in the WHO European Region the under 5 mortality rate is 13 out of 1000 there are significant differences in health outcomes within countries too which are rooted in social status, ethnicity and income children from the poorest 20% are twice more likely to die before the age of 5 than the children of the richest 20% half of the world workers (1.53 billion people) are in vulnerable employment low-income countries have ten times less doctors than high-income countries developing countries account for 99% of annual maternal deaths according to estimation of the European Parliament the losses linked to health inequalities costs 1.4% of the GDP of the EU
WHO - Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH) CSDH is a global organization of influential stakeholders, established by the WHO in order to tackle social determinants of health through tackling and forming: Early child development Globalization Health systems Measurement and evidence Urbanization Employment conditions Social exclusion Public health conditions Women and gender equality
The main reccommendations of the CSDH in order to reduce social inequalities Improve daily living conditions Tackling inadequate distribution of power, money and resources Considering and understanding the problem
Improve daily living conditionsGlobally at least 200 million children do not achieve their full potential. The CSDH proposes to invest in the children’s early years, which eventuates a healthier adult population.For this purpose the CSDH made 3 recommendations Establish interagency mechanism which ensure the early child development Primary and secondary education for children Organized quality program for children and mothersImproving housing conditions is also a main factor to achieve the CSDH’s ambitions Investing in urban slum upgrading (provision of water, sanitation and electricity) Promoting physical activity, encouraging healthy eating and reducing crime through regulation Investing in rural development Economic and social policy responses to climate change Improvement of the working conditions through international labor standards
Tackling inadequate distribution of power, money and resourcesDue to the inadequate distribution of a country’s resources there are big gaps between the health status of diverse social groups. In order to amend these circumstances a concentrated intervention is needed by the national governments, WHO, UN and civil society organizations.For this purpose the CSDH calls for The governments should increase the global aid to 0.7% of the GDP Progressive taxation Strengthening the private sector leadership in the provision of health related services Legal regulation of the gender equity
Considering and understanding the problemIn order to develop more effective policies and systems of healthcare, a precise method of data collection and analysis is needed with the involvement of the civil and the private sector.To harmonize the actions of the policy-makers the CSDH proposes to set up multilateral specialist and financing agencies which functions are: Using global common framework the monitoring and development of the progress Ensure that increases in aid and debt relief support are coherent social determinants of health policy-making Support equitable participation of Member States in global policy-making.
Intersectoral cooperation under the stewardship of WHOThe civil society should participate in the planning and the implementation of the programs , the private sector should invest in researches, and the research institutions role is to generate evidence on the social determinants of health
World Conference on Social Determinants of Health
Rio Political Declaration on Social Determinants of HealthThe principal aims of the document Achieve social and health equality with the involvement of all governmental sectors International support in this mission Due to their significant impact, the private and civil sector should be involved as well As a consequence of the current global economic crisis the adoption of actions which stop the worsening of living conditions is needed The interventions and actions should take into account the countries and regions different social and economic features
Key actions on SDH according to the Rio Declaration To adopt better governance for health and development - collaboration of the different sectors of the government; - developing policies which take into account the necessities of the entire population; - implication of surveys in order to inform policy action - foster collaboration with the private sector - special attention to gender-related aspect - facilitating the transfer of expertise internationally To promote participation in policy-making and implementation - empower the role of communities - strengthen civil society’s contribution to policy-making - rights and needs of indigenous people should be taken into account - Both developed and developing countries should fully participate in the formulation and implementation of the policies and measures
To further reorient the health sector towards reducing health inequities - strengthen health systems towards the provision of equitable universal coverage - build and maintain health financing and risk pooling systems - promote mechanisms for supporting community initiatives against impoverishment - work across and within all levels and sectors of government by promoting mechanisms for dialogue, problem-solving and health impact assessment To strengthen global governance and collaboration - support national governments, international organizations, nongovernmental entities and others to tackle SDH - support the leading role of the WHO in global health governance - supporting the government in creating a sustainable workforce in health To monitor progress and increase accountability - establish, strengthen and maintain monitoring systems that provide data to assess inequities in health outcomes , the allocations and use of the resources - develop reliable measures of social well-being on existing indicators - the gained results should be shared among sectors to inform the policy makers - promote monitoring systems that take into consideration the role of all relevant stakeholders (civil society, nongovernmental organizations, private sector)