Chapter Overview3 High-Effort Versus Low-Effort Routes to Persuasion Unconscious Influences on Attitudes When Consumer Effort isLow Cognitive Bases of Attitudes When Consumer Effort is Low How Cognitive Attitudes Are Influenced Affective Bases of Attitudes When Consumer Effort Is Low How Affective Attitudes Are Influenced
High-Effort Versus Low-Effort Routes toPersuasion4Low-Effort is more likely to involve: Peripheral Route to Persuasion Less use of main message arguments Peripheral Cues Easily-processed “non-central” aspects of a message, e.g.,music, visuals
5Usage of Central vs. Peripheral Routes in the samecategory
6Exhibit 5.1: General Approaches toAttitude Formation and Change.
Unconscious Influences on Attitudes WhenConsumer Effort is Low7Occurs below conscious awareness Thin-Slice Judgments Evaluations made after very brief observations Often accurate Body Feedback E.g. nodding vs. shaking head
Cognitive Bases of Attitudes WhenConsumer Effort Is Low8 Simple Inferences Belief based on a simple association, e.g. categorization, country oforigin, price Heuristics Rules-of-thumb that are easy to invoke and require little thought Frequency Heuristic (http://www.cnngo.com/hong-kong/none/worlds-greatest-city-hong-kong-576599) More arguments = Stronger claim Truth Effect Many repetitions = Likely to believe
How Low-Effort Cognitive Attitudes AreInfluenced9 Communication Source (e.g. credibility, expertise) The Message Category- and Schema-Consistent Information (e.g. “lite”) Many Message Arguments: frequency heuristics Simple Messages: focus on one or two key benefits Involving Messages: self-referencing Message Context and Repetition Repetition: Incidental Learning
10Exhibit 5.1: General Approaches toAttitude Formation and Change.
The Mere Exposure Effect11 Familiarity Liking, but Wearout: Implication multiple executions
Affective Bases of Attitudes WhenConsumer Effort Is Low12 Classical Conditioning Producing a response to a stimulus by associating it with anotherstimulus that produces the desired response Pavlov’s experiment
14Exhibit 6.4: Classical and EvaluativeConditioning
Affective Bases of Attitudes WhenConsumer Effort Is Low15 Classical Conditioning Producing a response to a stimulus by associating it with anotherstimulus that produces the desired response Conditions: No existing association between CS and UCS Forward conditioning: CS UCS Repetition to increase strength of association Awareness of link between CS and UCS Logical fit between CS and UCS
Affective Bases of Attitudes WhenConsumer Effort Is Low16 Attitude Toward the Ad (Aad) May be more important in predicting overall attitudes wheneffort is low Dual-Mediation Hypothesis: explain how Aad influences brandattitudes If you like an ad, you may Be more likely to believe it indirect influence on brand attitudes Be more likely to like the brand direct influence on brand attitudes
Affective Bases of Attitudes WhenConsumer Effort Is Low18 Mood Existing moods can influence evaluations Positive mood Ignore negative information Categories of affective responses SEVA: Upbeat and happy Deactivation feelings: Quiet and calmed Social affection: Warm and friendly Effects of color and lighting
How Affective Attitudes Are Influenced19 The Source Attractive Likeable Celebrity: both attractive and likable
How Affective Attitudes Are Influenced20 The Message Pleasant Pictures (error on p171 – “visual stimuli can serve…”) Music (same error on p171 – “music can be…”) Humor Sex Emotional Content Transformational advertising Dramas Message Context Ad after news? Ad after a happy program?
König Pilsener is using a sexappeal in this ad for its Lemonbeer to influence the attitudes ofits target market.