exposure attention perception


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exposure attention perception

  1. 1. Exposure, Attention,Perception
  2. 2. What is Information Processing?2Information Processing:◦ Forming beliefs and attitudes about a single object (e.g., watchingan ad and forming an attitude towards the advertised brand)Decision Making:◦ Choosing among several brands◦ Buy / no-buy decisions
  3. 3. Reminder: A Model of ComplexDecision Making3ProblemRecognitionInformationAcquisitionInformationProcessingComparativeEvaluation/PurchasePost-PurchaseEvaluations
  4. 4. A Model of Information ProcessingExposure,AttentionPerception UnderstandingOutcome:Attitudessensations informationMemory / Prior KnowledgeIndividualConsumerEnvironmentalCharacteristicsStimulibeliefs
  5. 5. 5Exhibit 3.1Chapter Overview:From Exposure, toComprehension
  6. 6. Chapter Overview6 Exposure(e.g., Consumer Must “See” Your Message) Attention(e.g., Consumer Must “Look at” Message) Perception(e.g., Consumer Must “Take In” Message) Comprehension(e.g., Consumer tries to “Understand” Message)
  7. 7. Exposure7“The process by which a person (consumer) comes into contactwith a (marketing) stimulus.”Factors Influencing Exposure◦ Ad location and scheduling (magazine or TV) and product placement◦ Product distribution and shelf placementSelective Exposure◦ Zipping and Zapping
  8. 8. Attention“The process by which a person allocates part of his / her mentalactivity to a stimulus.” Characteristics of Attention (“Paying attention”) Selective Can Be Divided Limited Focal vs. Nonfocal Attention (hk.yahoo.com) Preattentive Processing: Liking and Choice Hemispheric Lateralization8
  9. 9. Hemispheric Lateralization9
  10. 10. Marketing Implications:Methods of Enhancing Attention10Make the Stimuli: Personally Relevant Appeal to Needs (e.g. hungry  foodads) Using Similarity Using Dramas Using Rhetorical Questions(e.g. Who wants to be a Millionaire?) Pleasant Using Attractive Models Using Music Using Humor Surprising Using Novelty Using Unexpectedness Using a Puzzle Easy to Process Prominent Stimuli Concrete Stimuli(e.g. Sunlight vs. Joy) The Amount of CompetingInformation Contrasting Stimuli
  11. 11. Using a Puzzle11
  12. 12. Exposure and Attention: A Quick Review12Exposure: The process by which a person (consumer) comesinto contact with a (marketing) stimulusAttention: The process by which a person allocates part ofhis / her mental activity to a stimulus.◦ Selective◦ Can Be Divided◦ Limited◦ Focal vs. Nonfocal Attention
  13. 13. PerceptionThe process by which stimuli activate one ofthe five senses: vision, hearing, taste, smell, andtouch13
  14. 14. Perception14 Perceiving Through Vision Size and Shape Lettering Image location (on package) Color: E.g. Warm vs. Cool colors Effects: Moods, Physiological Responses, Liking
  15. 15. Perception15 Perceiving through hearing Consistency in message delivery Sonic identity: e.g. McDonalds Sound symbolism: e.g. fast vs. slow music Perceiving through taste Food sampling
  16. 16. Perception16Perceiving Through Smell◦ Physiological and emotional responses◦ Product Trial◦ Effects: Liking and BuyingPerceiving Through Touch◦ E.g. clothes
  17. 17. When Do We Perceive Stimuli?17Absolute Thresholds◦ The lowest level of stimulation at which you can detect a differencebetween “something” and “nothing”Differential Thresholds◦ Just Noticeable Difference (JND) Change in stimulus intensity required to result in detection of a change◦ Weber’s Law The stronger the initial stimulus, the greater the change required for thesecond stimulus to be perceived as different
  18. 18. When Do We Perceive Stimuli?18 Weber’s Law The stronger the initial stimulus, the greater the change required for thesecond stimulus to be perceived as different Usually a constant proportion (k) of the baseline intensity of the stimulus. Example: if k = 0.1 Case 1: initial price of hamburger = $5, so ∆ S? Case 2: initial price of hamburger = $50, so ∆ S?∆S (i.e., Change in Stimulus Intensity)k =S (i.e., Initial Stimulus Intensity)
  19. 19. The “Betty Crocker” Brand:Evolution of a Brand Image 1920-200019What psychological principle has been exploited here?
  20. 20. When Do We Perceive Stimuli?20 Subliminal Perception “Eat Popcorn”, “Drink Coke” Does Subliminal Perception AffectConsumer Behavior?
  21. 21. How Do Consumers Perceive a Stimulus?21Perceptual organization: The process by which stimuli are organized into meaningfulunits1.Figure and Ground Interpreting a stimulus in the context of the background2.Closure Organizing perceptions to form a meaningful whole3.Grouping A tendency to group stimuli to form a unified impression3.Bias for the whole Perceiving more value in a whole than in the combined parts that make up the whole(e.g. $500 vs. 5 x $100)
  22. 22. Figure and Ground: Examples22
  23. 23. Closure: Examples
  24. 24. Grouping: Examples
  25. 25. ComprehensionComprehension25 Source Identification Comprehension: Try to understand Objective Comprehension: The extent to which a receiver correctlyunderstands the message Subjective Comprehension: What the receiver thinks s/he knows (may or maynot be correct) Miscomprehension = Objectively wrong
  26. 26. Sources of Consumer Inferences26 Brand Names and BrandSymbols Misleading Names and Labels(e.g. lite) Inappropriate or Similar Names Product Features andPackaging Product Attributes Country of Origin Package Design Color Price Retail Atmospherics,Displays, andDistribution(e.g. discount store)
  27. 27. Consumers makeinferences based ona brand’s country-of-origin.
  28. 28. 28 Memory and Knowledge (Session 10 and 11) Read Chapter 4