Brief Overview of the Writing Process


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Brief Overview of the Writing Process

  1. 1. The Writing Process Brenham Writing Room Created by D. Herring
  2. 2. Stages of the Writing Process <ul><li>There are several stages to the Writing Process. Each stage is essential. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prewriting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing (Drafting) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Editing </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. I. Prewriting <ul><li>Choose/narrow your topic </li></ul><ul><li>Determine your </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Audience </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Point-of-view </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tense </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Explore your topic </li></ul><ul><li>Make a plan </li></ul>
  4. 4. Choose/Narrow Your Topic <ul><li>Your topic should pass the 3-question test: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does it interest me? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do I have something to say about it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it specific? </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Determine Your Audience <ul><li>Your Audience is composed of those who will read your writing. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask yourself: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who are my readers? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do my readers know about my topic? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do my readers need to know about my topic? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do my readers feel about my topic? </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Audience continued. . . <ul><ul><li>What do my readers expect? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Standard Written English </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Correct grammar and spelling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accurate information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Logical presentation of ideas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Followed directions of the assignment!!! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What are my length requirements? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is my time limit? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What does the assignment consist of? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is research required? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What format should be used? </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Determine Your Purpose <ul><li>Purpose is the reason you are writing. </li></ul><ul><li>Whenever you write, you always have a purpose . Most writing fits into one of 3 categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expressive Writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informative Writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persuasive Writing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More than one of these may be used, but one will be primary . </li></ul>
  8. 8. Determine Tone <ul><li>Tone is the mood or attitude you adopt as you write. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serious or frivolous/humorous? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intimate or detached? </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Determine Point-of-View <ul><li>Point-of-view is the perspective from which you write an essay. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 3 points-of-view: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First person—”I, we” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second person—”you” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Third person—”he, she, they” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One of the most common errors in writing occurs when the writer shifts point-of-view unnecessarily! </li></ul>
  10. 10. Determine Tense <ul><li>Tense is the voice you use to designate the time of the action or state of being. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Present tense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Past tense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Future tense </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Explore Your Topic <ul><li>Pre-writing Techniques: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brainstorming/Listing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freewriting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clustering/Mapping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outlining </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Make a Plan <ul><li>Before you begin drafting your essay, you should make a plan (a roadmap). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Review, evaluate, and organize ideas written in your pre-writing; then make a plan for your essay’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Thesis statement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Order </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Thesis Statement <ul><li>The thesis statement expresses the MAIN IDEA of your essay, the central point that your essay develops/supports. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Thesis continued. . . <ul><li>Your thesis SHOULD: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accurately predict your essay’s direction, emphasis, and scope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make no promises that the essay will not fulfill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be direct and straightforward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NOT be an announcement, statement of opinion, or statement of fact. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Support <ul><li>Be sure to evaluate the information in your prewriting carefully in order to choose the best support for your topic. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary Support—major ideas or examples that back up your main points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary Support— details which further explain your primary support </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Support continued. . . <ul><li>Basics of good support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relates to main point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Considers readers, i.e. provides enough information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is detailed and specific </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Order <ul><li>The Order is the sequence in which you present your ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 3 types of order: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time (chronological) order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Space order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphatic order (order of importance: least-to-most, most-to-least) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Structure/Organization <ul><li>Consider how your essay will be organized; then create an Outline. </li></ul><ul><li>Sample Outline of standard </li></ul><ul><li>5-paragraph essay: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Body Paragraph 1 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Body Paragraph 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Body Paragraph 3 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. II. Writing <ul><li>During the Writing Stage, you should </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create your essay’s Title </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compose a draft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A Draft is the first whole version of all your ideas put together; it’s a “dress rehearsal.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>You should plan to revise your Draft several times throughout the writing process. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Creating Your Title <ul><li>Your essay’s title should : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be original </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be a reasonable length </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reflect your topic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be lively and attention-getting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Your title should NOT : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be generic/repeat the assignment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be in ALL CAPS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be in boldface , “quotation marks,” underlined , or italicized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be followed by a period </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Titles, continued <ul><li>Capitalization Rules for Titles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Always capitalize the first letter of the first word and the last word. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capitalize the first letter of each “important” word in between the first and last words. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not capitalize articles (a, an, the) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not capitalize coordinating conjunctions (and, but, or, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not capitalize prepositions (on, at, in, off, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Effective vs. Ineffective Titles <ul><li>Topic: Cheating in College </li></ul><ul><li>Effective Titles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheaters Never Win! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheating in Higher Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why Do Students Cheat? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ineffective Titles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t Do It! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students Cheat for Many Different Reasons. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Writing a Draft <ul><li>Basics of a good draft: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has a fully developed introduction and conclusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has fully developed body paragraphs, each containing a topic sentence, at least two examples, and detailed support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follows standard structure and uses complete sentences </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Write Your Introduction <ul><li>Your introductory paragraph should do the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be a minimum of 4-6 sentences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell the audience what to expect from your discussion (thesis) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Move from general to specific, with the thesis as the last sentence in the intro </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get the reader’s attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set the tone for the rest of the essay </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Introduction, continued <ul><li>Strategies for developing an Introduction include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing background information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telling a personal anecdote </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beginning with a quotation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using an opposite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asking a question </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Write Your Body Paragraphs <ul><li>Each body paragraph should develop one of the specific points mentioned in the thesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Each BP should contain: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Topic Sentence—main idea of BP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary Support—examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary Support—details </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Body Paragraphs: Topic Sentence <ul><li>A Topic Sentence expresses the main idea of the body paragraph. </li></ul><ul><li>Begin each body paragraph with a Topic Sentence that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrows the focus of the paragraph </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accurately predicts the direction of the paragraph </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refers back to the Thesis statement </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Body Paragraphs continued <ul><li>Body paragraphs must have </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unity —everything refers back to main point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support —examples and details </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coherence —all points connect to form a whole; one point leads to another </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Body Paragraphs: Unity <ul><li>Unity is achieved when everything refers back to the main point </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ALL SENTENCES SHOULD RELATE BACK TO TOPIC SENTENCE & THESIS. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not include any ideas that are irrelevant or off-topic. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Body Paragraphs: Support <ul><li>Support is achieved through adequate examples and details. </li></ul><ul><li>Each body paragraph should include at least two examples to support the main idea of the paragraph. </li></ul><ul><li>Each example should include at least one specific detail that further illustrates the point. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Body Paragraphs: Coherence <ul><li>Coherence is achieved when all points connect to form a whole; one point leads to another. </li></ul><ul><li>Coherence is mainly achieved through the use of transitions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transitions —words & phrases which connect your sentences so that your writing flows smoothly. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Write Your Conclusion <ul><li>The concluding paragraph should </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain a minimum of 4 sentences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refer back to the main point, but not simply repeat the thesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make an observation on what is written </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NOT introduce any new ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create a sense of closure </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. III. Revising <ul><li>Revising is finding & correcting problems with content ; changing the ideas in your writing to make them clearer, stronger, and more convincing. </li></ul><ul><li>Revising looks at the “Big Picture”—the Idea level. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Revision Strategies <ul><li>Look for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does everything refer back to main point? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does each topic sentence refer to the thesis? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does each sentence in each BP refer back to the topic sentence? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detail and support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does each BP contain at least two examples? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is each example followed by at least one supporting detail? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coherence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are all points connect to form a whole? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are transitions used to move from one idea to the next? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Revision Tips <ul><li>Take a break from your draft before attempting to revise. </li></ul><ul><li>Read your draft out loud and listen to your words. </li></ul><ul><li>Imagine yourself as your reader. </li></ul><ul><li>Look for consistent problem areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Get feedback from peers. </li></ul><ul><li>Get help from a tutor! </li></ul>
  36. 36. IV. Editing <ul><li>Editing is finding and correcting problems with grammar, style, word choice & usage, and punctuation. </li></ul><ul><li>Editing focuses on the “Little Picture”—Word level. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Editing Strategies <ul><li>Keep an Error Log to help you identify your problem areas and improve your writing . </li></ul><ul><li>When editing, review your paper for one type of error at a time; don’t try to read through looking for everything at once. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Editing Tips <ul><li>Work with a clean printed copy, double-spaced to allow room to mark corrections. </li></ul><ul><li>Read your essay backwards. </li></ul><ul><li>Be cautious of spell-check and grammar-check. </li></ul><ul><li>Read your essay out loud. </li></ul><ul><li>Get feedback from peers. </li></ul><ul><li>Work with a tutor! </li></ul>
  39. 39. Self-Review <ul><li>You should never move to peer review without first completing a self-review (revising & editing); you want your peer to look for mistakes that you were unable to catch yourself! </li></ul><ul><li>After you have reviewed your own work, make the necessary corrections and print a clean, revised copy before moving on to peer review. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Peer-Review <ul><li>It is important to make the peer review process useful. </li></ul><ul><li>Basics of useful feedback: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is given in a positive way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It offers suggestions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is given both verbally and in writing </li></ul></ul>