Re-Imagining Culture in TESOLTESOL  March 25-28, 2010  Boston<br />Ulla Connor, PhD<br />Indiana Center for Intercultural ...
Introduction: (Bill)<br />We’re going to imagine and (re)imagine culture and TESOL <br />Along the way, we’ll also mention...
Session Overview<br /><ul><li>What we are going to do
What we hope to achieve</li></li></ul><li>What we are going to do<br />Attempt to address four salient questions through:<...
The Outline (1)<br />What is culture? (Ulla)<br />Activity:<br />Is it possible to bring the different perspectives of cul...
The Outline (2)<br />Why does culture matter in language teaching? (Ulla)<br />Activity:<br />How can we teach culture mor...
Activity
What is the ESL teacher’s role in promoting or challenging big and small cultures?</li></li></ul><li>What do we (big we) h...
What is culture? (Ulla)<br />
Culture as a Burning Issue in the 21st Century<br />Early notions of culture, the “received view,” consider large groups a...
“Tesol & Culture” (Atkinson, 1999)<br />Two Views:<br />“Received view”, geographic cause (and quite often nationally) dis...
 homogeneous
 identity
hybridity
 essentialism
 power
 difference
 agency
 discourse
 resistance
 confrontation</li></ul>© 2010 Indiana Center for Intercultural Communication<br />
Middle-ground approach (Atkinson,1999,continued)<br />“Acknowledge the important place of shared perspectives and socializ...
Middle-Ground Approach, cont.<br />Social group membership and identity are multiple, contradictory, and dynamic.<br />Soc...
“Get rid of old, outmoded views of language and culture but<br />retain robust notions of locality and solid practice.”<br...
Re-imagining Culture in TESOL<br />National cultures<br />“Small” cultures<br />Individual cultures<br />© 2010 Indiana Ce...
Helpful Paradigm (Holliday, 1994, 1999)<br />Big Cultures<br />Essentialist, culturalist<br />‘Culture’ as essential featu...
Big and Small Cultures in the Classroom<br />Complexity and interacting small cultures in an educational setting. Adapted ...
Activity 1:<br />Is it possible to bring the different perspectives of culture together into a working paradigm useful for...
How do big and small cultures work?  (Bill)<br />The relationship between big and small cultures in particular contexts<br...
Starting Point:  Big and Small Cultures in Context<br />Complexity and interacting small cultures in an educational settin...
The big culture/little culture relationship in the cockpit<br />The KAL story<br />The Avianca story<br />From Gladwell, M...
Power Distance Index (based on Hofstede, Geert. Culture's Consequences, Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions, and Org...
The relationship in the cockpit<br />Gladwell, Malcom,  The Ethnic Theory of Plane Crashes (Captain, the weather radar has...
Criticism of Hofstede’s PDI<br />The Construction of the Modern West and the Backward Rest: Studying the Discourse of Hofs...
The big culture/little culture relationship in a multicultural community<br />Youmans, Madeleine (2001). Cross-cultural Di...
The relationship in a multicultural community<br />Youmans, Madeleine (2001),   Cross-cultural Differences in Polite Epist...
Anna Wierzbicka’s researchhttp://arts.anu.edu.au/languages/linguistics/AnnaW.asp<br />From:<br />Natural Semantic Metalang...
Activity 2: <br /><ul><li>What are the big group cultures that impact your students?
What are the small group cultures that impact your students?
How do your students’ small group cultures interact with their big group cultures?</li></li></ul><li>Why does culture matt...
Helpful Notion:Culture as a verb; culture never just “is”, but instead “does”.(Heath & Street, 2008)<br /><ul><li>Culture ...
How to Consider What & How Cultures DO! <br /><ul><li>Example from a Workshop</li></ul>Examples from Teaching<br />© 2010 ...
Example from an Intercultural Workshop <br />on Business Communication at ICIC<br />Traditional Concept of Cultural Differ...
Masculine vs. feminine
High context vs. low context
Power distance between members
Degree of uncertainty avoidance</li></ul>© 2010 Indiana Center for Intercultural Communication<br />
Personal Cultural Diagram<br />3 M.A.s, Ph.D.<br />Jogger<br />Gardener<br />Indiana, Washington D.C., Wisconsin, Florida,...
Negotiation/Accommodation: A Key to Successful Communication<br />	Both sides converge to accommodate communication at the...
Example from Teaching<br />High School ESL Class<br /><ul><li>Big
Small
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Re-imagining Culture in TESOL

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TESOL 2010 Luminary Session

Ulla Connor, PhD
Indiana Center for Intercultural Communication
Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis

Bill Eggington, PhD
Professor and Chair, Linguistics and English Language Department,
Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah

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Re-imagining Culture in TESOL

  1. 1. Re-Imagining Culture in TESOLTESOL March 25-28, 2010 Boston<br />Ulla Connor, PhD<br />Indiana Center for Intercultural Communication<br />Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis<br />Bill Eggington, PhD<br />Professor and Chair, Linguistics and English Language Department,<br />Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah<br />
  2. 2. Introduction: (Bill)<br />We’re going to imagine and (re)imagine culture and TESOL <br />Along the way, we’ll also mention:<br />Definitions<br />Big cultures and small cultures<br />Modern and post-modern perspectives<br />Airplane accidents<br />The English of East LA<br />Teaching stuff<br />High School ESL classes<br />College-level teacher education classes<br />Middle grounds<br />Personal Culture Diagrams<br />Multi-colored jackets<br />Bonfires and Ants<br />Power and solidarity<br />
  3. 3. Session Overview<br /><ul><li>What we are going to do
  4. 4. What we hope to achieve</li></li></ul><li>What we are going to do<br />Attempt to address four salient questions through:<br />Presentation<br />Activities<br />Open debate<br />Small group discussion<br />Report back to whole group<br />The four questions are:<br />What is culture?<br />How do large and small cultures work?<br />Why does culture matter in language teaching?<br />Are there “privileged cultures that enhance ESL competence?<br />
  5. 5. The Outline (1)<br />What is culture? (Ulla)<br />Activity:<br />Is it possible to bring the different perspectives of culture together into a working paradigm useful for TESOL training and teaching?<br />Different Perspectives:<br />Reconcilable differences<br />Irreconcilable differences <br />Report back <br />How do big and small cultures work? (Bill)<br />Activity:<br />Is it possible for small group culture to exist independent of large group culture?<br />Report back<br />
  6. 6. The Outline (2)<br />Why does culture matter in language teaching? (Ulla)<br />Activity:<br />How can we teach culture more effectively in the classroom?<br />Approaches, tips, suggestions?<br /><ul><li>Are there “privileged cultures that enhance ESL communicative competence? (Bill)
  7. 7. Activity
  8. 8. What is the ESL teacher’s role in promoting or challenging big and small cultures?</li></li></ul><li>What do we (big we) hope to achieve?<br />Our goals<br />Your goals<br />And, if possible, who are you?<br />
  9. 9. What is culture? (Ulla)<br />
  10. 10. Culture as a Burning Issue in the 21st Century<br />Early notions of culture, the “received view,” consider large groups as sharing a definable culture (ethnic, national, international)<br />Postmodern views see culture as “a dynamic, ongoing process which operates in changing circumstances to enable group members to make sense and meaningfully operate within those circumstances” (Holliday, 1999, p. 248)<br />Culture has become less and less a national consensus, but a consensus built on common ethnic, generational, ideological, occupation – or gender related interests, within and across national boundaries” (Kramsch, 2002, p. 276)<br />© 2010 Indiana Center for Intercultural Communication<br />
  11. 11. “Tesol & Culture” (Atkinson, 1999)<br />Two Views:<br />“Received view”, geographic cause (and quite often nationally) distinct entities<br />“Post modernist-influenced concepts”<br /><ul><li>unchanging
  12. 12. homogeneous
  13. 13. identity
  14. 14. hybridity
  15. 15. essentialism
  16. 16. power
  17. 17. difference
  18. 18. agency
  19. 19. discourse
  20. 20. resistance
  21. 21. confrontation</li></ul>© 2010 Indiana Center for Intercultural Communication<br />
  22. 22. Middle-ground approach (Atkinson,1999,continued)<br />“Acknowledge the important place of shared perspectives and socialized practices in the lives of human beings.”<br />All humans are individuals.<br />Individuality is also cultural.<br />“Knowing students individually also involves knowing them culturally.” (p. 643)<br /> (Teacher has to be a researcher.)<br />© 2010 Indiana Center for Intercultural Communication<br />
  23. 23. Middle-Ground Approach, cont.<br />Social group membership and identity are multiple, contradictory, and dynamic.<br />Social group membership is consequential.<br />Methods of studying cultural knowledge and behavior are unlikely to fit a positivist paradigm.<br />Language (language and teaching) and culture are mutually implicated, but culture is multiple and complex.<br />© 2010 Indiana Center for Intercultural Communication<br />
  24. 24. “Get rid of old, outmoded views of language and culture but<br />retain robust notions of locality and solid practice.”<br />(Atkinson, 2008)<br />© 2010 Indiana Center for Intercultural Communication<br />
  25. 25. Re-imagining Culture in TESOL<br />National cultures<br />“Small” cultures<br />Individual cultures<br />© 2010 Indiana Center for Intercultural Communication<br />
  26. 26. Helpful Paradigm (Holliday, 1994, 1999)<br />Big Cultures<br />Essentialist, culturalist<br />‘Culture’ as essential features of ethnic, national, or international group<br />Small (sub)cultures are contained within and subordinate to large cultures<br />Normative, prescribed<br />Small Cultures<br />Non-essentialist, non-culturist<br /> Relating to cohesive behavior in activities within any social grouping<br /> No necessary subordination to or containment within large cultures<br /> Interpretive, a process<br />© 2010 Indiana Center for Intercultural Communication<br />
  27. 27. Big and Small Cultures in the Classroom<br />Complexity and interacting small cultures in an educational setting. Adapted from Holliday, 1994, 1999.<br />© 2010 Indiana Center for Intercultural Communication<br />
  28. 28. Activity 1:<br />Is it possible to bring the different perspectives of culture together into a working paradigm useful for TESOL training and teaching?<br />Different Perspectives:<br />Reconcilable differences<br />Irreconcilable differences <br />Report back <br />Some different perspectives:<br />Big culture, small culture<br />Modernist, post-modernist<br />
  29. 29. How do big and small cultures work? (Bill)<br />The relationship between big and small cultures in particular contexts<br />What the research tells us<br />The ethnic theory of plane crashes (Gladwell)<br />Non-evidential epistemic modals (Youmans)<br />English cultural notions of personal autonomy , reasonableness and whimperatives (Wirezbicka)<br />
  30. 30. Starting Point: Big and Small Cultures in Context<br />Complexity and interacting small cultures in an educational setting. Adapted from Holliday, 1994, 1999.<br />© 2010 Indiana Center for Intercultural Communication<br />
  31. 31. The big culture/little culture relationship in the cockpit<br />The KAL story<br />The Avianca story<br />From Gladwell, Malcom (2008). The Ethnic Theory of Plane Crashes (Captain, the weather radar has helped us a lot). In Outliers: The Story of Success. Little, Brown and Company <br /> <br />
  32. 32. Power Distance Index (based on Hofstede, Geert. Culture's Consequences, Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions, and Organizations Across Nations Thousand Oaks CA: Sage Publications, 2001)<br />Top Five<br />Brazil<br />South Korea<br />Morocco<br />Mexico<br />Philippines<br />Bottom Five<br />United States<br />Ireland<br />South Africa<br />Australia<br />New Zealand<br />
  33. 33. The relationship in the cockpit<br />Gladwell, Malcom, The Ethnic Theory of Plane Crashes (Captain, the weather radar has helped us a lot) In Outliers: The Story of Success. <br /> <br />Greenberg wanted to give his pilots an alternative identity. Their problem was that they were trapped in roles dictated by the heavy weight of their country’s cultural legacy. They needed an opportunity to step outside those roles when they sat in the cockpit, and language was the key to that transformation. In English, they would be free of the sharply defined gradients of Korean hierarchy formal deference, informal deference, blunt, familiar, intimate and plain. Instead the pilots could participate in a culture and language with a different legacy. (p. 219)<br />
  34. 34. Criticism of Hofstede’s PDI<br />The Construction of the Modern West and the Backward Rest: Studying the Discourse of Hofstede’s Culture’s Consequences Journal of Multicultural Discourses Vol. 2, No. 1, 2007<br />Martin Fougere and AgnetaMoulettes<br />This paper studies the discourse deployed in Hofstede’s Culture’s Consequences<br />(1980, 2001), the international best-seller that introduces a model classifying national<br />cultures according to four (later five) supposedly universal dimensions. Noting that<br />this management-oriented scholarly discourse has had a huge impact in both the<br />business world and academia, we take a critical stance towards the Western-based,<br />ethnocentric perspective that characterises it. Our aim is not to merely repeat the<br />already formulated objections to the model, concerning its ontology, epistemology<br />and methodology, but rather to focus on the very words of Hofstede himself in his<br />second edition of Culture’s Consequences (2001). With a broadly postcolonial<br />sensibility, drawing on authors such as Said and Escobar, we contend that Hofstede<br />discursively constructs a world characterised by a division between a ‘developed and<br />modern’ side (mostly ‘Anglo-Germanic’ countries) and a ‘traditional and backward’<br />side (the rest) and discuss the cultural consequences of such colonial discourse.<br />
  35. 35. The big culture/little culture relationship in a multicultural community<br />Youmans, Madeleine (2001). Cross-cultural Differences in Polite Epistemic Modal Use in American English. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development Vol. 22, No. 1, 2001001) <br />Table 1: Greatest differences in non-evidential epistemic modal use per 20,000 words<br />Epistemic modal Anglo uses Lemon Grove uses<br />Could: Advice 37.73 3.11<br />Can: Suggestion 33.34 1.55<br />Think: Mitigating 30.71 0<br />You know: Soften suggestions 18.43 0<br />Maybe: Polite hedge 21.94 0<br /> <br />
  36. 36. The relationship in a multicultural community<br />Youmans, Madeleine (2001), Cross-cultural Differences in Polite Epistemic Modal Use in American English Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development Vol. 22, No. 1, 2001<br />This study compared the use of selected epistemic modals in English speech of Chicano barrio residents and Anglo visitors to the community. Transcribed conversations served as the database. The Chicano speakers tended to use the epistemic modals only to index the evidential weight of propositions, whereas the Anglo speakers tended also to use them for numerous non-evidential functions, most frequently for negative politeness. In this paper, I discuss those epistemic modal functions used the most disparately between the two groups. These differences in epistemic modal use are shown to relate to cross-culturally different uses of epistemic modality for politeness. Sociocultural explanations for this disparity are proposed: the different patterns of epistemic modal use which emerge are argued to be tied to different, culturally based epistemologies held by the two groups.<br />
  37. 37. Anna Wierzbicka’s researchhttp://arts.anu.edu.au/languages/linguistics/AnnaW.asp<br />From:<br />Natural Semantic Metalanguage<br />Cultural Script Theory<br />Culture embedded in lexical semantics<br />Whimperatives<br />Personal autonomy<br />High influence words<br />Reasonable<br />Fair<br />
  38. 38. Activity 2: <br /><ul><li>What are the big group cultures that impact your students?
  39. 39. What are the small group cultures that impact your students?
  40. 40. How do your students’ small group cultures interact with their big group cultures?</li></li></ul><li>Why does culture matter in English language teaching? (Ulla)<br />
  41. 41. Helpful Notion:Culture as a verb; culture never just “is”, but instead “does”.(Heath & Street, 2008)<br /><ul><li>Culture is not a fixed thing.</li></ul>Gradations of change in habits and beliefs, discourse forms<br />Ethnographers sort and describe what happens and help reveal the wealth of meanings.<br />Implication:<br />Teacher as an ethnographer<br />Student as an ethnographer<br />© 2010 Indiana Center for Intercultural Communication<br />
  42. 42. How to Consider What & How Cultures DO! <br /><ul><li>Example from a Workshop</li></ul>Examples from Teaching<br />© 2010 Indiana Center for Intercultural Communication<br />
  43. 43. Example from an Intercultural Workshop <br />on Business Communication at ICIC<br />Traditional Concept of Cultural Differences in Business Communication<br /><ul><li>Individualism vs. collectivism
  44. 44. Masculine vs. feminine
  45. 45. High context vs. low context
  46. 46. Power distance between members
  47. 47. Degree of uncertainty avoidance</li></ul>© 2010 Indiana Center for Intercultural Communication<br />
  48. 48. Personal Cultural Diagram<br />3 M.A.s, Ph.D.<br />Jogger<br />Gardener<br />Indiana, Washington D.C., Wisconsin, Florida, Finland<br />Suburb living<br />Wife<br />Mother<br />Lutheran<br />Full-time job at university<br />Speak Finnish and English<br />© 2010 Indiana Center for Intercultural Communication<br />
  49. 49. Negotiation/Accommodation: A Key to Successful Communication<br /> Both sides converge to accommodate communication at the levels of ideology, discourse, language use, and nonverbal messages.<br /> Both sides need to know and value others’ preferred/habitual patterns.<br />© 2010 Indiana Center for Intercultural Communication<br />
  50. 50. Example from Teaching<br />High School ESL Class<br /><ul><li>Big
  51. 51. Small
  52. 52. Individual</li></ul>© 2010 Indiana Center for Intercultural Communication<br />
  53. 53. Example from Teaching, cont.<br />College-level Teacher Education Class<br /><ul><li>Big
  54. 54. Small
  55. 55. Individual</li></ul>© 2010 Indiana Center for Intercultural Communication<br />
  56. 56. Example from Teaching, cont.<br />An ESL student from Mexico in a U.S. elementary school<br /><ul><li>Big
  57. 57. Small
  58. 58. Individual</li></ul>Connor, U., Robillard, M., & Añino, A. (2005, March). Case study and contrastive/intercultural rhetoric as alternative methods to assess bilingual children’s literacy. Paper presented at the TESOL Research Symposium. Left Behind: The Contribution of Alternative Research Methodologies to Understanding and Evaluating English Language Policy and Practice in the NCLB Age, San Antonio, TX.<br />© 2010 Indiana Center for Intercultural Communication<br />
  59. 59. Example from Teaching, cont.<br />Ministry of Finance ESP Program(Connor, Rozycki, & McIntosh, 2006)<br />Big cultures<br />Chinese<br />Small Cultures<br />Disciplinary<br />Generational<br />Gender<br />Individual<br />© 2010 Indiana Center for Intercultural Communication<br />
  60. 60. Example from Teaching, cont.<br />ESP Program for Postdoctoral Researchers<br />Big cultures<br />Chinese<br />Korean<br />Small cultures<br />Disciplinary<br />Gender<br />Generational<br />Individual<br />© 2010 Indiana Center for Intercultural Communication<br />
  61. 61. Example from Teaching, cont.<br />International Medical Graduate ESP<br />Program<br /><ul><li>Big
  62. 62. Small
  63. 63. Individual</li></ul>© 2010 Indiana Center for Intercultural Communication<br />
  64. 64. Effectiveness of post-modern approaches to culture in the classroom (Menard-Warwick, 2009)<br />Post Modern Approach<br /> 1. problematizes cultural representations<br /> 2. emphasizes dialogue<br /> 3. emphasizes critical awareness & interaction<br />Menard-Warwick did not find much success in creating intercultural speakers using the above approach<br />
  65. 65. Ulla’s Culture Jacket<br />
  66. 66. The 6th conference on intercultural<br /> rhetoric and discourse<br />Hosted by Georgia State University in Atlanta, Georgia <br />Friday, June 11th & Saturday, June 12th, 2010<br />Plenary Speakers:<br /><ul><li>Suresh Canagarajah</li></ul> Kirby Professor in Language Learning and Director of the Migration Studies Project at Pennsylvania State University<br /><ul><li>Ulla Connor</li></ul> Barbara E. and Karl R. Zimmer Chair in Intercultural Communication, Director of the Indiana Center for Intercultural Communication at Indiana University-Purdue University, Indianapolis<br /><ul><li>Eric Friginal</li></ul> Assistant professor in applied linguistics at Georgia State University<br /><ul><li>Guillaume Gentil</li></ul>Associate Professor at Carleton University's School of Linguistics and Language Studies in Ottawa, Canada<br />For more information about the conference, please contact:Diane Belcher 404-413-5194 dbelcher1@gsu.eduGayle Nelson 404-413-5190 gaylenelson@gsu.edu<br />
  67. 67. Activity 3: Design Your Own Personal Cultural Diagram (Ulla)<br />.<br />© 2010 Indiana Center for Intercultural Communication<br />
  68. 68. Activity 3: (Ulla)<br />How can we teach culture more effectively in the classroom?<br />Approaches, tips, suggestions?<br />Report back<br />
  69. 69. Are there privileged cultures that enhance ESL communicative competence? (Bill, 15 minutes)<br />Technology and its relationship to language and culture<br />Relationship between technology and big culture communication<br />Global village<br />Global discourse communities<br />Global speech communities<br />What are the linguistic requirements of participation in the world village?<br />What are the cultural requirements of participation in the world village?<br />Modernist perspectives<br />Post-modernist perspectives<br />Cultural and linguistic imperialism vs. natural human social evolution<br />
  70. 70. Is there something more to human, social and intercultural relationships than “power”?<br />Given that, as Kubota (2003) has argued, “images of culture (in language education) are produced by discourses that reflect, legitimate or contest unequal relations of power” (p. 16)<br />Power axis<br />Solidarity axis<br />Plus power and plus solidarity<br />
  71. 71. A power/solidarity perspective<br />
  72. 72. The Bonfire and the Ants AlexsandrSolzhenitsyn translated by Michael Glenny<br />I threw a rotten log onto the fire without noticing that it was alive with ants.<br />The log began to crackle, the ants came tumbling out and scurried around in desperation. They ran along the top and writhed as they were scorched by the flames. I gripped the log and rolled it to one side. Many of the ants then managed to escape onto the sand or the pine needles.<br />But, strangely enough, they did not run away from the fire.<br />They had no sooner overcome their terror than they turned, circled, and some kind of force drew them back to their forsaken homeland. There were many who climbed back onto the burning log, ran about on it, and perished there.<br />
  73. 73. Activity 4: (Bill)<br />What is the English teacher’s role in promoting or challenging big and small cultures?<br />Report back<br />
  74. 74. Conclusion (Ulla and Bill)<br />

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