Pulmonary edema & cardiogenic apo


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Pulmonary edema & cardiogenic apo

  1. 1. Acute Pulmonary Oedema<br />By: Arvind Group 1 Year 5<br />
  2. 2. Definition<br />Pulmonary edema refers to extravasation of fluid from the pulmonary vasculature into the interstitium and alveoli of the lung<br />
  3. 3. Pathophysiology<br />imbalance of Starling forces (ie, increased pulmonary capillary pressure, decreased plasma oncotic pressure, increased negative interstitial pressure)<br />damage to the alveolar-capillary barrier<br />lymphatic obstruction<br />idiopathic or unknown<br />
  4. 4. Causes<br />Pulmonary edema can be broadly divided into cardiogenic and non-cardiogeniccauses<br />
  5. 5. Causes of Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema (CPE)<br />Atrial outflow obstruction. This can be due to mitral stenosis (usually a result of rheumatic fever) or, in rare cases, atrialmyxoma, thrombosis of a prosthetic valve, or a congenital membrane in the left atrium (eg, cortriatriatum)<br />
  6. 6. LV systolic dysfunction, usually the result of congestive heart failure (CHF) or cardiomyopathy. Causes of acute exacerbations include acute MI/ischemia, severe anemia, sepsis, thyrotoxicosis, myocarditis, myocardial toxins (eg, alcohol, cocaine, chemotherapeutic agents such as doxorubicin [Adriamycin], trastuzumab [Herceptin]), chronic valvular disease, aortic stenosis, aortic regurgitation, and mitral regurgitation<br />
  7. 7. LV diastolic dysfunction, nonischemic acute mitral regurgitation (ruptured chordaetendineae), and acute aortic insufficiency (endocarditis, aortic dissection). Constrictive pericarditis and pericardial tamponade are other etiologies that mainly compromise LV diastolic function. Ischemia and infarction may cause LV diastolic dysfunction in addition to systolic dysfunction.<br />
  8. 8. Dysrhythmias: New-onset rapid atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia.<br />LVH and cardiomyopathies: These can increase LV stiffness and end-diastolic pressure, leading to pulmonary edema by increasing capillary hydrostatic pressure.<br />MI: One of its mechanical complications can be the rupture of ventricular septum or papillary muscle. These mechanical complications substantially increase volume load in the acute setting and therefore may cause pulmonary edema.<br />
  9. 9. LV outflow obstruction, such as, acute stenosis of the aortic valve, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy & elevated systemic BP<br />
  10. 10. Stages of CPE<br />Stage 1 - elevated left atrial pressure causes distention and opening of small pulmonary vessels. At this stage, blood gas exchange does not deteriorate, or it may even be slightly improved.<br />
  11. 11. Stage 2 - fluid and colloid shift into the lung interstitium from the pulmonary capillaries, but an initial increase in lymphatic outflow efficiently removes the fluid. In this case, the fluid initially collects in the relatively compliant interstitial compartment, which is generally the perivascular tissue of the large vessels, especially in the dependent zones. Hypoxemia and tachypnea can take place.<br />
  12. 12. Stage 3 - as fluid filtration continues to increase and the filling of loose interstitial space occurs, fluid accumulates in the relatively noncompliant interstitial space. At this stage, abnormalities in gas exchange are noticeable, vital capacity and other respiratory volumes are substantially reduced, and hypoxemia becomes more severe.<br />