Information processing is a theory of learning
that explains how stimuli that enter our memory
systems are selected and organized for storage
and retrieved from memory.
Short Term Memory
Long Term Memory
Is the store that briefly holds incoming stimuli from
the environment until they can be processed.
The sensory register, according to gestaltist
principles, lets in only those things which we can
see, hear, taste, smell, and/or touch; or else fades
• A temporary storage that holds information as a
person processes it.
• Working memory is where we make conscious
decisions about how to link new information from
the environment to our existing knowledge.
• Storage capacity is limited and can only hold a
limited number of pieces of information at a time.
Refers to the amount of mental activity imposed
on working memory.
How to reduce cognitive load?
Chunking , Dual Processing, Automaticity
the process of mentally combining separate items
into larger more meaningful units.
Eg. bank acc number 118-27659-4 : group 9 bits
of information into 3 bundles.
AEEGGIIIILNNNNRRSSTT : LEARNING IS
Make it easier to remember as it has been
chunked into 3 units.
Students learn more if verbal explanations are
supplemented with visual representations.
Using words to present information often impose a
cognitive load greater than working memory
capacity, hence learning is reduced.
performance of mental operations with little
awareness or conscious effort.
EG..using of MS word to write composition. Auto
correction of spelling, grammer, punctuation, etc.
If we dont use short term memory right away,
information will be forgotten. Unless we actively
transfer our short term memory to long term
Rehearsal, Encoding, Retrieval
• A process of repeating information over and over
again, either aloud or silently through repetition.
• Can be used to hold information in working
memory until used, if rehearsed enough, it can be
transferred to long-term memory.
• Simple, but inefficient method of transferring
information from working to long term memory.
The process of representing information in long
Information can be represented either visually or
verbally when students construct schemas that
relate ideas to each other.
Making information as meaningful as possible
Teachers can encourage meaningful encoding by
promoting four processes.
1. Organization : Impose order and connections in
2. Imagery : Form mental pictures of topics - Dual-
coding theory: a theory suggesting that long term
memory contains 2 distinct memory systems: one
for verbal information and one that stores images.
3. Elaboration : is the process of increasing the
meaningfulness of information by creating
additional links in existing knowledge or by adding
new information. (prior knowledge)
4. Activity: Put learner in the most active role
possible in making connections
• Develop lessons around examples, applications,
and problems to be analyzed instead of definitions
and other content to be memorized.
• Implement lessons with questioning instead of
relying on lectures and explanations
• Ask questions that require students to apply their
understanding rather than simply recall
• Use hands-on activities and group work
The process of clustering related items of content
into categories that illustrate relationships.
More organized, make it more meaningful, learn
Charts & Matrices: Useful for organizing lagre
amounts of information into categories.
Hierarchies: Effective when new information can
be subsumed under existing ideas.
Outlines: Useful for representing the
organizational structure in a body of written
Others: Models, graphs, maps,etc
A permanent information store
Descriptions of long term memory
knowledge of facts
Knowledge of how
to perform tasks
• Interference : the loss of information because
something learned either before or after detracts
• Interference increases when breadth of content
coverage is emphasized over-in-depth
• Reduce interference: emphasizing the
relationships between topics using review and
comparison / to teach closely related ideas
Retrieval failure: inability to retrieve information to
pull it from long-term memory into short-term
memory for further processing
Learners dont literally lose information when they
forget, instead they cant retrieve it
Meaningfulness and practice is the key to retrieval
Eggen, P., & Kauchak, D. (2010). Educational
Psychology: Windows on Classrooms (8th
Tan, O. S., Parsons, R.D., Hinson, S.L., & Sardo-
Brown, D. (2011). Educational Psychology: A
practitioner-researcher approach. An Asian
ed). Singapore: Thomson.
Linking of water cycle to states of matter to help
pupil interlink topics.
The water cycle sees water shift states between
solid, liquid and gas
long term memory contains 2 distinct memory
systems: one for verbal information and one that
Using interactive diagram to teach ( caters to
both visual & auditory learners)
Bloom Cognitive Taxonomy – Knowledge &
is the process of increasing the meaningfulness of
information by creating additional links in existing
knowledge or by adding new information. (prior
Diagram 2 Diagram 3
Conduct a simple Science experiment to illustrate
water cycle & states of matter
Experiment in the science lab
Caters to kinesthetic & visual learners
Materials: saucepan; two large aluminum cooking pans and plenty of ice cubes.
1. Place a few ice cubes in the saucepan. Let the students look at them and touch them while
they are still solid. (Cloud)
2. Heat the ice cubes slowly. Students can observe how matter changes from a solid to a liquid
state. (Rain - Sea)
3. After the cubes melt, allow the water to boil. Explain to the students that steam is water in its
gaseous state. (heat from the sun, evaporation)
4. Place more cubes in the aluminum pan and hold it over the steaming saucepan. As the
water droplets form on the bottom of the pan, ask students what form the droplets of water are
in. (Water vapor – from liquid to gaseous state)
5. Collect the condensing droplets by slanting the first aluminum pan and letting the droplets
run into the second aluminum pan.
6. An area of discussion – What happens to the water vapor if it keep in a low temperature area
(eg. Fridge , freezing) form ice cube (cloud) condensation
Cloud becomes rain, rain becomes sea, sea becomes water vapor, water vapor becomes